SPATIAL COGNITION Whats the Parietal Lobe Doing Hypothesis:
Dudley, Sharla, Managing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal SPATIAL COGNITION XXX Spatial Cognition is concerned with the acquisition, organization, utilization, in addition to revision of knowledge about spatial environments. These capabilities enable humans to manage basic in addition to high-level cognitive tasks in everyday life. SPATIAL COGNITION A Couple Aspects of Spatial Cognition: I. Visuospatial Perception including “Spatial Awareness” a. Spatial Coordinate Systems or Spatial Reference Frames. b. Spatial Feature Integration II. Spatial Navigation a. spatial cognitive map in addition to route finding. b. path integration
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Neuroanatomy of Spatial Cogntion A. Ventral Visual Stream leading downward into the temporal lobe (inferotemporal cortex – IT). What is it B. Dorsal Visual Stream leading upward or as long as ward into the Parietal Cortex (area PG).Where is it Dorsal in addition to Ventral Streams:Parallel systems with substantial interconnectivity. Whats the Parietal Lobe Doing Attention Neglect Simultanagnosia (in Balints syndrome) Optic Ataxia Spatial representation Apraxia Visuomotor integration Hemisphere diffs
Hypothesis: Parietal Cortex neurons construct space by combining multi-sensory modalities with motor signals. VIP: Perioral space visual + tactile responses Tactile RFs are centered around the mouth V+T units have similar movement direction tuning Visual responses can be eye- or head-centered Some visual responses are tuned to movement of an object toward a particular portion of the face, independent of gaze Some visual responses are sensitive only to stimuli that are near the face (< 5cm) Connected to F4, which controls head/mouth movements Head movt / grasping with mouth AIP: Object Shape Visual, motor, in addition to visuo+motor responses Visual units are object shape in addition to orientation sensitive Motor responses are h in addition to -movement sensitive Deactivation causes grasping deficits Connected to area F5, which is involved in grasping Grasping with h in addition to MIP: Immediate Extrapersonal Space Visual, somato, in addition to bimodal units Pure somato units have RFs on the h in addition to Bimodal units activate strongly during reaching Some pure visual units show stronger responses when a target is within reaching distance Bimodal RFs are located near each other (tactile RF on the h in addition to = visual RF near h in addition to ) Visual RF moves with h in addition to ! Visual RF exp in addition to s when monkey uses a tool as long as reaching! Reaching with arm "Spatial Awareness" - Posterior Parietal Cortex LIP (lateral intraparietal)- Neurons respond to the onset of visual stimuli. Visual responses are enhanced by requiring that the monkey attends to the stimulus. Prolonged responses occur when the monkey must remember the location of in which the stimulus occurred. Neurons contribute to the updating of the internal image. "Eye-centered spatial representation" Parietal Cortex Neurons in Rats Reflect Route traversals Behavioral Correlates of PC Neurons For parietal neurons, high correlations were observed between outbound in addition to inbound unit activity vectors aligned according to behavioral sequence (first versus second traces = rbeh), but were negative when aligned according to the sequence of spatial positions encountered (first versus third traces = rspace). The opposite pattern was observed as long as the CA1 hippocampal neuron. Recording Cells in the Hipocampus (Does it have a spatial map) Hippocampal Cell Layers Hippocampal Cell Layers Electrodes Finding Cells Computer Monitoring of Activity After Amplification Hippocampal Pyramidal Cell Complex Spike Place cells are stable when the entire environment rotates as long as the animal is not disoriented during the rotation.
Place Field on Circular Track Place Field Expansion Place Field Expansion
Spatial Grid Cells in Entorhinal Cortex Grid Cells: Tessellation of a city map by squares provides in as long as mation about position, distance in addition to direction, allowing specific places to be easily located. b, Hafting et al.1 find that as a rat explores an experimental enclosure, the discharge rate of a neuron in the dorsocaudal medial entorhinal cortex increases at regular intervals corresponding to the vertices of a triangular grid. c, Integration of in as long as mation from several grid components (that is, from the outputs of several neurons) can increase the spatial resolution of the environment. Three triangular grids are represented here, with red displaced in addition to blue rotated relative to a neuron grid shown in black. GR GRID CELLS DONT SCALE
Changes with Navigation Experience The more time spent being a taxi driver, the smaller the anterior hippocampus The more time spent being a taxi driver, the larger the right posterior hippocampus Implications Plasticity of hippocampus results from spatial experience Extensive spatial experience causes growth of posterior hippocampus Trade off between size of Anterior in addition to Posterior hippocampus Posterior HC = storage of previously learned spatial in as long as mation in humans Anterior HC = encoding of new spatial environment in humans If this is true then Taxi Drivers should be slower at learning spatial orientation of completely new & unique environments
Dudley, Sharla Managing Editor
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