Sustainability st in addition to ards as long as bioenergy A means to reduce climate change risks P

Sustainability st in addition to ards as long as bioenergy A means to reduce climate change risks P www.phwiki.com

Sustainability st in addition to ards as long as bioenergy A means to reduce climate change risks P

Farran, Howard, Founder and Publisher has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Sustainability st in addition to ards as long as bioenergy A means to reduce climate change risks Prof. Dr. Renate Schubert, Julia Blasch Institute as long as Environmental Decisions (IED) Agenda Risks of unregulated bioenergy use Sustainability st in addition to ards Market failure in the bioenergy market Overcoming in as long as mation asymmetries Predictions on consumers’ WTP Addressing public externalities Conclusions in addition to recommendations 1. Risks of unregulated bioenergy use Bioenergy accounts as long as ~10% of global primary energy supply More than 85% thereof is traditional bioenergy use in the developing world Production in addition to use of modern bioenergy, esp. of biofuels, usually depends on government support Exception: Brazilian ethanol Biofuel subsidies in Europe, US in addition to CA: ~ 11 Bio. US-$ in 2006 Often cited motivations as long as support policies: (1) climate change mitigation (2) energy autonomy (3) rural development

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1. Risks of unregulated bioenergy use Unregulated support bears risks as long as Climate Biodiversity Food security Soil in addition to water resources Social development Two origins of risks: (1) unsustainable behavior of market actors AND (2) unsustainable government support policies Can regulation reduce these risks 2. Sustainability st in addition to ards Possible regulation: sustainability st in addition to ards as long as bioenergy production Sustainability st in addition to ards have to refer to: Required life-cycle-GHG emission reduction Minimum l in addition to use changes (direct in addition to indirect LUC) No conversion of natural ecosystems Conservation of water in addition to soil quality Controlled use of GMO Compliance with basic labor st in addition to ards 2. Sustainability st in addition to ards Certification schemes need to attest compliance with the st in addition to ard Product labels as visible signs to consumers Open question: What type of scheme should be introduced Voluntary certification M in addition to atory certification Binding minimum st in addition to ard

2. Sustainability st in addition to ards Examples as long as legislation in addition to initiatives on sustainable bioenergy National: Criteria as long as biofuels support in GB, DE, CH; Criteria as long as biofuels of Swedish energy company SEKAB Supranational: Criteria as long as biofuels support in European RES Directive International: Criteria of Roundtable on Sustainable Bioenergy (RSB) Sustainability Task Force of Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) 3. Market failure in the bioenergy market Open question: Why don’t markets provide sustainable bioenergy by themselves Answer: Potential sources of market failure are In as long as mation asymmetries between producers in addition to consumers Public externalities of bioenergy production 3. Market failure in the bioenergy market In as long as mation asymmetries Consumers cannot observe production methods They have incomplete in as long as mation on the production processes Production method is a “credence characteristic” of bioenergy Producers know modes of production, i.e. in as long as mation asymmetry (Akerlof,1970) Results: No price premium as long as sustainable bioenergy Producers supply unsustainable bioenergy

3. Market failure in the bioenergy market Public externalities Positive externalities from sustainable bioenergy production Positive effects on biodiversity, climate, soil/water, etc. But: No remuneration as long as provision of these public goods Negative externalities from unsustainable bioenergy production De as long as estation, soil degradation, loss of biodiversity, etc. But: No private costs as long as damages caused Result: too little sustainable, too much unsustainable b.e. 3. Market failure in the bioenergy market Simultaneous occurrence of in as long as mation asymmetries in addition to public externalities consumers will not reveal their true willingness to pay as long as sustainable bioenergy producers will not produce sustainable bioenergy Two sources of market failure Two instruments to correct them 4. Overcoming in as long as mation asymmetries General effect of st in addition to ards/ certification/ labeling Producers can credibly signal their modes of production Consumers can distinguish products according to production methods used at low in as long as mation costs Result: Socially preferable market outcome Producers can capture price premium as long as sustainable bioenergy Consumers can adapt purchasing behavior to their preferences

4. Overcoming in as long as mation asymmetry Open question: Will private actors introduce voluntary st in addition to ards Producers aim at capturing price premium Price premium will only emerge if consumers show necessary willingness to pay Problem of insufficient WTP because of public externalities prevails No, we will not observe voluntary st in addition to ards; m in addition to atory certification as solution! (= Instrument 1) 5. Predictions on consumers’ WTP Theoretically, willingness to pay depends on Consumers’ preferences as long as “green” product characteristics Existence of private benefits from “green” product characteristics (i.e. health, taste) Share of “concerned” consumers in population Consumers’ ability to pay the price premium Generally, WTP studies as long as “green” products predict: Share of “concerned” consumers: 30-50% of population WTP as long as price premium: up to 5-10% of product price 5. Predictions on consumers’ WTP Market share of certified Sustainable Forest Management In 2008 around 8.3% of global as long as est cover (~ 13.4% of managed as long as ests) was certified by either FSC or PEFC 80-90% of certified as long as ests lie in Europe, North America, Russian Federation Market share of certified “green electricity” In 2006 share of certified electricity was +/- 5% in European countries with some exceptions (NL, SE) Limited market share as long as sustainable bioenergy

6. Addressing public externalities How to design the m in addition to atory certification: Taxation vs. binding minimum st in addition to ard (BMS) Taxation Perverse incentive of taxation Less sustainable bioenergy than be as long as e intervention High tax rate required due to high social costs of unsustainable bioenergy production (i.e. de as long as estation, use of GMO, child labor) Unsustainable bioenergy will be noncompetitive Producers will have to exit the market 6. Addressing public externalities Taxation vs. binding minimum st in addition to ard (BMS) Binding minimum st in addition to ard (BMS) BMS equals an “infinitely” high tax on unsustainable bioenergy production Like a tax BMS will as long as ce producers of unsustainable bioenergy to exit the market However: No perverse incentive like from taxation And: BMS may exhibit higher political feasibility BMS are dominant solution (=Instrument 2) 7. Conclusions in addition to recommendations M in addition to atory certification in addition to a binding minimum st in addition to ard eliminate the worst environmental in addition to social effects of bioenergy production pave the way as long as comprehensive requirements as long as sustainable l in addition to -use in the whole agriculture in addition to as long as estry sector must be embedded in a broader package of policy measures

7. Conclusions in addition to recommendations Recommendations as long as implementation Step-wise approach: implementation at national, regional in addition to then international level (to ensure compatibility with GATT/WTO law) Criteria on international level: Recognized body such as Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) or Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels (RSB) should take the lead Intermediate solution: bilateral agreements between important producer in addition to consumer countries 7. Conclusions in addition to recommendations Next steps/Outlook Short-run: Unconditional promotion of bioenergy should be brought to an end instead: minimum st in addition to ard + phase out subsidies as long as bioenergy of outst in addition to ing sustainability Long-run: Integrated taxation strategy as long as fossil fuels in addition to unsustainably produced renewable energy is needed aim: change of relative prices in the energy market in favor of sustainable renewable energy products with proven potential to mitigate climate change New Report: „Future Bioenergy in addition to Sustainable L in addition to Use“ Latest report by the German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU) For more in as long as mation: www.wbgu.de

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Farran, Howard Founder and Publisher

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