Species Diversity in addition to Succession The Dynamics of Community Structure Competition
Lewis, Kevin, Overnight On-Air Personality has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Species Diversity in addition to Succession The Dynamics of Community Structure Competition When two or more individuals attempt to use an essential, common resource. May be intraspecific (within a species) or interspecific (between species). Effects of Competition on Realized Niches The Competitive Exclusion Principle states that completely equivalent competitors cannot coexist; two species cannot have the same niche.
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Effect of Competition on Realized Niche Species 2 outcompetes species 1 in addition to restricts the niche of species 1 Amoeba Species 1
Species 2 Species 1 + 2 Resource Partitioning Resource partitioning is reduced competition by evolving differences in resource use. Resource partitioning occurs when natural selection acts to favor individuals of species that reduce competition by becoming more specialized.
Warblers as examples of Resource Partitioning – each species spends at least 50% of as long as aging time in designated areas Coevolution Coevolution is reciprocal evolution. That is, an interdependent evolution of two or more species that occurs as a result of their interactions (suggests the importance of interactions as long as the structure of biotic communities – if one species is lost, the co-evolved species will be affected). For predator/prey = Arms race (i/.e., The evolution of predator strategies to catch prey, in addition to the responding prey strategies to escape predators.). Evidence of Coevolution Each of the following either improves the chance of catching prey or avoiding predator. Predators: Rapid pursuit Ambush Prey: Speed Crypsis (camouflage) Aposematic coloration – warning Distasteful nature – Monarch butterflies Dangerous nature – wasps, bees Mimicry Group living
Aposematic Coloration Cryptic Coloration Dangerous Nature
Distasteful Nature Mimicry Mimicry
Herbivory (i.e., when organisms eat plants – plants are not usually killed) Herbivore: Avoidance of chemical defenses: choice of tissue. Specialized adaptations: horse teeth in addition to skull. Use of plant chemicals: sequestering chemicals; digesting chemicals Plant: Physical Defenses: Thorns/spines/prickles, toughness (grass) Chemical Defenses: digestibility reducers, toxins Recruitment of Predators: extra-floral nectaries, food bodies. Plant Toxins Mutualism Is an interaction between two species where both benefit (often co-evolved relationship) Examples: Lichens: fungi/algae (or cyanobacteria). Protected environment in exchange as long as photosynthates. Mycorrhizae: plants/fungi make connections with the roots of plants. Get photosynthates in return as long as nutrients, especially phosphorous. Rhizobium bacteria/some plants: nitrogen/photosynthates
Lichens Rhizobium bacteria Commensalism Interaction wherein one species benefits, while the other is unaffected. Examples: Cattle in addition to cattle egrets Eyelash mites
Cattle Egrets Eyelash Mites Benefits from Diversity Utilitarian Food Drugs in addition to Medicines Aesthetic Recreation/tourism Ecological Community Stability Moral
Diverse Food Sources Drugs in addition to Medicines Drugs in addition to Medicines
Succession May Be Facilitated Nurse plants may often facilitate the progression toward a climax system. The idea of facilitating species is important concept as long as restoration ecology). Facilitation of One Species by Another e.g., Saguaro Cactus need nurse plants (mesquite) to shield seeds from consumption in addition to to protect young plants from cold nights. Question Does Succession Apply Only to Restoration of L in addition to Ecosystems No!! Aquatic ecosystems go through progressive stages to reach a stable community structure.
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