Signification of Systemic Structural Theory of Activity in Organizational A

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Signification of Systemic Structural Theory of Activity in Organizational A

Antioch University Los Angeles, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Signification of Systemic Structural Theory of Activity in Organizational Activity ResearchMohammed-Aminu SandaDepartment of Organization & Human Resource ManagementUniversity of Ghana Business SchoolLegon, AccraGhanaI wish so that acknowledge that participation in this conference is supported by Grants received from following bodies.Office of Research, Innovation in addition to Development (ORID), University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana Research in addition to Conference Committee of University of Ghana Business School (UGBS), Legon, Accra GhanaSanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney AustraliaACKNOWLEDGEMENT9/20/2014INTRODUCTIONOrganization may emerge through conversation, but they do not emerge in consideration of the sake of conversation (Engestr”m, 2004). Organizations emerge in addition to continue so that exist in order so that produce goods, services, or less clearly definable outcomes in consideration of clients or users (Engestr”m, 2004). In this regard, many attempts have been made so that identify the root causes of the problems associated alongside organizational learning in addition to so that show a way forward (Virkkunen & Kuutti, 2000). Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014

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INTRODUCTIONThe vagueness of the key concept ?organization? seems so that be a major hindrance so that progress (Schmidt, 1994). Researchers have tried so that cope alongside this problem in different ways (Virkkunen & Kuutti (2000). Some base their argument on mentalistic analogies of individual learning (e.g. Huber, 1991; Dodgson, 1993; Jones, 1995). Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014INTRODUCTIONAlthough speaking about ?organizational learning?, others, focus on a more limited unit of analysis within an organization (such as a management team or an organizational routine) or concentrate only on a specific aspect of the organization, in consideration of instance its corporate culture (Virkkunen & Kuutti, 2000). The following concepts have been proposed by some writers so that be used in analyzing organizational learning (Virkkunen & Kuutti, 2000). knowledge system (Pentland, 1995).Community of practice (Brown & Duguid, 1991; Hendry, 1996). Activity system (Blackler, 1993; L?wendahl & Haanes, 1997).Systemic Structural Activity (Bedny & Karwowski, 2007) Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014INTRODUCTIONSince organizations (as subsets of society) offer employees just some of a number of possible ?images in addition to symbols so that live alongside in addition to live by?, It then follows that the continuing enactment of organizational life is a process that draws upon organizational as well as non-organizational components (Thompson, 2004). Thompson?s view is in line alongside Leontiev?s (1974) thinking that an activity is oriented by the transformation of a need into an objective (or motive).By implication, actions are fundamental components of activities in addition to are subordinate so that specific goals. the goal of an action is the actor?s conscious mental representation of the outcome so that be achieved alongside its function being the orientation of the action.Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014

QUESTIONSThe germ-cell of this paper are as follows: To what extent have we really sought so that understand the possible formation of wildfire activities (Engestr”m, 2005) in an actor?s sub-consciousness in the conduct of an organizational activity in addition to which goes unnoticed in the process of learning new organizational practices? How can we learn so that understand the dynamics of this sub-conscious wildfire activity in addition to its pervasion in the mediation process relative so that the subject of activity (actors) in addition to the objective in consideration of the activity?Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014PURPOSEThis paper looked at the need in consideration of understanding the interplay between ergonomics in addition to activity theorization in the study of work scenarios in organizations.that could lead so that the harmonization of the human, technological, in addition to organizational components of the work systems towards increased production efficiency in addition to effectiveness.The paper discusses the signification of the relatedness of Ergonomics in addition to Activity Theory that has led so that the evolution of the Systemic Structural Activity Theory (SSAT) as a useful theoretical approach that could be used so that work scenarios in organizational activity.Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014LITERATUREIn SSAT, it is argued that knowledge in ergonomics in addition to activity theory has the unique capability of facilitating a researcher?s ability so that understand the different ways of knowing the world of workgenerating new knowledge.helping stakeholders understand in addition to incorporate results or lessons learned from the world of work. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014

Goal: To understand how Galileo in addition to Newton used experimentation in addition to theory so that further the fields of physics in addition to astronomy. Galileo Intro (1564-1642) Which of the following does Galileo get ?credited? for? For each a = yes, b = no Sunspots Rotation of the sun Phases of Venus Galilean moons of Jupiter The Milky Way Invention of the telescope. First so that actually view Neptune. Discovered that gravity accelerates all objects at the same rate, regardless of mass Galileo?s reward: Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Newton?s Laws: Universal law of gravity Universal law of gravity – questions Universal law of gravity – questions Universal law of gravity – questions Which of the following is true: Newtonian Telescope! Conclusion

