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Summarising in addition to Presenting Data Doctor of Education (EdD) Analys
Columbus State University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Summarising in addition to Presenting Data Doctor of Education (EdD) Analysing, Interpreting in addition to Using Educational Research (Research Methodology) Look at the data Test scores Histogram
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Stem in addition to leaf plot Average residual Stem-and-Leaf Plot in consideration of NAMED= named Frequency Stem & Leaf 1.00 -3 . 5 1.00 -3 . 0 5.00 -2 . 55679 3.00 -2 . 013 9.00 -1 . 666677899 10.00 -1 . 0001112344 14.00 -0 . 55555666788999 10.00 -0 . 0011223344 6.00 0 . 001233 1.00 0 . 5 1.00 Extremes (>=1.7) Stem width: 1.000 Each leaf: 1 case(s) Box in addition to whisker Averages: measures of ?central tendency? Mean: (X1 + X2 + ? + Xn ) / n For ?well behaved? data (symmetric, Normal, interval property), the mean is most efficient estimator (most accurate in consideration of given sample size) Fits well in statistical calculations Median: arrange in order, median is middle value Not dependent on interval property More robust so that outliers Less ?efficient? than the mean
Mode: most frequent value Suitable in consideration of non-ordered data Otherwise seldom used Trimmed means: chop off (e.g.) top 10% in addition to bottom 10%, calculate mean of remaining Almost as efficient as mean Far more robust Seldom used (Wilcox, 1998) Which average? Grades achieved in GCSE Maths: Mode = C Mean = 4.3 Median = D Coded as: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Averages (graphically) Income Mean: Balancing point Median: Divides equally Mode: Highest point
Graduate Program Completer Evaluation Feedback A Total of 27 Program Completers Returned the Evaluation Background Information DEMOGRAPHICS Student Demographics Ethnic Origin Employment Information Currently Employed In Field of Study Type of Employer Assessment of Degree Program 100% A variety of master’s level courses in addition to program offerings are available. Assessment of Degree Program Specific Program Evaluations Specific Program Evaluations Specific Program Evaluations Specific Program Evaluations
Exercise 1. On each plot, show: Mean Median Standard deviation Measure of spread, ?range? 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5 3, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 6 mean 4 4 4 Standard deviation (SD) = average distance from mean (actually uses distance2) Hence, further away points influence more range 2 2 4 SD 0.6 0.9 1.3 Standard deviation (graphically) Standard Deviation Mean ñ 1 Standard Deviation 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 ? 2/3 of the population Mean ñ 2 Standard Deviations ? 95% of the population
Exercise 2. On each plot, show: Standard deviation
Lovato, Kay Managing Editor
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