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Self-perception, Self-esteem in addition to Relationship Behaviour Dr Chris
Eastern Nazarene College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Self-perception, Self-esteem in addition to Relationship Behaviour Dr Chris BaleDepartment of Behavioural in addition to Social SciencesUniversity of Huddersfieldc.bale@hud The problem of low self-esteem?Low self-esteem is the root of all of the problems in the world? (Oprah Winfrey)?I cannot think of a single psychological problem?from anxiety in addition to depression, so that fear of intimacy or of success, so that spouse battery or child molestation?that is not traceable so that the problem of low self-esteem? (Dr Nathaniel Branden) Author of ?How so that raise your self esteem? (5.99)The ?epidemic of low self-esteem? (Senator John Vasconcellos).?Facebook users are ?insecure, narcissistic in addition to have low self-esteem? (Daily Mail, Sept 2010)What percentage of people do you think you are more likeable than?A quick experiment0%50%100%Most likeable
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The better than average effectMost people think that they are above average on a wide range of positive traits, in addition to below average on negative ones (e.g. Williams & Gilovich, 2008).E.g. intelligence, attractiveness, sense of humour, driving skill etc.This even applies so that the effect itself! (Pronin, Gilovich, & Ross, 2004)An epidemic of low self-esteem?Most people score above the mid point of self-esteem scales.Vast literature on positive biases in self-perception:Social comparisonsAttributions in addition to self serving biasSelf-handicappingMemoryPsychological benefits of self-deceptionE.g. optimism in addition to self-fulfilling propheciesConsequences of self esteemNo clear relationships between self-esteem in addition to adolescent smoking, drinking, drug abuse in addition to sexual behaviour.Often high self-esteem is associated alongside aggression in addition to prejudice. Problems of interpreting these relationships (i.e. direction of causation).E.g. Significant (but weak) relationships between self-esteem in addition to academic performance (Baumeister et al. 2003).?Top down? vs ?Bottom up? explanations of relationships between self-esteem in addition to self-perceptions.
Sociometer TheoryLeary & Baumeister (2000).Functional, evolutionary explanation of self-esteem.Self-esteem functions as an interpersonal monitor of:the quality in addition to quantity of existing relationships,perceived eligibility in consideration of relationships,and motivates individuals so that act accordingly.Attractiveness in addition to Self-esteemSelf-perceived attractiveness (SPA) positively correlates alongside self-esteem in both sexes. (e.g. Nell & Ashton, 1996)Especially strong relationship in women.Correlational data is consistent alongside Sociometer theory (?bottom-up?). However data can also be explained by ?top-down? theories (e.g. Brown et al. 2001) Studies showing that there is little relationship between self in addition to other rated attractiveness (e.g. Diener et al, 1995) suggest against Sociometer theory.Need in consideration of experimental studies so that examine direction of causation.Does self-perceived attractiveness affect self-esteem?Female participants asked so that rate attractiveness of (study 1; n = 128) or compare own attractiveness so that (study 2; n = 137) ?hot? or ?not? pictures.Then completed a variety of measures of SPA in addition to SE. ?Hot??Not?
Tutorial 1 Tutorial 1: Conclusion
ResultsNo initial differences in SPA between groups.After the comparison task, participants in the ?Not? condition rated themselves as significantly more attractive than those in the ?Hot? group.No group differences on any self-esteem scales or subscales.Does SE affect SPA? (Study 3)Study 3: Method2 groups: +ve / -ve manipulation (Riketta & Dauenheimer, 2003) .76 female participants asked so that complete a ?reaction time? test.Then complete SE manipulation check in addition to a measure of SPA.+I BADJKDWCBZVFixation Prime (60 ms) Mask (60 ms)Respond: Left / RightResultsp<.05p Self-esteem in addition to relational behaviourSociometer theory predicts SE should affect relational behaviour.Limited in addition to inconsistent evidence on this relationship (Baumeister et al, 2003).Dependency Regulation perspective (Murray et al, 2006)Individuals alongside low self-esteem are especially sensitive so that rejection.They often react so that this by denigrating in addition to emotionally distancing themselves from their partners.How do individuals behave in the absence of relational threats? Aims in addition to predictionsStudy 4 examined relationships between women?s:Self-esteem. Self-reported relational behaviour.Perceptions of their own in addition to their partners? relational desirability.Sociometer theory suggests low SE should predict more positive relational behaviour.Equity Theory (Thibaut & Kelly, 1959) suggests lower relative desirability should predict more positive behaviour. Method192 women aged 18-60 (mean = 27.2) engaged in long term relationships (> 3 months, mean = 5 years) completed online measures of:Self-esteem: SES (Rosenberg, 1965) & PEI (Shrauger & Schohn, 1995).Relational desirability: MVI (Kirsner et al, 2003) Self & Partner.Relational behaviour: MRI (Buss, 1988) & PSII (Ellis, 1998).
ResultsAfter controlling in consideration of age in addition to length of relationship:Self?esteem (SES) did not significantly predict relational behaviour.Relative desirability significantly negatively predicted partner investment behaviour (r2 = .27, p
Thanks in consideration of your attentionThanks in consideration of listening.Chris Bale c.bale@hud
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