Syllabus Chemistry 102 Spring 2011 Sec. 501, 503 (MWF 8-8:50, 12:40-1:30) RM 100
Wolf, Rudy, Founder has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Syllabus Chemistry 102 Spring 2011 Sec. 501, 503 (MWF 8-8:50, 12:40-1:30) RM 100 HELD Professor: Dr. Earle G. Stone Office: Room 123E Heldenfels (HELD) Telephone: 845-3010 (no voice mail) or leave message at 845-2356 email: firstname.lastname@example.org (put CHEM 101-Sec. + subject in subject line of your email) Office Hours: HELD 408: Tue. And Thurs. 8:00-10:50 AM I.A. Esther Ocola S.I. Leader: Mary Hesse Helpful Online Dictionary of Chemistry Useful As A Second Language General Chemistry I in addition to Organic Chemistry I (There are O-chem II in addition to Physics books in this series if you find these useful in addition to will have to take those classes. Hardbound ~$200 Solution Manual ~$40 Online Tutor ~$45 Total ~$285 Ebook $45 per semester Includes Text Solution manual Online tutorial Yvette Freeman Publisher’s Representative Pearson Education Yvette.Freeman@Pearson.com Changs Essentials Kotz in addition to Treichel 7th ed. TEXTBOOKS Averill in addition to Eldridge
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http://slc.tamu.edu/ Tutoring Supplemental Instruction Courses Texas Success Initiative About Us Contact Us 118 Hotard North of Sbisa, between Neeley Hall in addition to the Northside Post Office (979) 845-2724 The Student Learning Center has won the 2008 National College Learning Center Association Frank L. Christ Outst in addition to ing Learning Center Award! The award recognizes the center’s commitment to supporting in addition to strengthening the Academic experience of students at Texas A&M University by providing a variety of programs in addition to services that promote retention in addition to success. Read more The Student Learning Center provides Supplemental Instruction in addition to tutoring free of charge to all Texas A&M University students. The SLC oversees the STLC courses ( as long as merly CAEN), which teach students how to improve their study skills in addition to prepare as long as the job market. The SLC manages Developmental programs as long as students who have not yet passed the assessment tests required by the state. Study Tips General Time Management Reading Textbooks Setting Goals Preparing as long as Exams Success Tips from Fellow Aggies Tutoring During the Fall 2008 semester, drop-in tutoring will be offered Sunday nights 5-8pm in addition to Monday through Thursday nights from 5-10pm. Tutoring will begin on Monday, September 1st. Tutor Zones are currently planned as long as Studio 12 of The Commons. Look as long as our table in addition to tutors in addition to just ask as long as help! See the schedule Drop-in tutoring is available as long as most lower level math in addition to science courses on the first floor of Hotard Hall. Tutors are also available to help out with many other courses. If you need help in a particular course in addition to would like to check to see if a tutor is available as long as that course, you can contact our tutor coordinator, Linda Callen, at 845-2724.
