Smoke Alarms A Critical Look FFF Andrea’s Fire Andrea Dennis, Kyle Raulin, Al Sc

Smoke Alarms A Critical Look FFF Andrea’s Fire Andrea Dennis, Kyle Raulin, Al Sc www.phwiki.com

Smoke Alarms A Critical Look FFF Andrea’s Fire Andrea Dennis, Kyle Raulin, Al Sc

Mercer, Robert, Faculty Advisor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Smoke Alarms A Critical Look FFF Andrea’s Fire Andrea Dennis, Kyle Raulin, Al Schlessman, Erin DeMarco, & Christine Wilson died in this house at Ohio State University on April 13, 2003 Julie’s Fire Julie Turnbull, Kate Welling & Steve Smith died in this house on April 10th, 2005 at Miami University

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Basic in as long as mation disseminated Everyone needs a smoke alarm. (people w/o smoke alarms account as long as over a third of fire deaths) Maintain your smoke alarm. (change your battery) Ionization SA detect flaming fires best in addition to photoelectric SA detect smoldering fires best. Either provides enough time to escape most fires, but it’s best to have one of each. What we have learned Generalizing in as long as mation is misleading in addition to can be dangerous The technology in smoke alarms is very different in addition to has significant implications as long as home use Nuisance alarm activations are a major problem in addition to significantly factor into our fire death statistics Consistent results from the testing of smoke alarms is surprisingly not communicated efficiently with fire officials Sensor setting of alarms (particularly dual sensor alarms) is problematic in addition to not understood nor is smoke alarm technology SMOKE DETECTORS – “FIRE SAFETY’S GREATEST SUCCESS STORY” – NIST “Smoke Detector usage rose from 10% in 1975 to 95% in 2000, while home fire deaths were cut in half.”

From Underwriter Labs Home Page on Smoke Alarms The importance of working smoke alarms “Fire deaths have been cut in half since smoke alarms were introduced in the late 1970s.” NFPA Chart The U.S. fire problem Residential structure fires Source: NFPA survey As number of fires decrease, so does the number of deaths, but not the death rate from fires.

The number of deaths has remained constant as long as the last 30 years, 8 deaths as long as every 1,000 fires. Fire Deaths per 1,000 Fires compared to the Increased Usage of Smoke Alarms over 30 years WHITE PAPER HOME SMOKE ALARMS AND OTHER FIRE DETECTION AND ALARM EQUIPMENT Public/Private Fire Safety Council April, 2006 “The home fire death rate relative to number of fires is essentially unchanged from 1977 to 2003.3” 3. Rates are calculated using fire statistics from reference [1] in addition to previous reports in series, in addition to population data from Statistical Abstract of the United States 2004-2005, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, 2004.

In as long as mation from 30 Years ago U.S. Fire Administration: “We put 50 million smoke detectors in buildings in America in a two year period in addition to our fire loss in addition to death rate goes up. We’re having a little trouble explaining these things”, Gordon Vickery, as long as mer head of the U.S. Fire Administration. Source: Fire engineering magazine, September 1980. Fire Chief Magazine: “Smoke detectors were an unknown term to 99 percent of the population ten years ago. Today millions of family dwellings have them, yet there is no reduction in loss of life from fire. The paradox has not been explained” Source: Fire Chief Magazine, January 1980. Smoke Alarm Presence in addition to Per as long as mance September 2009 NFPA Report by Marty Ahrens Everyone That Purchased a Smoke Alarm but Died Anyway Non-Working Alarm Dead Battery Removal of Battery Removed due to Nuisance alarm problems Working Alarm Victim Intimate with fire Behavioral /Physical Factors Technology Failure (Alarm didn’t operate) (Signaled too late)

Photoelectric Smoke Alarm Laser > Smoke Particle Photo Cell When smoke particles enter the chamber they refract the light beam which hits the photo cell in addition to sounds the alarm. A photoelectric alarm “sees” the smoke. Ionization Smoke Alarm Plate + (positive) . : . : . BATTERY . : Plate – (negative) Radioactive Material Radioactive material knock electrons off oxygen in addition to nitrogen molecules to as long as m a current, when numerous small particles enter the chamber the current is disrupted sounding the alarm. Particle Size in addition to Smoke Alarms Small particles like these will disrupt the current in the Ionization alarm. Large particles like these will create a problem as long as the Ionization alarm, the size in addition to volume are not enough of a disruption to the current. The Photoelectric beam will easily detect. The Photoelectric recognizes very small particles slower

