Mediterranean food Olive Oil appetizers references
Liang, Alice, Associate Previews Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Mediterranean food Three continents (Europe, Asia, Africa), 15 countries Dry hot summers in addition to cool pleasant winter Staples are wheat in addition to rice Olive groves, fig trees, vineyard, almonds, walnuts, lemons, apricots, etc are characteristic of local produce Traditional Mediterranean diet derives 40% of total daily calories from fat yet, people have low incidence of chronic diseases in addition to high life expectancy rates. Emphasis on variety of minimally processed in addition to seasonally fresh locally grown food Olive oil, grains (spaghetti), fruits, vegetables, legumes, nut oils in addition to less red meat are consumed. Plus fish was eaten a few times a week (Omega-3 fatty acids). Moderate consumption of wine (1-2 cups per day) in addition to cheese Healthy Food Habits
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Olives The first olive tree sprung in the greater Mediterranean basin Greece was the first to started cultivation of Olive tree in 3500BC (Crete isl in addition to ) Olive tree became a symbol in ancient Greece in addition to olive oil used not only as long as its valuable nutritional quality but also as long as medicinal purpose. Olive tree branch was awarded to Olympic game winner along with olive oils 5 tons as long as the first place. Olive Oil Rich in vitamins A, B-1, B-2, C, D, E, in addition to K in addition to iron Beneficial to digest system; acts as a mild laxative, in addition to benefit people with heart diseases; protects the stomach from ulcers; treat urinary tract infections in addition to gall balder problems, slows down aging processes Beauty oil-bodys cells incorporate the fatty acids from oil, making arteries more supple in addition to skin more lustrous Many herbs in addition to spices added to olive oil to prevent it from being oxidized in addition to improve its flavor (negative affect olive oil: garlic, onion, peppers, peels of acidic citrus fruit) Three Culinary regions North Africa (Morrocco: spices boldly flavors food) Eastern Mediterranean (Egypt, Greece, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, in addition to Turkey) Southern European (Italy, France, Spain: wine in addition to herb are central) Egyptian dinning Turkish dishes Syrian food
Italy Primary Mediterranean climate, alpine climate in far north in addition to hot in addition to dry in the south arable l in addition to : 31% permanent crops: 10% permanent pastures: 15% as long as ests in addition to woodl in addition to : 23% other: 21% (1993 est.) Cooking of Italy Is the cooking of regions, each has distinct its style in addition to cultural (only after 1861 these regions were became Italy) Two dominant aspects of l in addition to scape: Mountain in addition to Sea. Long growing season permit lush profusion of fruit in addition to vegetables Basic difference between north in addition to south (by geography in addition to historical reasons) Italian have continuous conscious intensive attention to growing vegetables First agricultural books were written by Romans Local specialty: best asparagus, spinach (better than French which is better than American), rice was so good that was smuggled illegally out of the country by Thomas Jefferson; plum tomato was re-imported to U.S; Italian names of vegetables: broccoli, zucchini, fava beans, tender tasty peas (petits pois was named by French by was from Italy); Because of good quality vegetables, cooking veg. Is a simplest treatment.
The food of Italy is a function of the history of Italy North: prosperous, fertile, industrialized in addition to affluent; using butter as cooking fat, flat fresh noodles made with eggs are favorite as long as m of pasta; veal is male calf (female kept as long as milking); more in addition to better coffee; more meat dishes; South: parched, sparsely settled in addition to historically poorer; using olive oil (cheaper), dried tubular pastas like spaghetti in addition to macaroni, more robust in addition to highly seasoned; veal is female calf, male kept as drafting animal; drink 1/5 of coffee that northerner does; fish dishes; Foundations of Italian cooling are the three customs: Etruscans (the north) Greeks (the south) Saracens (the south) Saracens Greek Etruscans Tribes Veneti Stone Age Origin of the three main influences Etruscans: 3 theories: Entered Italy from some unspecified territory to the north it has always been there (migrate from nowhere) From Lydia (similar religions) Greeks in addition to Saracens: came from east end of Mediterranean where countries shared the same general type of cooking (Byzantine) Saracens Greek Etruscans Tribes Veneti Stone Age Trademark food in addition to as long as eign influences Etruscans: polenta a mush made from grain like porridge or crumbly cake (in northern Italy once occupied by Etruscans) Greek: fish chowder now called brodetto. Saracens: Millefoglie, rice, ice cream in addition to sherbet (learned from Hindus who learned from Chinese), drying fruit, meat drying in addition to salting America: contributed to new material-tomato, maize, turkey, potato, peanut, vanilla, chocolate, Virginia strawberry, string bean, pumpkin, Jerusalem artichoke. Normans: salt cod