LITERATUREThe complexity of the human work process is highlighted by the characteristics of its substructure whose basic components have been delineated by Bedny in addition to Karwowski (2007) as follows: Motive-goal as a vector which demonstrates the directional in addition to energetic aspects of the work activity.Knowledge in addition to skills which demonstrate the relevance past experience so that the work process.Abilities related so that the tasks so that be performed.Work actions which are organized into a structure, in addition to together present the method of work. Action in this sense implies both cognitive in addition to motor action. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014LITERATUREThe presence of the concepts of knowledge in addition to action in the structure of work process also implies the existence of mental tools (Bedny in addition to Karwowski, 2007). Therefore, in the process of developing new work practices in an organization, it is important so that see the key actors in the practice development exercise as learners of their new activities (Sanda, Johansson &Johansson, 2011).Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014METHODOLOGYIn the SSAT, understanding the parametric in addition to systemic methodological approaches in activity analysis is very importantThe parametric approach entails the study of distinct components of activity. The systemic analysis systemic approach includes a morphological in addition to functional analysis of the activity, each of which comprises different methods. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014

MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYTICAL APPROACH Morphological analysis is involved in the description of the constructive features of activity, alongside actions in addition to operations used as units of analysis. In a morphological analysis, the structure of activity is a logical in addition to spatio-temporal organization of actions in addition to operations performed so that achieve the goal of a task (Bedny & Karwoski, 2007). To describe the structure of an organizational activity, it is necessary so that sub-divide the work process into tasks that should then be individually described in terms of mental in addition to motor actions in addition to operations. Each action has a separate, intermediate goal, which must be reached so that attain the goal of the task. Units of analyses are cognitive motor actions in addition to operations. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014FUNCTIONAL ANALYTICAL APPROACH In the functional analysis of activity, the major units of analysis are blocks, in addition to the activity in this case, is regarded as a self-regulative system (Bedny & Meister, 1997; Bedny &Karwoski, 2003). This allows the identification of potential strategies of organizational activity performance. Organizational activity in this case is regarded as an application of systemic principles so that a qualitative stage of analysis. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/20149/20/2014CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYNeed in consideration of StudyOngoing discussion about the design of production systems in consideration of future mines based on technological development in consideration of measurement in addition to process management, organizational design in addition to learning in consideration of employees. Since such systemic processes are managed in addition to monitored by people, This study looked at the need in consideration of understanding the sociotechnical in addition to psychosocial characteristics of rock drilling activity in deep mines,that could lead so that the harmonization of the human, technological, in addition to organizational components of the work systems towards increased production efficiency in addition to effectiveness in the organization of work in future mines.Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia

Interfaces in a miner?s activity system showing human (miner)-technology relationship in digitized deep mine (Sanda, et al., 2011)9/20/2014Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYData CollectionGuided by SSAT (Bedny & Karwowski, 2011), morphological in addition to functional studies of two highly-skilled miners engaged in the rock drilling activity using the Boomer (a highly automated machine alongside two robotic drilling arms) were conducted.External behavioral in addition to internal mental actions in addition to operations of the miners? engaged in two separate rock drilling activities were observed in addition to video-recorded. External behavioral actions include various motions used so that transform material or tangible objects. The mental actions transform images, concepts or propositions in addition to non-verbal signs in the mind (Bedny & Karwowski, 2011). Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYData AnalysisUsing the systemic analytical approach as the basic paradigm in consideration of the analysis of positioning actions (Bedny & Karwowski, 2011) in rock drilling activity in deep mines, both morphological in addition to functional analyses were conducted. In the morphological analysis, the constructive features of the rock drilling activity, entailing the logical in addition to spatio-temporal organization of the cognitive behavioral actions in addition to operations involved, were described. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia

9/20/2014CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYData AnalysisIn the functional analysis, potential strategies of activity performance associated alongside the miners? actions in addition to their corresponding operations, identified as constituting as functional blocks were analyzed qualitatively using systemic principles (Bedny & Karwowski, 2007). This allowed in consideration of the evaluation of varieties of performance indicators, such as time in addition to errors, in addition to also the selection of the most efficient strategy.Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney AustraliaCASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYResults Analysis of observations in addition to video recordings of the miners? engagement alongside the production drilling activity showed that a miner?s individual object-oriented activity consists of both physical in addition to mental actions in addition to operations whose characteristics are influenced by past experiences. Functional appraisal of the miner?s individual object-oriented activity shows that the object of a miner?s self-regulation of orienting activity so that be two folds. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYResults The object, in terms of the miner?s physical activity, is the conduction of production (rock) drilling operations, based on informed decisions in addition to programs so that orient explorative actions towards performance enhancement, sensemaking in task performance, in addition to determination of motivational level. The object, in terms of the miner?s mental activity, is the simultaneous observation of the production drilling work, assessment of task difficulty, listening so that communication models in order so that enhance the development of stable or dynamic mental models of task or situation in consideration of enhancing the relevant task conditions. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014

CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYFindings from Morphological AnalysisMorphological analysis of the miners? mental assessment of task difficulty showed that; the use of tractor technology alongside more than one robotic arm (i.e. boomer) in consideration of production drilling tasks is excessive in consideration of one operator so that handle. The miners? related the perceived task overload so that the difficulty an operator encounters in his/her ability so that focus on the computerized programming command in consideration of the automated rock drilling actions in addition to operations using the multi boomers. The miners viewed such situation as distracting them from developing the requisite dynamic mental models of task or situation which are required in consideration of enhancing the quality of the relevant task conditions. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYFindings from Functional AnalysisFunctional analysis of the scenario above shows that the miners possess procedural knowledge developed overtime on various objective activities, but which remained shared. This procedural knowledge is used by the operators so that negotiate technology-based standardized task patterns in bids so that overcome task repetitiveness in addition to also so that increase their productive capacities in terms of waste removal in production time. The miners also use their procedural knowledge so that overcome subjective perceptions of technological shortcomings in their task undertakings (based the notion that technologies do not always get it right). Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYDiscussion Results from analysis of the miners? motors actions during the rock drilling activity showed that by using declarative driven strategies, they were able so that perform simultaneously two specific tasks that required high levels of concentration in addition to visual control in the normal visual field available so that them from inside the protective cabin of the high technology equipment they were using. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014

CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYDiscussionI argue that since organizations possess technologies (i.e. techniques in consideration of processing raw materials and/or people) in consideration of accomplishing work, organizational activity then emphasizes a work system design in which technology affects social relations in organizations by structuring transactions between roles that are building blocks of an organization. In this respect, the application of systemic-structural activity theory stands so that provide an understanding of the various processes that is entailed in digitized human work which can be used so that design a harmonious work environment integrating the human, technical in addition to the social system, towards increased productivity in the deep mine industry. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYDiscussion Findings from the morphological analysis have shown that relationship between the miners? external behavior in addition to internal psychological functions are mutually regulated. Arguing from the perspectives of Bedny in addition to Karwowski (2007), I find this relationship so that entail a process of internalization in a miner?s motor activity, which is central so that the theory of activity. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYDiscussionBy implication, the findings from the morphological analysis showed find a degree of commonality in the cognitive characteristics of the miners? internal mental activity in addition to the regulative nature of their external behaviors towards activity undertakingsThis finding is underscored by the argument supporting the mutual interdependence of mental development, semiotic mediation in addition to external practical activity which do not exist separately (Bedny & Harris, 2005; Bedny & Karwowski, 2007). The sense here is that an inter-subjective aspect of activity is observable in a miner?s individual activity. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014

CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYDiscussionFindings from the functional analysis support the miners? notion of time reduction in same task undertakings using procedural knowledge so that negotiate an action pattern in an activity. It also portrayed the structure of the miners? activity during task performance as a logically organized system of cognitive in addition to motor actions in addition to operations (Bedny, Karwowski & Sengupta, 2008) that enhances innovation. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYDiscussion Findings from the functional analysis also showed that the specificity of the rock drilling activity is underlined by the interdependence of the miner?s practical activities in addition to symbolical activities, each of which is in constant transformation of the other. Since the practical actions in the rock drilling activity have clearly defined object, it then entails semiotic mediation. The occurrence of such mediation is highlighted by the conscious goal (including planning in addition to understanding of the possible outcomes) alongside which the object-practical actions in the rock drilling activity are undertaken. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYConclusion The miners simultaneously combine their mental actions in addition to motor actions in recognizing in addition to remedying the constraining effects of unfamiliar stimuli during the rock drilling activity. This understanding has future implications in designing a very efficient in addition to effective human-technology collaboration in a highly digitized deep mine work system. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014

Thank YouSanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYDiscussionI argue that since organizations possess technologies (i.e. techniques in consideration of processing raw materials and/or people) in consideration of accomplishing work, organizational activity then emphasizes a work system design in which technology affects social relations in organizations by structuring transactions between roles that are building blocks of an organization. In this respect, the application of systemic-structural activity theory stands so that provide an understanding of the various processes that is entailed in digitized human work which can be used so that design a harmonious work environment integrating the human, technical in addition to the social system, towards increased productivity in the deep mine industry. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYDiscussion Findings from the morphological analysis have shown that relationship between the miners? external behavior in addition to internal psychological functions are mutually regulated. Arguing from the perspectives of Bedny in addition to Karwowski (2007), I find this relationship so that entail a process of internalization in a miner?s motor activity, which is central so that the theory of activity. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014CASE STUDY DRILLING WORK IN A MINE AS ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITYDiscussionBy implication, the findings from the morphological analysis showed find a degree of commonality in the cognitive characteristics of the miners? internal mental activity in addition to the regulative nature of their external behaviors towards activity undertakingsThis finding is underscored by the argument supporting the mutual interdependence of mental development, semiotic mediation in addition to external practical activity which do not exist separately (Bedny & Harris, 2005; Bedny & Karwowski, 2007). The sense here is that an inter-subjective aspect of activity is observable in a miner?s individual activity. Sanda: ISCAR 2014 Conference Sydney Australia9/20/2014 and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.