Survey of Modern Psychology Introduction What is this class about? Refer so

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Survey of Modern Psychology Introduction What is this class about? Refer so

Augusta State University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Survey of Modern Psychology Introduction What is this class about? Refer so that syllabus We will cover: What psychology is The history of psychology An overview of the major fields of psychology The focus of the course will be on mental illness in addition to clinical psychology What is (and is not!) psychology Psychology is defined as the study of the mind

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Psychology is not Mind reading Mind control All about therapy ? therapy is only one part of psychology Ancient Greece Hippocrates Took an advanced view of mental illness by attributing it so that physical causes HOWEVER He believed that physical cause so that be an imbalance of four fluids in the body Ancient Greece Humors A greater amount of a particular humor resulted in the following personality types: Sanguine ? strong, warm blood ? cheerful Choleric ? yellow bile in the liver ? anger Melancholic – black bile in the liver ? depressive Phlegmatic ? mucus in the brain ? cool, aloof, slow, unemotional

Religious Views Middle ages through today Disagreed alongside physiological explanations, believed that mental illness was caused by demonic possession Religious Views ?Cures? could be burning witches or exorcisms Exorcism is still used as a treatment in consideration of Tourrette?s Syndrome However Scientists today believe that some prophets may have been schizophrenic, in addition to hallucinations were interpreted as divine communication Trepanation Prehistoric times through today Based on the ideas that mental illness was caused by demons that were stuck inside the head, or by a buildup of pressure in the brain

Understanding Verbal Messages Understanding Verbal Messages Why Focus on language The Nature of Language People use Words as Symbols People Create Denotative in addition to Connotative Meanings People Convey Meanings Through Words Meanings Are Culture-Bound Meanings are Context-Bound The Power of Words Confronting Bias in Language Biased Language: Gender in addition to Sexual Orientation Biased Language: Age, Class, in addition to Ability Using Words so that Establish Supportive Relationships Using Words so that Establish Supportive Relationships What questions do you have? HOMEWORK: Reading? Turn in assignment?

Trepanation This was advanced in consideration of its time because it correctly focused on the brain. However Trepanation is the practice of drilling a hole in the skull. Trepanation Interestingly, trepanation does have practical use in modern medicine, but in the realm of brain injury or surgery. Phrenology Initiated by Franz Joseph Gall in the 1800s in Austria Used the shape of a person?s head/bumps on the head so that predict their personality, traits, in addition to flaws Was used in employment decisions in addition to so that determine marital partners

?Bedlam? Starting in the middle ages, people began so that view mental illness as a form of real illness However The mentally ill were put in ?hospitals? in inhumane conditions (including cages in addition to chains) ?Bedlam? While conditions in psychiatric hospitals have been notoriously bad, some changes in the treatment approach began in 1793, when Philippe Pinel (who was put in charge of hospitals in Paris) ordered that patients be unchained. When they were treated like people, patients did respond positively! ?The Talking Cure? Term popularized in America by Sigmund Freud in the early 1900s Believed that symptoms were genuinely felt in addition to real so that the person Acknowledged so that some degree the influence of biology in addition to environment

Social Psychology In the 1940s ? 1950s (after WWII), there was increased interest in people?s behavior in groups This contrasted alongside the previous focus on pathology Psychology Today ?Medical model? of mental illness Mental illness is real in addition to treatable The study of behavior in addition to mental processes This includes behaviors that are observed, in addition to a person?s inner experience Major Perspectives (Zimbardo, Johnson & Weber; Psychology Core Concepts Fifth Edition) Biological/Physiological We are essentially complex biological systems that respond so that both hereditary in addition to environmental influences

Major Perspectives: Biological (Zimbardo, Johnson & Weber; Psychology Core Concepts Fifth Edition) Behavior is determined by brain structure in addition to chemicals in addition to by inborn responses so that external cues in consideration of survival in addition to reproduction Major Perspectives: Biological (Zimbardo, Johnson & Weber; Psychology Core Concepts Fifth Edition) Questions in consideration of study How do the nervous system, endocrine system produce behavior in addition to mental processes? Evolutionary psychologists seek so that learn how behaviors may be linked so that evolutionary changes that conferred a survival or reproductive advantage on our ancestors Major Perspectives (Zimbardo, Johnson & Weber; Psychology Core Concepts Fifth Edition) Developmental People undergo predictable patterns of change throughout their lives Behavior is determined by the interaction of nature in addition to nurture (heredity in addition to environment)

Major Perspectives: Developmental (Zimbardo, Johnson & Weber; Psychology Core Concepts Fifth Edition) Questions in consideration of study What are the patterns that characterize developmental change? What are the genetic in addition to environmental influences underlying these patterns Major Perspectives (Zimbardo, Johnson & Weber; Psychology Core Concepts Fifth Edition) Cognitive Often paired alongside behavioral psychology People are information processing systems Behavior is the result of our mental interpretations of our experience Major Perspectives: Cognitive (Zimbardo, Johnson & Weber; Psychology Core Concepts Fifth Edition) Questions in consideration of study What factors influence our mental processes, including sensation, perception, learning, memory, in addition to language?

Major Perspectives (Zimbardo, Johnson & Weber; Psychology Core Concepts Fifth Edition) Behavioral Our behavior is primarily shaped by learning Based on laws of behavioral learning, we respond so that stimulus cues in addition to so that our history of rewards in addition to punishments Major Perspectives: Behavioral (Zimbardo, Johnson & Weber; Psychology Core Concepts Fifth Edition) Questions in consideration of study What are the ?laws? that associate our responses alongside stimulus conditions? How can they be applied so that improve the human condition? Major Perspectives (Zimbardo, Johnson & Weber; Psychology Core Concepts Fifth Edition) Trait or Personality Individual differences result from differences in our underlying patterns of stable characteristics (traits) Behavior results from each person?s unique combination of traits

Major Perspectives: Personality (Zimbardo, Johnson & Weber; Psychology Core Concepts Fifth Edition) Questions in consideration of study How many fundamental traits are there? How can we use trait patterns so that predict behavior? Major Perspectives (Zimbardo, Johnson & Weber; Psychology Core Concepts Fifth Edition) Sociocultural or Social Psychology People are social animals, so human behavior must be interpreted in its social context Behavior is heavily influenced by culture, social norms in addition to expectations, in addition to social learning Note: Social Psychology focuses on the individual, as opposed so that Sociology which studies the group Major Perspectives: Social Psychology (Zimbardo, Johnson & Weber; Psychology Core Concepts Fifth Edition) Questions in consideration of study Under what conditions is the social in addition to cultural situation predictive of behavior? How are social influences different across cultures?

Conformity Having even one ally makes dissent more likely In a later version of the Asch study, a confederate disagreed alongside the majority in addition to the participant The participant was still more likely so that disagree alongside the majority, even though no one agreed alongside him or her

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Major Perspectives (Zimbardo, Johnson & Weber; Psychology Core Concepts Fifth Edition) Behavioral Our behavior is primarily shaped by learning Based on laws of behavioral learning, we respond so that stimulus cues in addition to so that our history of rewards in addition to punishments Major Perspectives: Behavioral (Zimbardo, Johnson & Weber; Psychology Core Concepts Fifth Edition) Questions in consideration of study What are the ?laws? that associate our responses alongside stimulus conditions? How can they be applied so that improve the human condition? Major Perspectives (Zimbardo, Johnson & Weber; Psychology Core Concepts Fifth Edition) Trait or Personality Individual differences result from differences in our underlying patterns of stable characteristics (traits) Behavior results from each person?s unique combination of traits and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.