Tuscany: the heart of Italy Purest Italy cooking Great attention paid to high quality raw material Simple in addition to avoid unnecessary complications Beef: heaviest in addition to tallest breed in the world-named Chianina Beans: appears in every stage of the meal except desert: soup, with beef, fish, vegetables, side dishes, etc. Chianti: wine. Bologna: northern center One of the flattest in addition to fertile part of mountainous Italy (best Asparagus, cherries) Richest food (Bologna the fat) Veal delicate pasta: Tagliatelle, tortellino, Lasagne, cappelletti (the hat)-fresh made with eggs ham : Parma ham (more later) Sausages: mortadella (made of finely hashed/ground heat-cured pork sausage which incorporates at least 15% small cubes of pork fat (principally the hard fat from the neck of the pig). It is delicately flavored with spices, including whole or ground black peppers, myrtle berries, nutmeg, cori in addition to er in addition to pistachios) Cheese: parmesan cheese (the husb in addition to of Italy cooking). Vinegar: aceto Balsamico (herbs perfumed vinegar). Parma Ham Parma ham is a type of dry-cured ham from the Parma region of Italy. It is one of the most well-known varieties of prosciutto crudo, an uncooked ham Parma ham is cured in Parma because of the unique geography of the place, which ensure constant gentle breezes coming across the hills. More than two-hundred curing facilities are found in Parma, in addition to all the worlds Parma ham is made there. Parma ham begins its life as a Duroc or L in addition to rance pig, the only breeds which are allowed to be turned into Parma ham. They are fed on full cereal diets, often enriched with whey to give them added calcium. The pigs are sent to butchered in addition to sent to the curing house at about 26-30 pounds (12-14kg). Theyre then trimmed down to the classic ham leg shape. The ham skin is then wet salted, in addition to the flesh itself is dry salted, in addition to the entire leg is hung in a refrigerator as long as about a week at between 34 in addition to 39 degrees Fahrenheit (1 to 4 degrees Celsius), with humidity of around 80%. At the end of the week, the excess salt is brushed off, in addition to the Parma ham is put through a round of quality control, where experts appraise the scent in addition to texture of the ham. Ham that makes it through this quality control is salted again, in addition to placed in another cold chamber, this time at 34 degrees Fahrenheit (1 degree Celsius) with humidity of 60%. The ham remains in this chamber as long as two weeks. Next, the Parma ham is rested. It is placed in a chamber with humidity of 75% between 34 in addition to 41 degrees Fahrenheit (1 to 5 degrees Celsius) in addition to left there as long as eight weeks or so. The hams are then rinsed with warm water, to get rid of most of the excess salt. When theyve dried, they are placed in the actual curing chambers, where they will remain as long as three more months. The curing chambers are not artificially cooled or humidified, in addition to are at the whim of nature to dictate how the ham cures, assisted a bit by people opening in addition to closing windows to regulate the temperature as best they can. During this penultimate curing the Parma ham is also covered in a mixture called suino, which contains salt in addition to pepper, lard, in addition to occasionally a bit of ground up rice. This keeps flies off of the meat, in addition to stops it from drying too quickly. Coating the meat is all done by h in addition to , in addition to there are scores of workers whose job consists solely of dipping their fingers in the lard pots in addition to reapplying the mixture. Finally, the Parma ham is moved into a cellar, where it will finish curing in the dark. Theyll stay in the dark as long as a year or more, be as long as e being tested as long as final quality, in addition to ultimately br in addition to ed with a seal of approval. Parma ham in Europe is usually sold on the bone, where it will keep maturing in addition to becomes even more delicate over time. For export, however, it is usually stripped in addition to packed, making it somewhat rougher in texture.
