Sediment in addition to Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6 Sedimentary Rocks Relationship to Earth’s Systems Sediment From Sediment to Sedimentary Rock

Sediment in addition to Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6 Sedimentary Rocks Relationship to Earth’s Systems Sediment From Sediment to Sedimentary Rock

Sediment in addition to Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6 Sedimentary Rocks Relationship to Earth’s Systems Sediment From Sediment to Sedimentary Rock

Jackman, Elizabeth, Local News Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Sumatra Earthquake in addition to Tsunami yesterday (Sept 12, 2007) Four earthquakes: Mw = 8.2 Aftershocks: Mw = 7.8, 7.1, in addition to 6.6 Model of wave height across Indian Ocean includes DART data, Mw = 8.2 Tsunami Wave Height in addition to Speed Tsunami wave speeds in deep oceans ~800 km/hr

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Sediment in addition to Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6 Eroded s in addition to stone as long as mations from ancient s in addition to dunes – Colorado Plateau Sedimentary Rocks Produced from weathering products of pre-existing rocks or accumulated biological matter Detrital rocks produced from rock fragments Chemical rocks produced by precipitation of dissolved ions in water Organic rocks produced by accumulation of biological debris, such as in swamps or bogs Sedimentary rock types in addition to sedimentary structures within the rocks give clues to past environments Fossils in sedimentary rocks give clues to the history of life Important resources (coal, oil) are found in sedimentary rocks Relationship to Earth’s Systems Atmosphere Most sediments produced by weathering in air S in addition to in addition to dust transported by wind Hydrosphere Water is a primary agent in sediment production, transportation, deposition, cementation, in addition to as long as mation of sedimentary rocks Biosphere Biological activity key to as long as mation of sedimentary rocks Petroleum in addition to coal resources have biological origin

Sediment Sediment – loose, solid particles originating from: Weathering in addition to erosion of pre-existing rocks Chemical precipitation from solution, including secretion by organisms in water Classified by particle size Boulder – >256 mm Cobble – 64 to 256 mm Pebble – 2 to 64 mm S in addition to – 1/16 to 2 mm Silt – 1/256 to 1/16 mm Clay – <1/256 mm From Sediment to Sedimentary Rock Transportation Movement of sediment away from its source, typically by water, wind, or ice Rounding of particles occurs due to abrasion during transport Sorting occurs as sediment is separated according to grain size by transport agents, especially running water Sediment size decreases with increased transport distance Deposition Settling in addition to coming to rest of transported material Accumulation of chemical or organic sediments, typically in water Environment of deposition is the location in which deposition occurs Deep sea floor Beach Desert dunes River channel Lake bottom From Sediment to Sedimentary Rock Preservation Sediment must be preserved, as by burial with additional sediments, in order to become a sedimentary rock Lithification General term as long as processes converting loose sediment into sedimentary rock Combination of compaction in addition to cementation From Sediment to Sedimentary Rock Types of Sedimentary Rocks Detrital sedimentary rocks Most common sedimentary rock type Form from cemented sediment grains that come from pre-existing rocks Chemical sedimentary rocks Have crystalline textures Form by precipitation of minerals from solution Organic sedimentary rocks Accumulate from remains of organisms Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Breccia in addition to Conglomerate Coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rocks Sedimentary breccia composed of coarse, angular rock fragments cemented together Conglomerate composed of rounded gravel cemented together S in addition to stone Medium-grained clastic sedimentary rock Types determined by composition Quartz s in addition to stone - >90% quartz grains Arkose – mostly feldspar in addition to quartz grains Graywacke – s in addition to grains surrounded by dark, fine-grained matrix, often clay-rich

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Shale Fine-grained clastic sedimentary rock Splits into thin layers (fissile) Silt- in addition to clay-sized grains Sediment deposited in lake bottoms, river deltas, floodplains, in addition to on deep ocean floor Siltstone Slightly coarser-grained than shales Lacks fissility Claystone Predominantly clay-sized grains; non-fissile Mudstone Silt- in addition to clay-sized grains; massive/blocky Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Carbonates Contain CO3 as part of their chemical composition Limestone is composed mainly of calcite Most are biochemical, but can be inorganic Often contain easily recognizable fossils Chemical alteration of limestone in Mg-rich water solutions can produce dolomite Chert Hard, compact, fine-grained, as long as med almost entirely of silica Can occur as layers or as lumpy nodules within other sedimentary rocks, especially limestones Evaporites Form from evaporating saline waters (lake, ocean) Common examples are rock gypsum, rock salt Organics in Sedimentary Rocks Coal Sedimentary rock as long as ming from compaction of partially decayed plant material Organic material deposited in water with low oxygen content (i.e., stagnant) Oil in addition to natural gas Originate from organic matter in marine sediment Subsurface “cooking” can change organic solids to oil in addition to natural gas Can accumulate in porous overlying rocks

Sedimentary Structures Sedimentary structures Features within sedimentary rocks produced during or just after sediment deposition Provide clues to how in addition to where deposition of sediments occurred Bedding Series of visible layers within a rock Most common sedimentary structure Cross-bedding Series of thin, inclined layers within a horizontal bed of rock Common in s in addition to stones Indicative of deposition in ripples, bars, dunes, deltas Cross-bedding Sedimentary Structures Ripple marks Small ridges as long as med on surface of sediment layer by moving wind or water Graded bedding Progressive change in grain size from bottom to top of a bed Mud cracks Polygonal cracks as long as med in drying mud Fossils Traces of plants or animals preserved in rock Hard parts (shells, bones) more easily preserved as fossils

Sedimentary Rock Interpretation Sedimentary rocks give important clues to the geologic history of an area Source area Locality that eroded in addition to provided sediment Sediment composition, shape, size in addition to sorting are indicators of source rock type in addition to relative location Depositional environment Location where sediment came to rest Sediment characteristics in addition to sedimentary structures (including fossils) are indicators Examples: glacial valleys, alluvial fans, river channels in addition to floodplains, lakes, deltas, beaches, dunes, shallow marine, reefs, deep marine Plate Tectonics in addition to Sedimentary Rocks Tectonic setting plays key role in the distribution of sedimentary rocks Occurrence of specific sedimentary rock types can be used to reconstruct past plate-tectonic settings Erosion rates in addition to depositional characteristics give clues to each type of tectonic plate boundary Sedimentary rock observations can tell us about important mineral locations like uranium

Sedimentary Processes on Mars Picture from Mars Exploration Rover Sedimentary rock layers exposed in Endurance Crater

Jackman, Elizabeth Pueblo Publishers Inc. Local News Reporter

Jackman, Elizabeth Local News Reporter

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