Summary of laboratory tests Prior field studies (Gertler et al 2002) Summary as long as prior field tests

Summary of laboratory tests Prior field studies (Gertler et al 2002) Summary as long as prior field tests www.phwiki.com

Summary of laboratory tests Prior field studies (Gertler et al 2002) Summary as long as prior field tests

Miley, Lynn, News Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Ambient Elemental Signatures of Diesel in addition to Automotive Particulate Matter by Size, Time, in addition to Composition. 1Thomas A. Cahill, 1Earl Withycombe, Steven S. Cliff, Michael Jimenez-Cruz, Lee Portnoff, in addition to 2Kevin D. Perry, DELTA Group, University of Cali as long as nia, Davis, http://delta.ucdavis.edu, 1The Health Effects Task Force, American Lung Association, Sacramento-Emigrant Trails, 2Dept. of Meteorology, University of Utah Sources of in as long as mation – joint studies with the DELTA Group Laboratory studies – NREL/U. Minnesota/DRI diesels; UCD S-XRF analysis –(Lawson, Watts, Zielenska et al.), plus DRI Lube oil (Fujita) Prior field studies – prior ARB/UC Davis work; HEI/DRI Tuscarora Tunnel (Gertler et al 2002) Quasi-ambient in addition to ambient applications Interstate 5 on downtown Sacramento in addition to Watt Ave School – (Lung Assoc – Sacramento Emigrant Trails) Fresno FACES studies (ARB) Highway 50 in South Lake Tahoe – TRPA (Tahoe Regional Planning Agency) U. Minn. Dynamometer Diesel tests

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U. Minnesota Dynamometer Diesel Tests Time-of-Flight Organic Speciation vs. Particle Size (Prof. Kelly, UC Davis) DOE Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study Particle-Phase PAH in Lubrication Oil

Summary of laboratory tests Most diesel mass lies below 0.25 µm (very fine/ultra fine) Sulfur correlates with emitted very fine/ultra fine mass, in addition to is associated with the diesel fuel Diesel tracers, some ultra-fine, comes from combustion of lubricating oil stabilized with zinc thiophosphate in addition to CaCO3 ; the amounts are highly variable (factor of 3) Ultra fine diesel particles have much more massive in addition to less volatile organic components than coarser diesel components, as required by the Kelvin effect. Lubricating oil as long as spark ignition vehicles has more in addition to heavier PAHs than lubricating oil as long as diesels Diesel particles are highly light absorbing at all wavelengths, 350 nm – 820 nm PM 2.5 PM 0.25 PM 10 Average Zn to mass, all DRI tests, 1800 1300 Prior field studies (Gertler et al 2002)

Summary as long as prior field tests Diesel truck have roughly 10 (PM2.5) to 18 (PM10) times the mass emission rate of light duty vehicles Diesels in addition to light duty vehicles emit species seen in the laboratory tests, plus others in the PM2.5 mode. There are a number of possible tracers that separate diesels from gasoline powered vehicles, including a few heavy PAHs Gross emitting light duty vehicles, a few percent of all vehicles, can be as bad or worse per vehicle than the average heavy duty diesel. Current ambient/quasi-ambient studies Interstate 5 in downtown Sacramento urban Watt Avenue on Arden Middle School suburban Highway 50 in South Lake Tahoe The Fresno Super-site suburban Lung Assoc. Sacramento Transect Study Site Map in addition to PM2.5 aggregated data 1, 3 – light blue = rain, yellow = “clear”, rest = fogs, wet in addition to dry I-80 I-5 I-80 Hwy-50 Hwy-99

Sacramento – a highway nexus, (I-5, I-80, Hwy 50, Hwy 99) in addition to close to violations of PM2.5 st in addition to ards Interstate 5 in Sacramento Impact of I-5 on Downtown Sacramento 10,500 light duty, 1125 heavy duty (> 5 axel) vehicles/hr, 10 traffic lanes, nearest 100 m to Crocker Art Museum site Sound wall; some trees but not a barrier Prevailing wind in daytime from southwest, across I-80; stagnation low winds from southeast Cut section freeway; complex terrain prevents direct line source modeling; use very fine diesel tracers

DELTA Group slotted 8 DRUM Impactor 8 size ranges: Inlet ( ~ 12) to 5.0 m 5.0 to 2.5 m 2.5 to 1.15 m 1.15 to 0.75 m 0.75 to 0.56 m 0.56 to 0.34 m 0.34 to 0.26 m 0.26 to 0.09 m 10.4 l/min, critical orifice control, ¼ hp pump 6.5 x 168 mm Mylar strips For 42 day run, 4 mm/day, time resolution = 3 hr. Field portable 10 kg, 43 × 22 × 13 cm 43 cm Very fine (0.26 > Dp > 0.09 µm) DRUM sample, 3 weeks, South Lake Tahoe; 1cm high, true color UC Davis DELTA Group S-XRF x-ray spectrum, light sample; no blank subtraction Co57 ray st in addition to ard

Predict 4.3 2.9 µg/m3 diesel mass (U. Minn.) rain rain rain Fog in addition to haze Crocker Art Museum site Observe 6 1 µg/m3 mass rain Impact of Watt Avenue on Arden Middle School 3800 light duty, 53 heavy (> 5 axel) vehicles/hr Stop light at NW corner of school grounds 9 traffic lanes, nearest 15 m to school buildings Prevailing wind in daytime from southwest, across Watt Avenue; stagnation winds weak from southeast No wall or vegetation barrier; line source modeling easy from Tuscarora PM2.5 data

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HETF Site Sebastian Way site Arden Way Watt Ave Effect of roadway distance in addition to configuration on downwind concentrations of lead 1.

Application of Tuscarora data Sliding box model on roadway Upwind regional PM2.5 data (CARB) Regional meteorology (NOAA’s ARL HYSPLIT 4) PM2.5 inlet (IMPROVE); 3 stage rotating DRUM impactor at 1.15, 0.34, in addition to <0.15 m diameter Line source model, neutral stability Soft beta gauge PM2.5 mass ~ 7.0 ± 1.5 µg/m3 ( ~8 µg/m3 with uf correction) Calculated mass, 3.7 µg/m3 light, 1.7 µg/m3 trucks, as long as 5.4 µg/m3; with literature values, 7.7 µg/m3 Summary of Watt Avenue impacts Mass numbers calculated are in fair to good agreement with observed values, car in addition to truck About 1/3 of the mass is diesel, even through diesels were only about 1.5% of the average vehicle mix Very fine aerosols at the downwind school site have many of the elements predicted from the laboratory in addition to Tuscarora studies, Very fine aerosols 300 m upwind (Sebastian Way) are much lower that downwind at the school, in addition to much lower than downtown Sacramento. Very fine aerosols characteristic of diesels/smoking cars in Fresno > 1 km from freeways Predicted diesel vf/uf mass 11/25 – 12/17, 9 ± 6 µg/m3

“ ultra-fine particles near a busy road” – (Gramotnev in addition to Ristovski Atm. Env. 2003) Wood Smoke at South Lake Tahoe Oregon fire smoke

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