SEED PROCESSING AND MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES Contents .Seed processing content 1.Seed cleaning

SEED PROCESSING AND MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES Contents .Seed processing content 1.Seed cleaning www.phwiki.com

SEED PROCESSING AND MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES Contents .Seed processing content 1.Seed cleaning

Wahl, Jan, Film Critic has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal SEED PROCESSING AND MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES Contents .Seed processing content 1.Seed cleaning 2. Seed moisture testing 3. Seed drying 4. Seed viability testing 5. Seed health testing .Management techniques .HACCP Quality management system .Seed processing content Seed processing involves cleaning the seed samples of extraneous materials, drying them to optimum moisture levels, testing their germination in addition to packaging them in appropriate containers as long as conservation in addition to distribution.

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1.Seed cleaning The cost of maintaining an accession in a genebank is high in addition to space is limited. Debris in addition to damaged seeds can spread infection. There as long as e, place only good quality viable seeds in storage. Seed cleaning involves removal of debris, low quality, infested or infected seeds in addition to seeds of different species (weeds). 2. Seed moisture testing Methods prescribed by the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) are used as long as determining the seed moisture content in genebanks. ISTA has prescribed two kinds of oven-drying methods as long as determining moisture content: Low-constant temperature oven method as long as groundnut (oily seeds). High-constant temperature oven method as long as sorghum, millets, chickpea in addition to pigeonpea (non-oily seeds). Grinding is required as long as determination of moisture content in all ICRISAT m in addition to ate crops, except millets.

Equipment used to determine seed moisture content 3. Seed drying 1Dehumidified drying 2Silica gel drying Seed-drying cabinet at ICRISAT genebank.

Walk-in seed drying room at ICRISAT genebank Seed drying using silica gel at ICRISAT genebank. 4. Seed viability testing 1Germination test Complete germination can be achieved only under optimum conditions of light, temperature in addition to water. The requirements as long as germination vary with species as shown in Table.

Recommended conditions as long as germinating seeds of ICRISAT m in addition to ate crops. Two methods are used as long as testing germination: A. Top of paper method as long as millets. B. Between paper (Rolled towel) method as long as sorghum, chickpea, pigeonpea in addition to groundnut. Paper towel is used as substrate as long as germination in both these methods. A. Top of paper method Quality of paper towel: The paper used as substrate should not be toxic to developing seedlings. It should be able to absorb in addition to supply sufficient moisture to the seeds to germinate. It should be strong enough not to fall apart when h in addition to led in addition to not to be penetrated by the roots of developing seedlings.

Top of paper method: Place the paper in 9-cm petri dishes. Moisten it with about 4 ml of distilled water. Put a label in the petri dish with accession number, number of replicate in addition to date of the test. Spread the seeds at regular distance on the surface of the paper. Cover the petri dishes in addition to keep them in a plastic bag to prevent drying. Place the petri dishes in an incubator maintained at the recommended optimum temperature. 1 2 3 4 Testing germination of seeds on the top of filter paper. B. Between paper (Rolled towel) method Cut the paper to a convenient size to hold one replicate of the seeds (1). Label the paper on the outside at one end with the accession number, replicate number in addition to the date of testing (2). Moisten the paper towels with water. Arrange the seeds in rows at regular intervals 4 cm from the top edge, leaving 3–4 cm gap on the sides (3).

Cover the seeds with another sheet of dry paper towel (4). Roll the paper loosely from the label end (5). Put a paper clip to hold the rolled paper towels from falling apart (6). Keep the rolls in a plastic tray (7). Add sufficient quantity of distilled water (covering the bottom 3-cm of rolls) to the tray. Place the tray in an incubator maintained at recommended temperature. 1 2 3 4 Test germination of seeds of between moist paper towels.

Trays containing rolled paper towels placed in an incubator. C. Evaluation of germination tests Seedlings with the following defects are classified as abnormal : Roots primary root stunted, stubby, missing, broken, split from the tip, spindly, trapped in the seed coat, with negative geotropism, glassy, decayed due to primary infection, in addition to with less than two secondary roots. Shoot (hypocotyl, epicotyl in addition to mesocotyl) short in addition to thick, split right through, missing, constricted, twisted, glassy, in addition to decayed due to primary infection. Terminal bud/leaves de as long as med, damaged, missing, in addition to decayed due to primary infection Cotyledons swollen, de as long as med, necrotic, glassy, separated or missing, in addition to decayed due to primary infection

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a b Normal in addition to abnormal seedlings of sorghum (a) in addition to pearl millet (b). a b c Normal (left) in addition to abnormal (right) seedlings in chickpea (a), pigeonpea (b) in addition to groundnut (c). 2 Topographical tetrazolium test as long as viability The tetrazolium test can be used as a backup procedure to germination tests in genebanks. It can be applied to firm seeds, which have failed to germinate at the end of germination test.

The tetrazolium test procedure includes the following steps: Preconditioning Remove the seed covering structures (glumes, etc). Precondition the seeds by first soaking in water or by placing them on a moist medium at 30°C. Staining Bisect the seeds longitudinally through the embryo with a razor blade. Discard one-half of the seed in addition to place the other half in the staining solution at recommended concentration (Table 4D.2.1) in a glass vial. Place the vials in an incubator maintained in the dark at recommended temperatures in addition to duration (Table 4D.2.1). After staining, wash the seeds several times in distilled water to remove excess stain. Immerse the seeds in lactophenol (1 L of lactophenol prepared from 200 ml phenol, 200 ml lactic acid, 400 ml glycerine, in addition to 200 ml water) solution as long as 1–2 h be as long as e evaluation of the seeds. Evaluate the seeds as long as staining pattern under a low power binocular microscope. Viable tissues stain bright red. Pink in addition to very dark red stains are indicative of dead tissue.

.HACCP Quality management system HACCPHazard analysis in addition to critical control point Concept: The hazard analysis in addition to critical control point is a guarantee food security preventive technology management system. It uses food technology, microbiology, chemistry in addition to physics, quality control in addition to risk assessment, in addition to other aspects of the theory in addition to method, To the whole food chain real dangers in the risk assessment, in addition to finally find out the quality of the final product may impact on the key point, in addition to take preventive measures to control the harm in be as long as e they happen to control, to make the food achieve higher levels of security. HACCP quality management system to make steps : 1. hazard analysis 2. Determine key control 3. To make sure that each key point of critical value 4. Sure monitoring program 5. Make rectification measures 6. Verification Procedures

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