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Small-N designs in addition to Solving problems (control issues) Within Sub
Duluth Business University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Small-N designs in addition to Solving problems (control issues) Within Subjects Designs (Small N) N stands in consideration of the number of subjects in an experiment The designs we have discussed in the course so far have had many participants per group In small-N designs you can do experiments alongside very few participants in fact you can do studies alongside only 1 participant. B.F. Skinner was an advocate of small-N designs. in fact he was a critic of large-N designs Skinner advocated eliminating as much error variance as possible Two main sources of error variance 1) that do so that individual differences among participants 2) That due so that ineffective control procedures IF you only use one subject in your experiment individual differences will be eliminated as a source of error variance If you have highly controlled experimental procedures that will help alongside physical extraneous variables Operant chamber no light enters sound attenuated
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Large N designs can obscure actual effects rare steak Water Who uses Small?N designs clinical psychopathology small #s of patients can ensure everyone gets treatment Animal researchers Types of Small N designs The ABA design A baseline B treatment A return so that baseline Rat bar pressing 1 hour no Rf 1 hour Rf 1 hour no Rf ABABA AB1 AB2 AB3 A ABAB experimentally sound in addition to ethical Horne (1987) facial screening mentally impaired 8-year old girl spoon banging soft cloth over face AB self injurious behavior Multiple Baseline Vanbieauliet, Spangler, in addition to Marshall (1981) family style meals in addition to communication in instututionalized adults Small N useful when limited # of subjects Helpful, because can leave patient in a treated state ABAB External Generalizability can be an issue. worked in consideration of this patient, but would it work in consideration of other patients.
Solving Problems: Controlling in consideration of extraneous variables When we run an experiment we want conditions so that be such that only the IV should change systematically from one condition so that another. We have already discussed how so that control in consideration of subject variables random assignment matching subjects within S?s designs But there are other types of extraneous variables that must be controlled as well Physical variables aspects of the experimental environment Social variables refers so that the relationship between experimenter in addition to participant We will talk about how so that control each of these. Physical variables These are aspects of the testing conditions that need so that be controlled. Any time you test one group in one setting in addition to another group in a different setting you have the potential in consideration of confounding of physical variables. Skinner developed the operant chamber or Skinner box in an attempt so that control physical variables. Show them an operant chamber Things so that notice sound attenuated masking noise outside light does not enter timing of events is carefully controlled by a computer. Techniques so that control in consideration of extraneous physical variables. Elimination ? this is just what it sounds like. It is an attempt so that make some physical extraneous variable go away. By making it go away it cannot have any effect on your experiment. The operant chamber eliminates unwanted outside noise in addition to light. We also try so that run human experiments in quiet places where extraneous physical variables can be eliminated as well.
Data Center Storage in addition to Networking Hakim Weatherspoon Where are we in the semester? Goals in consideration of Today Motivation IOFlow architecture Contributions SDS: Storage-specific challenges Storage flows ? ? ? Rate limiting in consideration of congestion control R ate limiting on bytes does not work Rate limiting on IOPS does not work Rate limiting based on cost Distributed, d ynamic enforcement Work-conserving solution Max-min fair sharing Controller decides where so that enforce Centralized vs. decentralized control IOFlow implementation Evaluation map Evaluation setup Workloads Enforcing bandwidth SLAs Things so that look in consideration of Results Before Next time
Constancy ? If we cannot eliminate a physical variable then we try so that keep it constant across the conditions of the experiment. Typically people test pigeons in addition to rats in the same operant chamber. Therefore the physical characteristics that cannot be eliminated, are constant in consideration of all animals. The dimensions of the box, lights that do exist, sound of the white noise For human subjects similar considerations should be made. Try so that test all of your subjects in the same room. There is some evidence that even things as subtle as color of a room can have effects, so if possible you should try so that keep these things constant. Especially important in consideration of human subjects is so that keep instructions constant in consideration of all subjects. it would be best if instructions were written out or video or audio taped Sometimes