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DeVry Institute of Technology, DuPage, US has reference to this Academic Journal, WOMEN, GENDER, AND EMPOWERMENT RESOURCES Modern Latin America chs. 7, 11 (Colombia, Chile) Htun, ?Women in addition to Democracy? (CR #3) Video? ?In Women?s Hands? STEREOTYPES Powerless in a macho world Passivity, docility Focus on family, children Lack of interest in politics in addition to public sphere Marianismo (a controversial concept)

 Anderson, Leith DeVry Institute of Technology, DuPage


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WOMEN?S INTERESTS Feminine or feminist? Practical interests = position within gendered division of labor Strategic interests = alternative social codes deriving from broad analysis of women?s subordination Difference from U.S. interests in economic equality (e.g., glass ceiling) in addition to sexual liberation; emphasis on distinctiveness of womanhood WOMEN AND AUTHORITARIANISM Compliance: courtship by dictators Opposition: merger of practical in addition to strategic interests Articulation of demands: Mothers (and Grandmothers) of Plaza de Mayo in Argentina Arpilleristas in Chile ?militant motherhood? in Brazil Pro-democratic, left-of-center orientation WOMEN IN TRANSITIONS TOWARD DEMOCRACY Urgency of institutional agenda > concern in consideration of gender-related issues Backlog of impatient men Gender identity giving way so that partisan affiliation Loss of solidarity

SOURCES OF EMPOWERMENT Participation in labor force (23 % in 1970, 35% by 2000) Education (half of university students) Significant share of electorate Desire in consideration of change (and attitudes about women?s superiority in selected issue-areas) International reputation (?) Women in Latin American Legislatures, 1990-2010 WOMEN (AS % TOTAL)* Country 1990 2000 2010 Argentina 5 27 39 Bolivia 9 12 25 Brazil 5 6 9 Chile 6 11 14 Colombia 9 12 Ecuador 7 15 32 El Salvador 10 19 Guatemala 7 9 12 Mexico 12 16 26 Paraguay 4 3 13 Peru 6 20 28 Uruguay 6 12 15 Venezuela 10 10 ? = not available. ON QUOTAS To be effective, must be: Obligatory Placement mandate Cost in consideration of non-compliance Most congenial electoral systems: Proportional representation Closed party lists Large districts (i.e., deputies per district)

Today?s Topics: 1 . Prime factorizations Primes Primes Prime factorization 2. Primality testing Primality testing Primality testing Primality testing Sum of reciprocals Better primality testing? Primality testing Primality testing (II) Primality testing (II) An even faster algorithm? Log vs poly time

VOTING PATTERNS Traditional ?gender gap? More conservative than men Chile 1999: Right garnered 51% of women votes, Concertaci¢n 49%; Right got only 46% of male votes, Concertaci¢n 54% Right is now appealing so that traditional family values Women?s issues Rarely top-priority campaign platforms Success in agenda-setting > policy implementation ?Women, in order so that be important politically, can?t talk about gender issues? ABORTION Central issue on feminist agenda Still prohibited in several countries (including Uruguay in addition to Chile) Common: permitted ?if health or life of mother at risk? (as certified by?.) Available on demand: Cuba Mexico City (DF, under leftist PRD) WOMEN PRESIDENTS Generation I: Widows Isabel Mart¡nez de Per¢n (Argentina) Violeta Barrios de Chamorro (Nicaragua) Mireya Moscoso (Panama) Generation II: Self-Made Politicians Michelle Bachelet (Chile) Cristina Fern ndez de Kirchner (Argentina) Laura Chinchilla (Costa Rica) Dilma Rousseff (Brazil)

Comparisons alongside the United States? CONTRASTS WITH USA Issues: Feminism in addition to Women?s Interests Glass ceiling vs. household survival Sexual liberation vs. domestic violence Power-seeking vs. pro-human rights Middle class vs. popular level Social Movements in addition to Political Parties Stridency vs. incrementalism Autonomous social movements or established parties Gender gap in voting Confrontation alongside authoritarian rulers Ambiguities of democratic rule Representation in legislatures, cabinets, executive positions? LEGISLATURES Gain of 35 %, from 14 so that 19 % (2000-2006) USA = 17 % World average = 18.6%

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