Particle Size Considerations in Selecting a Smoke Alarm The characteristics of an ionization alarm make it more suitable as long as detection of fast flaming fires that are characterized by combustion particles in the .01 to .3-micron size range. Photoelectric smoke alarms are better suited to detect slow smoldering fires that are characterized by particulates in the .3 to10 micron size range. Each type of alarm can detect both types of fires, but their respective response times will vary, depending on the type of fire. GEORGIA INST OF TECH ATLANTA SCHOOL OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERING The Smoke Hazards Resulting from the Burning of Shipboard Materials Used by the U.S. Navy. A study was conducted to evaluate the hazards due to smoke as long as mation in shipboard fires. (wall insulation material, cable jacket materials, in addition to a hydraulic fluid). Study results indicate that these materials produce smoke particles with log-normal size distributions in addition to mean diameters ranging from 0.4 to 1.5 microns (smoldering) in addition to 1.0 to 1.3 microns (flaming). Combustion .01 –.1 Tobacco Smoke .01 – 4 Oil Smoke .03 – 1 Burning Wood .2 – 3 Smoke from Synthetic Materials 1 – 50 .03 < Effective > .03 Ionization Photoelectric Inserted by Presenter

NFPA FACT Source: Home Fires That Began With Upholstered Furniture, Marty Ahrens, NFPA, Quincy, MA May 2008 Copyright© 2008 Liberal use of NFPA fact sheets is allowable with attribution. Home Fires that Began with Upholstered Furniture In 2002-2005, U.S. fire departments responded to an average, of 7630 home structure fires per year in which upholstered furniture was the first item ignited. These fires caused an annual average of 600 civilian fire deaths, 920 civilian fire injuries, in addition to $309 million in direct property damage. On average, one of every 13 upholstered furniture fires resulted in death. Overall, fires beginning with upholstered furniture accounted as long as 2% of reported home fires but 21% of home fire deaths Smoking materials remain the leading cause of upholstered furniture fires in addition to losses. One of every seven upholstered furniture fires started by smoking materials resulted in death. From: NIST (Questions in addition to Answers Clarifying Findings of NIST Home Smoke Alarm Study1,2) “Specifically, smoldering smoke tests utilize cotton wicks or wood pieces on a hotplate (UL217/2686 in addition to EN54/ISO TS7240-97) as sources, in addition to these were used by NIST as detailed in the report. The Underwriters Laboratories (UL) smoldering test with wood on a hotplate was developed by UL in the late 1970’s to mimic the smoldering mattresses in addition to furniture UL stopped conducting its flaming plastic (polystyrene foam) test in 1999.” -An NIST 2004, study found that both technologies are effective in providing adequate escape time to occupants in “real life” home fire conditions. -In 2008 an NFPA task group released a report concluding “that smoke alarms using either ionization or photoelectric technologies, installed per NFPA 72-2007, are generally providing acceptable responses to smoldering fires.”

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NIST 2008 ALARM TIMES IN SECONDS 39 minutes after the photoelectric The photoelectric is blue The ionization is red 22 minutes ASET How much time you have to escape a fire NIST Technical Note 1455-1 (page 243 in addition to is two story alarm on each level, ASET in seconds) February 2008 Revision. Per as long as mance of Home Smoke Alarms Analysis of the Response of Several Available Technologies in Residential Fire Settings Texas A&M Study Risk Analysis of Residential Fire Detector Per as long as mance “The development of the risk analysis offered a clear insight into why there continues to be a high residential death rate in spite of an increase in the residences reported to have smoke detectors installed. The current thought process demonstrated by fire officials in the position to make recommendations, has been to just install a smoke detector in the home without consideration as to the type of potential fire ignition that most frequently occurs or to the quality of the fire detector.” “A review of the risk analysis provides a clear example of the probability of a detector failure if there is no consideration as to the risk involved with the use of the various types of fire detectors.”

“The probability of the failure of the photoelectric detector to detect a smoldering ignition fire is 4.06% while the ionization detector provided a 55.8% probability of a failure in a similar type of fire. This high probability of a failure of the ionization detector can be contributed to a number of factors such as per as long as mance under normal conditions in addition to an inability to consistently detect smoldering smoke particles. This is a very important consideration since most of the fires that occur in residences start out as smoldering ignition fires.” “During a flame ignition fire, the photoelectric smoke detector had a 3.99% probability of a failure to detect the fire while the ionization smoke detector probability of failure to detect the fire is 19.8%.” Risk Analysis of Residential Fire Detector Per as long as mance Larry Grosse Ph.D., Texas A&M University, Jac DeJong Ph.D. Texas A&M University, in addition to John Murphy Ph.D., Colorado State University WHITE PAPER HOME SMOKE ALARMS AND OTHER FIRE DETECTION AND ALARM EQUIPMENT Public/Private Fire Safety Council April, 2006 “However, more than one-fourth of home fire deaths (all or nearly all of those involving smoking materials in addition to some others) involve an extended initial smoldering phase. 16 A recent study found unsatisfactory per as long as mance (available escape time was less than estimated required escape time) by ionization-mode smoke alarms against fire scenarios that involved 30 to 120 minutes of initial smoldering.15 There is insufficient data to determine whether the fires that smolder long enough to defeat ionization-mode smoke alarms are closer to 3% or 25% of the total.”

Conclusions Ionization SA have too many limitations We can’t control human nature. Moving away from ICSD will save lives. Other states in addition to cities have done the research in addition to have acted. Cali as long as nia has a chance to lead. THE END Thank you as long as inviting us to present, Dean in addition to Doug

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