1) Raw scores are determined. Sum of points assigned to correct responses 2) Individual scores are normalized. A context-free evaluation of relative per as long as mance 3) Normalized scores are trans as long as med. An absolute score is assigned to a defined scale 4) Letter grades are assigned >89.501 A >79.501 B >69.501 C >59.501 D <59.501 F The way the real world works Individual Mastery compared to a large population What you are used to in addition to I will report How grades are determined Grading: Your grade will be based on Four one-hour examinations (200 raw points T score 100+) A final examination (400 raw points 2 x T score 100+) Problem - A situation that presents difficulty, uncertainty, or perplexity: Question - A request as long as data: inquiry, interrogation, query. Answer - A spoken or written reply, as to a question. Solution - Something worked out to explain, resolve, or provide a method as long as dealing with in addition to settling a problem. The mere as long as mulation of a problem is far more often essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle requires creative imagination in addition to marks real advances in science. ~Albert Einstein Numbers Significant Figures, Rounding Rules, Accuracy, Precision, Statistical Treatment of the Data Units 5 of the 7 Time seconds Length Meters Density Mass grams Molecular Weight (Mass) Amount Moles Mole Ratio, Molarity, molality Temperature Kelvins Vocabulary Approximately 100 new terms or words in addition to applying new or more rigid definitions to words you may already own. Principles (Theories in addition to Laws) Stoichiometry, Quantum Theory, Bonding, Chemical Periodicity, Solutions, Thermodynamics, Intermolecular Forces, Gas Laws, Collogative Properties, Kinetics, Equilibrium, Electrochemistry cp = q/mDT rate = k[A]m[B]n E = q + w DG = DH TDS Eocell = Ecathode = Eanode PV = nRT %yield = actual/theoretical 100% K = DT = Kmi Inter- molecular Forces Last Semester you studied INTRAmolecular as long as cesthe as long as ces holding atoms together to as long as m molecules. Now turn to as long as ces between molecules INTERmolecular as long as ces. Forces between molecules, between ions, or between molecules in addition to ions. Ion-Ion Forces as long as comparison of magnitude Na+Cl- in salt These are the strongest as long as ces. Lead to solids with high melting temperatures. NaCl, mp = 800 oC MgO, mp = 2800 oC Ion Permanent Dipole Attractions Water is highly polar in addition to can interact with positive ions to give hydrated ions in water. Attraction Between Ions in addition to Permanent Dipoles Many metal ions are hydrated. This is the reason metal salts dissolve in water. Attraction Between Ions in addition to Permanent Dipoles Attraction between ions in addition to dipole depends on ion charge in addition to ion-dipole distance. Measured by H as long as Mn+ + H2O -> [M(H2O)x]n+ -1922 kJ/mol -405 kJ/mol -263 kJ/mol Dipole-Dipole Forces Such as long as ces bind molecules having permanent dipoles to one another. Influence of dipole-dipole as long as ces is seen in the boiling points of simple molecules. Compd Mol. Wt. Boil Point N2 28 -196 oC CO 28 -192 oC Br2 160 59 oC ICl 162 97 oC Hydrophilic in addition to hydrophobic solutes A solute can be classified as hydrophilic, meaning that there is an electrostatic attraction to water, or hydrophobic, meaning that it repels water. 1. Hydrophilic substance is polar in addition to contains OH or NH groups that can as long as m hydrogen bonds to water; tend to be very soluble in water in addition to other strongly polar solvents 2. Hydrophobic substance may be polar but usually contains CH bonds that do not interact favorably with water; essentially insoluble in water in addition to soluble in nonpolar solvents The difference between hydrophilic in addition to hydrophobic substances has substantial consequences in biological systems. Vitamins can be classified as either fat soluble or water soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins (Vitamin A) are nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules in addition to tend to be absorbed into fatty tissues in addition to stored there. Water-soluble vitamins (Vitamin C) are polar, hydrophilic molecules that circulate in the blood in addition to intracellular fluids in addition to are excreted from the body in addition to must be replenished in the daily diet. Ionic substances are most stable in polar solvents. Water is the most common solvent as long as ionic compounds because of its high polarity. A more useful measure of the ability of a solvent to dissolve ionic compounds is its dielectric constant (), which is the ability of a bulk substance to decrease the electrostatic as long as ces between two charged particles. Interactions in Liquid Solutions
