Speed, Agility, in addition to Speed-Endurance Development
Roggin, Fred, Executive Producer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Speed, Agility, in addition to Speed-Endurance Development Steven S. Plisk, MS; CSCS,D chapter 17 Speed, Agility, in addition to Speed-Endurance Development Chapter Objectives Apply movement principles to locomotion modes in addition to techniques in addition to teach their correct execution. Analyze the abilities in addition to skills needed in specific movement tasks. Apply means in addition to methods as long as developing speed, agility, in addition to speed-endurance. Design in addition to implement training programs to maximize athletic per as long as mance. Key Terms speed: The skills in addition to abilities needed to achieve high movement velocities. agility: The skills in addition to abilities needed to explosively change movement velocities or modes. speed-endurance: The ability to maintain maximal movement velocities or repeatedly achieve maximal accelerations in addition to velocities.
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Key Point Movement techniques involve task-specific application of as long as ces that are manifested in terms of acceleration, time or rate of application, in addition to velocity. Strength in addition to conditioning professionals should identify the target activitys requisite skills in addition to abilities via task analysis in addition to specifically address them in training. Section Outline Movement Mechanics Impulse Power Practical Implications Functional Versus Simple Movements Aerobic Endurance Versus Power Sports Movement Mechanics In order to execute movement techniques, athletes must skillfully apply as long as cethe product of mass in addition to acceleration.
Force Versus Time Figure 17.1 (next slide) The slide shows as long as ce as a function of time, indicating maximum strength, rate of as long as ce development (RFD), in addition to as long as ce at 0.2 seconds as long as untrained (solid blue line), heavy resistancetrained (dashed purple line), in addition to explosive-ballistictrained (dotted black line) subjects. Impulse is the change in momentum resulting from a as long as ce, measured as the product of as long as ce in addition to time (represented by the area under each curve), in addition to is increased by improving RFD. When functional movements are per as long as med, as long as ce is typically applied very briefly, that is, often as long as 0.1 to 0.2 seconds, whereas absolute maximum as long as ce development may require 0.6 to 0.8 seconds. Figure 17.1 Reprinted, by permission, from Häkkinen in addition to Komi, 1985. Velocity Versus Force Figure 17.2 (next slide) The slide shows velocity as a function of as long as ce (dashed purple line) in addition to resulting power production/ absorption (solid blue line) in concentric in addition to eccentric muscle actions. The greatest as long as ces occur during explosive eccentric (lengthening) actions. Depending on the movement, maximum power (Pm) is usually produced at 30% to 50% of maximum as long as ce (Fm) in addition to velocity (Vm).
Figure 17.2 Adapted, by permission, from Faulkner, Claflin, in addition to McCully, 1986. Movement Mechanics Impulse Impulse is the change in momentum resulting from a as long as ce, measured as the product of as long as ce in addition to time. A basic objective of training is to move the as long as ce-time curve up in addition to to the left, generating greater impulse in addition to momentum during the limited time as long as which as long as ce is applied. Power Power is the rate of doing work, measured as the product of as long as ce in addition to velocity. High power outputs are required to rapidly accelerate, decelerate, or achieve high velocities. Key Point Athletes skillfully apply as long as ces when executing movement techniques. Because of time in addition to velocity constraints, a technique can be characterized in terms of task-specific impulse in addition to power. The ability to achieve high movement velocities in addition to accelerations involves high RFD as well as as long as ce application across a range of power outputs in addition to muscle actions.
Movement Mechanics Practical Implications Functional Versus Simple Movements Speed in complex, functional movements involves an interplay of neuromuscular, mechanical, in addition to energetic factors. Speed in complex movements correlates poorly with speed in unresisted, elementary actions. Many functional tasks begin with preparatory counter-movements in addition to utilize the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC). Key Term stretch-shortening cycle (SSC): Eccentric-concentric coupling phenomenon in which muscle-tendon complexes are rapidly in addition to as long as cibly lengthened or stretch loaded in addition to immediately shortened in a reactive or elastic manner; springlike preparatory counter-movement of many functional tasks. Movement Mechanics Practical Implications Functional Versus Simple Movements Training activities aimed at improving SSC per as long as mance should fulfill two criteria: They should involve skillful, multijoint movements that transmit as long as ces through the kinetic chain in addition to exploit elastic-reflexive mechanisms. In order to manage fatigue in addition to emphasize work quality in addition to technique, they should be structured around brief work bouts or clusters separated by frequent rest pauses.
Key Terms reactive ability: A characteristic of explosive strength exhibited in SSC actions that can be improved through reactive-explosive training. reaction time: Relatively untrainable in addition to correlates poorly with movement action time or per as long as mance in many explosive events. Movement Mechanics Practical Implications Aerobic Endurance Versus Power Sports Explosive strength qualities also play an important role in aerobic endurance activities, such as distance running. Ground contact times at intermediate running speeds are longer than those at top speeds but significantly shorter than required as long as maximal as long as ce development. Power, impulse, in addition to reactive ability are important deter-minants of running per as long as mance over any distance. Key Point Stretch-shortening cycle actions are especially prevalent in athletic tasks. The target activitys movement mechanics have important implications in training in addition to should be addressed in the task analysis.
Section Outline Running Speed Sprinting Per as long as mance in addition to Stride Analysis Technical Errors in addition to Fatigue Effects Training Goals Running Speed Running speed is the interaction of stride frequency in addition to stride length. Stride Length, Stride Frequency Figure 17.3 (next slide) Stride lengthfrequency interaction as a function of running velocity
Figure 17.3 Adapted, by permission, from Dillman, 1975. Sprinting Variables Figure 17.4 (next slide) (a) Stride length, (b) stride frequency, in addition to (c) running velocity in 100 m sprinters of varying qualification Elite sprinters achieve greater stride length in addition to are capable of increasing it up to ~45 m from a static start, whereas novices achieve their maximum stride length at ~25 m (figure 17.4a). Elite sprinters achieve greater stride frequency (~5 strides per second) in addition to are capable of increasing it up to ~25 m from a static start, whereas novices achieve their maximum stride frequency at ~10 to 15 m (figure 17.4b). Elite sprinters produce greater initial as long as ces in addition to velocities at the start, achieve much greater rates of acceleration, in addition to reach maximal velocities up to 12 m/s after ~5 to 6 seconds (45-55 m); novices reach their top speed at 20 to 30 m (figure 17.4c). Figure 17.4 Reprinted, by permission, from Schmolinsky, 2000.
Key Point Stride frequency tends to vary among individuals in addition to generally seems to be more trainable than stride length. Running Speed Sprinting Per as long as mance in addition to Stride Analysis Linear sprinting involves a series of subtasksthe start in addition to acceleration in addition to maximum velocity. Though the movement mechanics of these subtasks are distinct, both are characterized by two phases: Flight Support Sprinting Technique Figure 17.5 (next slide) Sprinting technique during the start in addition to acceleration
Figure 17.5 Reprinted, by permission, from Schmolinsky, 2000. Sprinting Technique Figure 17.6 (next slide) Sprinting technique at maximum velocity (i) early flight (ii) midflight (iii) late flight (iv) early support (v) late support Figure 17.6 Reprinted, by permission, from Schmolinsky, 2000.
Key Point Program design involves multiple levels of planning: microcycles (short-term), mesocycles (medium-term), in addition to macro-cycles (long-term).
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