Structure of the Earth The NEAR Mission Why is the Earth (near) spherical Sources of Internal Heat

Structure of the Earth The NEAR Mission Why is the Earth (near) spherical Sources of Internal Heat www.phwiki.com

Structure of the Earth The NEAR Mission Why is the Earth (near) spherical Sources of Internal Heat

Felt, Susan, Lifestyle Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Structure of the Earth Gravity reshapes the proto-Earth into a sphere. The interior of the Earth separates into a core in addition to mantle. Forming the planets from planetesimals: Planetessimals grow by continuous collisions. Gradually, an irregularly shaped proto-Earth develops. The interior heats up in addition to becomes soft. The NEAR Mission The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous Mission

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Why is the Earth (near) spherical Accretion: the gradual addition of new material When the Earth first accreted, it probably wasn’t spherical What happened HEAT was generated in addition to retained Sources of Internal Heat Accretionary Heat 1) Gravity attracts planetesimal to the proto-earth 2) Planetesimals accelerate on their journey, gaining kinetic energy (KE=1/2mv2) 3) They strike the proto-earth at high speed 4) Their kinetic energy is converted to thermal energy (HEAT) Sources of Internal Heat Accretionary Heat

Sources of Internal Heat Radioactive Decay The natural disintegration of certain isotopes to as long as m new nuclei Time as long as nuclei to decay given by a “half-life” Radioactive decay is an important source of the Earth’s internal heat Sources of Internal Heat Radioactive decay Short-lived Isotopes 26Al ® 26Mg + Energy + (t1/2 = 0.72 x 106 yrs) 129I ® 129Xe + Energy + (t1/2 = 16 x 106 yrs) Long-lived Isotopes 40K ® 40Ar + Energy + (t1/2 = 1270 x 106 yrs) 232Th (t1/2 = 1400 x 106 yrs) 235U (t1/2 = 704 x 106 yrs) 238U (t1/2 = 4470 x 106 yrs) The Differentiated Earth The earth differentiated into layers by density: Crust Upper Mantle Lithospheric Asthenospheric Lower Mantle Outer Core Inner Core

The Differentiated Earth Whole Earth Density ~5.5 g/cm3 Surface Rocks 2.2 – 2.5 g/cm3 Core: Nearly pure Fe/Ni Mantle: Fe/Mg rich, Si/Al poor Crust: Si/Al rich, Na/K/Ca rich Another Source of Internal Heat Residual heat from the as long as mation of the core Gravitational Settling E=GMm/r (gravitational potential energy) Practically speaking: A 1-kg ball of iron, settling from the surface to the center of the earth produces enough energy to heat a 10-kg piece of rock (granite) to 750°C, where it would begin to melt. Heat capacity of granite = 840 J/kg K The Crust Continental Crust 35 – 40 km Less Dense Oceanic Crust 7 – 10 km More Dense

The Mantle The asthenosphere may contain a few percent molten rock, but the mantle is by in addition to large solid Despite this, given time, it will flow Loss of Internal Heat All celestial bodies lose heat Asteroids > Moon > Mars > Earth There are three main mechanisms Conduction Convection Radiation Conduction is the transfer of heat without movement of material

Temperatures in the Earth The geotherm is the description of how the temperature of the earth increases with depth. Near the surface (to 8 km depth): 2-3 °C/100 m depth Heat loss by conduction! Convection Heating at the bottom: Increases temperature Decreases density Less dense hot water rises Displacing the cooler, denser water at the top Denser, cool water descends Where it is heated The Core & The Earth’s Magnetic Field The core is almost completely Fe/Ni alloy. The outer core is liquid, while the inner core is solid. Convection of the outer, liquid core gives rise to the Earth’s magnetic field

The Atmosphere Present Atm. N2 (78%) O2 (21%) Ar (1%) CO2 (0.04%) H2O (varies) others Early Atm. N2 CO2 H2O H2S HCN others Where’s the H in addition to He The importance of life to the development of the planet

Felt, Susan Arizona Republic Lifestyle Reporter www.phwiki.com

Felt, Susan Lifestyle Reporter

Felt, Susan is from United States and they belong to Arizona Republic and they are from  Phoenix, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Felt, Susan deal with the subjects like Domestic Lifestyle; Women’s Interest

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