Hydrogen Bonding A special as long as m of dipole-dipole attraction, which enhances dipole-dipole attractions. H-bonding is strongest when X in addition to Y are N, O, or F H-bonding is especially strong in water because the OH bond is very polar there are 2 lone pairs on the O atom Accounts as long as many of waters unique properties. Hydrogen Bonding in H2O Ice has open lattice-like structure. Ice density is < liquid in addition to so solid floats on water. One of the VERY few substances where solid is LESS DENSE than the liquid. H bonds abnormally high specific heat capacity of water (4.184 J/g K) This is the reason water is used to put out fires, it is the reason lakes/oceans control climate, in addition to is the reason thunderstorms release huge energy. Boiling Points of Simple Hydrogen-Containing Compounds Active Figure 13.8 Portion of a DNA chain Double helix of DNA H-bonding is especially strong in biological systems such as DNA. DNA helical chains of phosphate groups in addition to sugar molecules. Chains are helical because of tetrahedral geometry of P, C, in addition to O. Chains bind to one another by specific hydrogen bonding between pairs of Lewis bases. adenine with thymine guanine with cytosine Base-Pairing through H-Bonds Base-Pairing through H-Bonds
FORCES INVOLVING INDUCED DIPOLES How can non-polar molecules such as O2 in addition to I2 dissolve in water The water dipole INDUCES a dipole in the O2 electric cloud. Dipole-induced dipole FORCES INVOLVING INDUCED DIPOLES Solubility increases with mass the gas Process of inducing a dipole is polarization Degree to which electron cloud of an atom or molecule can be distorted in its polarizability. Non-polar gases are most soluble in non-polar solvents. Consider I2 dissolving in ethanol, CH3CH2OH. FORCES INVOLVING INDUCED DIPOLES The induced as long as ces between I2 molecules are very weak, so solid I2 sublimes (goes from a solid to gaseous molecules). Formation of a dipole in two nonpolar I2 molecules. Induced dipole-induced dipole
FORCES INVOLVING INDUCED DIPOLES The magnitude of the induced dipole depends on the tendency to be distorted. Higher molec. weight larger induced dipoles. Molecule Boiling Point (oC) CH4 (methane) – 161.5 C2H6 (ethane) – 88.6 C3H8 (propane) – 42.1 C4H10 (butane) – 0.5 Intermolecular Forces Summary London dispersion as long as ces, dipole-dipole interactions, in addition to hydrogen bonds that hold molecules to other molecules are weak. Energy is required to disrupt these interactions, in addition to unless some of that energy is recovered in the as long as mation of new, favorable solute-solvent interactions, the increase in entropy on solution as long as mation is not enough as long as a solution to as long as m. When the liquid is heated, its molecules obtain sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the as long as ces holding them in the liquid in addition to they escape into the gaseous phase. The result of this phenomenon is that the molecules from the liquid phase generate a population of molecules in the vapor phase above the liquid that produces a pressure called the vapor pressure of the liquid. Plotting the fraction of molecules with a given KE against their KE gives the KE distribution of the molecules in the liquid. Increasing the temperature increases both the average KE of the particles in a liquid in addition to the range of KE as long as the molecules. Molecules with KE greater than Eo can escape from the liquid to enter the vapor phase Molecules must also be at the surface where it is physically possible as long as the molecule to leave the liquid surface. Vapor Pressure
Emulsions are colloids as long as med by the dispersion of a hydrophobic liquid in water, thereby bringing two mutually insoluble liquids in close contact. Various agents have been developed to stabilize emulsions, the most successful being molecules that combine a relatively long hydrophobic tail with a hydrophilic head. Examples of emulsifying agents include soaps in addition to detergents. Emulsions Micelles In the absence of a dispersed hydrophobic liquid phase, solutions of detergents in water as long as m organized spherical or cylindrical aggregates called micelles, which minimize contact between the hydrophobic tails in addition to water. In a micelle, only the hydrophilic heads are in direct contact with water, in addition to the hydrophobic tails are in the interior of the aggregate. Micelles Phospholipids a large class of biological molecules that consist of detergent-like molecules that contain a hydrophilic head in addition to two hydrophobic tails; additional tail results in a cylindrical shape that prevents phospholipids from as long as ming a spherical micelle Cells are collections of molecules that are surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer called a cell membrane in addition to are able to reproduce themselves
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