we are unable so that keep eliminate or keep extraneous physical variables constant. In that case we must make sure that the variable is balanced. It is OK so that use two different rooms so that test subjects in, if we have to. make sure that both groups are equally represented in both rooms. Why is this important? This is called balancing. We are distributing the effects of an extraneous physical variable across the treatment conditions. It may increase the variability in responding, but it should not be able so that cause the effect. How do we go about balancing extraneous physical variables? first randomly assign half of your subjects so that room 1, in addition to the other half so that room 2. Then randomly assign half of the subjects in room 1 so that group1 in addition to the other half so that group2. Do the same in consideration of the subjects in room 2. Balancing is also used so that control in consideration of issues like time of day of testing. In an operant chamber you can only test one subject at a time, so you need so that make sure that your different treatment groups are distributed throughout the running day. run some experimentals in addition to controls in the morning, in addition to some of each in the afternoon. Social Variables are another type of extraneous variable that needs so that be controlled. This refers so that the relationships between subjects in addition to experimenters that could influence results. There are two principle social variables Demand characteristics Experimenter bias
Demand Characteristics. aspects of the experimental situation that demand that people behave in a certain way. An experiment can encourage subjects so that try so that be Good Subjects. Subjects may attempt so that guess the experimental hypothesis in addition to adjust their responses so that support the hypothesis they think is being tested. The Hawthorne effect. Industrial Organizational psychologists tried so that study environmental factors on employee productivity. They tried changing lighting conditions, rest periods, temperature, wage rate, in addition to so on. The interesting finding was that no matter what they changed, performance increased. decrease in light increased productivity, just as much as an increase. Why would this be? It would seem that the workers were pleased that the company was taking interest in them in addition to were honored so that be subjects, in addition to thus there performance would increase. Increase in performance, because you know you are being studied, but not because of a manipulated variable is an artifact. Martin Orne became interested in artifacts caused by subjects trying so that conform so that beliefs they had about experiments. His first interest in this area came from his research alongside hypnosis. He had become convinced that some of the trance like behaviors exhibited by people that were under hypnosis were caused by expectancies the subjects had. In other words they acted in the way that they thought they should based on common knowledge passed on about hypnosis. To test this Orne ran an experiment. Group 1: a group of college students were given a lecture on hypnosis. As a part of this lecture they were told about some of the common characteristics of being under hypnosis. one of the these characteristics was made up Catalepsy of the dominant hand. This was presented as a classical characteristic, in addition to a big deal was made of how it was always the dominant hand that became rigid. There was a fake demonstration of hypnosis that showed this phenomenon. Group2: a group of college students were given the same lecture in addition to demonstration, but they were not told the made up part about dominant hand catalapsy. A few weeks later students from both lectures were asked so that serve as subjects in a hypnosis study. They found that almost all subjects in Group1 had dominant hand catalepsy under hypnosis, whereas none in Group2 did. Orne, who was interested in this finding wondered how compliant people under hypnosis might be He tried so that devise a task that no sane person would be willing so that do. In his pilot work he brought subjects in that were not under hypnosis in addition to asked them so that add together random paired numbers. There were 224 pairs of numbers so that add in consideration of each sheets in addition to subjects were placed in a room alongside 2000 sheets. The experimenter assigned them the task in addition to said he would come back later. 5 in addition to a half hours later the experimenter gave up.
Orne & Scheibe (1964) sensory deprivation group 1 control group group 2 emergency tray alarm button log book so that report unusual experiences How so that control in consideration of demand characteristics Single Blind Study subjects don?t know which group they are in cranberry juice, mint oil, alongside or without alcohol keep in mind many drugs produce side effects placebos that have peripheral effects Cover story Nisbett ? culture of honor ? ?asshole? study Experimenter Bias When the experimenter?s expectations inadvertently effect the outcome of the study Clever Hans Rosenthal Intellectual Bloomers Maze bright; Maze Dull Robert True ? Age Regression Double Blind Studies require two experimenters
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