Venice in addition to the Northeast Austrian, German, Hungarian, Slavic, Balkan, in addition to tourist influences Herbs in addition to spices; food are colorful Known as long as scampi (preparing lightly-breaded seafood with butter in addition to garlic) Liver sautéed with onion; rice with peas (Risi e bisi); polenta Numerous rice dishes, with meat, fish, vegetables Fish: salt in addition to dried cod, eels, oyster, crabs, sardines, mackerel, sole, crayfish, mussels, cuttlefish family Genoa in addition to Liguria Herbs in addition to vegetables are basic to the local cuisine (little spices) result of sailors yawning as long as fresh green foods when they return home Pesto sauce (from basil in addition to cheese) Staple food is from sea: mussels, clams (sea truffle-eaten raw with lemon juice), varieties of fish (dolphin). Ravioli (rubbish or leftover) Cappon magro (sea food in addition to veg. Salad) Milan in addition to Lombardy Slow cooking over a low steady fire (hearty meal be as long as e or after opera) Wheat, millet, barley, sorghum, rice are staple. Plenty of pasture l in addition to produces butter, cheese: Gorgonzola (creamy), Bel Paese (soft), mascarpone (fresh cream cheese); branzi in addition to taleggio (soft, runny), crescenza, robiola,
Milan in addition to Lombardy-continue Ossobuco: veal shank Panettone: egg-yellow cake Stufato (beef stew) Risotto alla milanese: rice dish Mostarda (fruit with syrup) in addition to torrone (almond flavored dessert) Naples in addition to the Deep South Culinary capital of the south Pizza (27 different kinds), macaroni, spaghetti Classical pizza is a disk of rough leavened dough, saturated with olive oil, in addition to filled with diced mozzarella cheese (buffalo milk), bits of fresh tomato or tomato paste, oregano (or basil or other herbs), an usually anchovy fillets (sometime garlic is added) Wheat, maize, millet, oyster cultivation Favor vegetables are tomatoes, eggplant, artichokes, in addition to peppers. Fish stews or vegetable soup with pasta (inl in addition to areas) Sweets: sfogliatelle (cream or chocolate or jam inside), babá (rum cake), ice creams The isl in addition to s Sicily: a mountainous isl in addition to ; Sardinia: a rolling l in addition to of low hills Staple: pasta in addition to bread in addition to imaginative ef as long as ts to make a little go a long way. Tuna in addition to swordfish, in addition to other all kinds of fish, shell fish; anchovy is a favor. sheep, wine, beef, pork in addition to lamb (not much meat in Sicilians diet though). Corda : sheep tripe grilled or stewed with peas in addition to beans Casu marzu: rotten cheese (worm filled) Fiore sardo: Sardinians preferred cheese (from Sardinian sheep) Pasta con sarde (pasta with sardines), farsu magru (beef or veal roll stuffed with hard broiled eggs in addition to spices), caponata (eggplant with tomato sauce)
Three key techniques as long as preparing base Battuto: comes from the verb battere, means to strike. Cut-up (finely) mixture of ingredients such as lard, parsley, onion, garlic, celery, carrot, etc. Soffritto: Battuto is sautéed in a pot or skillet until onion becomes translucent (first into pot) in addition to garlic (second) becomes colored a pale gold. Insaporire:bestowing taste. It adds usually vegetables, which is critical ingredient in most first courses to the soffritto until they are completely coated with the flavor of the base. May also include grounded meat. Components Anchovies: dissolving into cooking juices of a roast, sauce as long as pasta, with mozzarella, dips as long as raw vegetables, green sauces served with boiled meats or fish. Balsamic vinegar: specialty in the province of Modena (north of Bologna), use sparingly, a few drops on the top as long as final touch. Basil as long as pesto; Bay leaves in pasta sauces as long as preserved foods, marinades meat as long as barbecue Beans: soup Bottarga: roe of the female thin-lipped gray mullet, which has been extracted with its membrane intact, salted, lightly pressed, washed in addition to dried in the sun. It is spicy in addition to briny, added to green salad, boiled cannellini, or serve as appetizer on thin, toasted rounds of buttered bread with a slice of cucumber, grated in addition to tossed in pasted (never cooked) Components (continue) Bread crumbs: made from good stale bread with nothing added, very dry in addition to gummy, tossed in pasta. Broth: used as long as risotto, soups, braising meat in addition to vegetables. Made principally meat in addition to some bones veal, beef, chicken). Capers: in sauces as long as pasta, meat, fish, in stuffing’s. Fontina: unpasteurized milk of cows that graze on mountain meadows in the Alpine region of Italy that adjoins France in addition to Switzerl in addition to . Melting in fonduta, over gratinéed asparagus, bind a slice of proscuotto to a sautéed scallop of veal. Garlic Marjoram: herb (sweet pine in addition to citrus flavor) used in pasta sauce, savory pies, stuffed vegetables, seafood salad. Mortadella: sausage.
Components (continue) Buffalo-milk mozzarella Nutmeg Extra virgin olive oil Pancetta: beacon Parmesan Flat-leaf parsley Black papper Dried porcini mushrooms Proscutto: salted in addition to air cured hogs thigh or ham Radicchio: bright-red veg. Radicchietto: small/young greens rice Components (continue) Rocotta: recooked cheese Romano cheese: from sheep milk, sharp in addition to pungent Rosemary Sage Tomatoes Truffles: underground fungi, developed close the roots of oaks, poplars, hazelnut trees in addition to certain pines. Tuna Veal scaloppine appetizers Pesto Stuffed Potatoes
references http://www.mediterrane in addition to iet.gr/oliveoilhistory.html http://www.trincoll.edu/~jvillani/Mediterranean.htm http://www.cuisinenet.com/glossary/med.html Hazan, M., 2003: Essential of Classic Italian Cooking. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, pp688. Root, W., 1971: The Food of Italy. Atheneum, New York, pp750. Root, W., 1974: The Cooking of Italy. Time-Life, New York, pp208.
Liang, Alice Associate Previews Editor
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