- 1 SO Allison1, KM Pohle2, 1Division of Animal Resources, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; 2 Department of Cellular in addition to Integrative Physiology in addition to Comparative Medicine Program, Purdue University in addition to Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN Hose as an Environmental Enrichment Toy as long as Laboratory Swine (Sus scrofa) Acknowledgements Conclusion Introduction
- 2 Mundy, Laurie News Director
- 3 Journal Ratings by Technological Education Institute of Epiros
SO Allison1, KM Pohle2, 1Division of Animal Resources, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; 2 Department of Cellular in addition to Integrative Physiology in addition to Comparative Medicine Program, Purdue University in addition to Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN Hose as an Environmental Enrichment Toy as long as Laboratory Swine (Sus scrofa) Acknowledgements Conclusion Introduction
Mundy, Laurie, News Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal SO Allison1, KM Pohle2, 1Division of Animal Resources, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; 2 Department of Cellular in addition to Integrative Physiology in addition to Comparative Medicine Program, Purdue University in addition to Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN Hose as an Environmental Enrichment Toy as long as Laboratory Swine (Sus scrofa) Acknowledgements We would like to thank Jamie Reed, Dr. Rebecca Krisher, in addition to Dr. Lyndon Goodly (University of Illinois) in addition to Dr. Michael Sturek (Indiana University School of Medicine) as long as their assistance in this project. Support: NIH RR013223, Purdue-Indiana University Comparative Medicine Program. Conclusion We caution that as with any enrichment toy, rotation in addition to variety is important. If hoses are not rotated in addition to replaced with other toys as part of an enrichment program, they will lose their novelty. Fire in addition to garden hoses are safe, durable, in addition to cost effective toys as long as use as part of a swine environmental enrichment program. Introduction Furthermore, environmental enrichment items (toys) that enhance the well-being of animals in addition to promotes-species-typical behaviors should be encouraged 1. Swine have a need to chew in addition to root within their environment in addition to bedding is one way to satisfy that need 2. At our respective animal facilities, swine are housed on slatted, fiberglass flooring without bedding. Enrichment items including balls, chains, tires, rubber mats, or plastic dumbbells are provided to the swine. Occasionally, we found that animals would lose interest in these items in addition to subsequently exhibit destructive behavior towards the pen environment. We searched as long as items that would satisfy the need to chew in addition to could be added to our environmental enrichment programs as long as minimal cost. Abstract The use of laboratory swine in biomedical research programs requires that environmental enrichment be provided in order to promote species typical behavior, such as chewing. In order to maintain the animals interest in addition to to be effective in decreasing destructive behavior, toys should be rotated in addition to used as long as a limited time each day. We needed to exp in addition to our options as long as environmental enrichment, since several animals destroyed housing pen walls in addition to floors in addition to were losing interest in the enrichment toys currently used. We decided to incorporate into the environmental enrichment program fire hose at one facility in addition to garden hoses at the other facility. Both types of hoses were cost-effective; the fire hose was a donation in addition to the garden hose cost $30 per 15.2 m of length. The fire hose was a diameter of approximately 7cm, in addition to pieces were cut from 0.9 m to 1.8m in length. The fire hoses were attached to the pen gate or the wall ring in the animals pens. The garden hoses were 1.9 cm in diameter in addition to cut to 0.5 to 2.0 m in length. The garden hoses were shaped into various configurations in addition to secured with nuts, bolts, in addition to washers to maintain shape in addition to attached to the enclosure gates. Approximately 32 pigs were offered fire hose in addition to 80 pigs were offered garden hose as long as enrichment. Most animals demonstrated interest in the hoses by chewing on them. Daily monitoring by the animal care staff did not reveal any evidence of injury or ingestion of the hoses. Hoses lasted up to four months be as long as e they needed to be replaced. Hoses were easily sanitized within a rack washer or dishwashing machine. We suggest that hoses are a suitable, safe, in addition to cost-effective addition to a swine environmental enrichment program. Methods These two types of hoses were incorporated into environmental enrichment programs at two institutions, the University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign (UIUC) in addition to Purdue University, Indiana University School of Medicine (PU-IUSM). Fire hose was used at UIUC in addition to garden hose at PU-IUSM. Ossabaw swine (Sus scrofa) received both types of hoses as long as enrichment at their respective institutions, while at UIUC Yorkshire-L in addition to race swine (Sus scrofa) also received fire hose as long as enrichment. At each facility, swine were housed in groups of two to four per pen. There was a second enrichment toy in each pen along with the hoses, including balls, chains, tires, rubber mats, or plastic dumbbells. Fire hose (Figure 1) was donated by the Illinois Fire Service Institute. The fire hose was made of a synthetic (nylon in addition to polyester) jacket over a rubber liner. The roll of hose was cut into individual pieces (length of 0.9 m to 1.8 m, Figure 2) in addition to tied to the pen gate or wall ring in each pen (Figure 3). These hoses had been used previously as long as fire safety training in addition to no hazardous materials had been used in the training sessions. Fire hose was sanitized in a rack washer prior to animal use. The garden hoses were used at Purdue University-Indiana University School of Medicine. They were purchased from a local farm supply store (Rural King) at a cost of $30 as long as 15.2 m length of hose. Garden hose was cut to pieces varying from 0.5 m to 2.0 m in length. They are sturdier than a typical garden hose since they are made of thick rubber. Garden hoses were secured to the animal pens with bolt in addition to chains. The hoses can be left in straight sections or configured into loops, knots, or figure eights (Figures 4, 5). Garden hoses were secured to the animal pens with bolt in addition to chains (Figure 6). Since there is not a rack washer at this facility, they are run through a dishwasher prior to use. However, these hoses have been tested in addition to can withst in addition to water at temperatures up to 82.2 °C. Results The fire in addition to garden hose shave been used at both animal facilities without incident. Swine are monitored daily by animal care staff in addition to hoses with excessive use or soiling are discarded. In our experience, garden hose can be used up to four months be as long as e requiring replacement. The fire hoses last longer, with several hoses intact in addition to in use to the present day. The fire hose is difficult to destroy, with most damage occurring to the hose from tears or frayed edges. The useful life of either type of hose may vary depending on the number of animals using the hoses in addition to the level of interest by the animals. Figure 3. Swine investigating the fire hose, tied to the pen gate. Figure 2. Loop of fire hose cut to size from the roll. Figure 6. Garden hose attached to pen gate with chain. Figure 4. Garden hose in a closed-loop configuration, secured with bolts in addition to washers. Figure 1. Roll of fire hose. References National Research Council. 1996. Guide as long as the Care in addition to Use of Laboratory Animals . 6th ed. Washington DC: National Academy Press. Swindle MM in addition to Smith AC. 2006. Preparation of Swine as long as the Laboratory. ILAR. 47:358-363. Figure 5. Garden hose in a figure eight configuation, secured with bolts in addition to washers.
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