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Sources of Nonylphenol Introduction Nonylphenol in Water
Columbus University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Nonylphenol in Water By Jackie Fawcett & Michael Goldrich Introduction In the last 40 years 450 million tons of Nonylphenol has been produced world wide, 150,000 tons in the U.S. alone. This chemical is extremely toxic in addition to is bioaccumulative, accumulating over time in the tissues of living organisms rather than being evacuated in wastes. The chemical is mainly found in the U.S., Canada, in addition to Europe where it has begun showing up in lakes in addition to rivers. Sources of Nonylphenol Intermediate in consideration of Antioxidants in consideration of Rubber in addition to Plastics Phenolic Resins Rubber Processing Chemicals Polyvinyl Chloride Plasticizers Antioxidant in the Manufacture of Polystyrene Plastic Additives Surfacants in Detergents Plastic Centrifuge Tubes Leached from PVC Tubes Sewage Sludges
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Chemical properties 6% ortho-substituted, 94% para-substituted Insoluble in Water Soluble in Benzene, Chlorinated Solvents, Aniline, Heptane, Aliphilic Alcohols, in addition to Ethylene Glycol High Viscosity Floats on Water Affects on Animals & Humans Estrogen-like compound, activating estrogen receptor sites in animals in addition to reptiles Induces cell proliferation in addition to progesterone receptor in human estrogen-sensitive MCF7 breast tumor cells Triggers mitotic activity in rat endometrium Induces sex change in male fish Influences ATPases in addition to affects the calcium metabolism Developmental toxicant so that daphnids Accumulates in the liver, gills, skin, gut, kidney, in addition to fat tissues in trout Sludge High Concentrations in Sewage Compared so that Other Contaminants (two order of magnitude higher than metals) Nonylphenol in Stabilized Sewage Sludge Originates from Alkylphenol Polyethoxylates Alkylphenol Polyethoxilates in Stabilized Sludge Further break down into Alkylphenols, which Accumulate in Digested Sludge Consistently Found in Aerobically Stabilized Sludge
Wastewater Treatment Detection can be Done using UV-vis Spectrophotometry, Gas Chromotography, in addition to Mass Spectrophotometry Photodegradeable, Half-Life of 10 so that 15 Hours of Continuous Clear Sky, Noon Summer Sunlight in the Surface Layer of the Lake Activated Carbon Very Effective because of High Porosity in addition to Large Surface Area Data Data Adverse effects were observed at: 10 micrograms/liter in consideration of zooplankton 30 micrograms/liter in consideration of sediment dwellers 300 micrograms/liter in consideration of fish Half Life in Water is 1.2 days Persistent in Sediments from 28 so that 104 days
Variety Among Technical / Technology Education Doctoral Programs 3 ? Phase Study Phase 3: Results of telephone interviews alongside 19 program directors / chairs in 2006/2007 Earlier Phases Disturbing Trends Doctoral Graduates in IA/TE Doctoral Graduates in IA/TE Difficulties in Hiring TE Faculty TE Search Failure Rates Difficulties in Hiring TE Faculty Applicants per Position Possible Implications Online Education 2005 Program Penetration Rates Phase 3 Goal Target Audience Methodology Sample Sincere thanks go so that the chairs / directors at the following institutions. Participating Institutions Participating Institutions Participating Institutions Participating Institutions Degree Type (N = 19) Program Themes Program Evolution Students & Faculty Faculty Vacancies Emphasis placed on research, teaching, in addition to service in consideration of a new faculty member Hiring Preferences Online Elements Transitioning so that an Online Program How much is an online doctorate program needed by the field? Comments Program Obstacles (n Historic = 16, n Present = 14, multiple responses were possible) Reported Solutions (n Historic = 9, n Present = 10, multiple responses were possible) Program Opportunities Respondents? Recommendations Respondents? Recommendations Respondents? Recommendations Conclusions Variety Among Technical / Technology Education Doctoral Programs
Conclusion Nonylphenol is a dangerous chemical alongside the potential so that cause numerous environmental problems. Although there are means of detection, it is still very difficult so that isolate in addition to get rid of. Its affects on humans are not the only concern, but also its affects on wildlife in addition to this should also motivated its restriction in means of disposal.
Oliverius, Jacquie Managing Editor
Oliverius, Jacquie is from United States and they belong to Managing Editor and work for New Vision of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tucson, The in the AZ state United States got related to this Particular Article.
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