Hmong Culture Hmong Culture (cont.) What is a Social Problem Overview of the Study

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Hmong Culture Hmong Culture (cont.) What is a Social Problem Overview of the Study

Garcia, Jennifer, Assistant Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Suicide, Identity, in addition to Acculturation: Study of a Social Problem Within the Hmong Community Presented at the UCI Undergraduate Research Symposium By Machiline Xiong May 15, 2004 Hmong Culture Children Traditional Gender Roles Withhold Emotions Academic Success Family Structure Husb in addition to Ultimate Authority Large, Extended Families Hmong Culture (cont.) Respect the Elders Collectivism vs Individualism Hesitancy to use Western Resources Reliance on Elders Spiritual Healers

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Source: Sacramento Bee What is a Social Problem A condition or issue that threatens the quality of life in addition to the most cherished values of most people in a society, leading them to recognize in addition to agree that something should be done to remedy that condition. (Kornblum & Julian, 2001, p. 4) Unless a problem is perceived or recognized as potentially harmful, there will not be a response or attempts to find a solution. Overview of the Study 15 participants from San Diego in addition to Fresno Counties Semi-structured interviews conducted Table 1

2001 2002 2003 May 2001 8th Suicide 2002 Refugee In as long as mation Exchange Conference March 2003 HND Conference Washington, D.C. July 2003 Assembly Bill 78 Aug. 2001 Southeast Asian Meeting Main Research Questions How did the string of teen suicides affect the acculturation of the Hmong The suicides were used by community leaders as a means to accelerate the acculturation of the Hmong. “Prior to us, other resources have been looked at as the enemy, but when we go with them in addition to explain to the Hmong families what we’re doing in addition to how we can help them to prevent future conflicts, they’re pretty receptive in addition to they underst in addition to .” – Clinical Health Professional

Main Research Questions (cont.) How might the acculturation status of the Hmong be correlated with the suicides Children are raised to put the interest of others first so they often carry the burden alone “I usually don’t talk to anyone when I’m having problems I might tell a friend at school, but I don’t go into detail. That’s just how I deal with it.” – Student Conclusions Immigrant community leaders can use traumatic events to facilitate acculturation Suicides used to present to larger audience that the Hmong had a social problem In Summary “The process of becoming an American is most simply called “Americanization,” which must always be a two-way street. All Americans, not just immigrants, should underst in addition to the importance of our shared civic culture to our national community.” (U.S. Commission on Immigrant Re as long as m Report 1997)

Acknowledgements Dr. Paul Jesilow Dr. Valerie Jenness Funding: UCI Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program Participants from San Diego in addition to Fresno Counties For more in as long as mation, please contact: Machiline Xiong Department of Psychology & Social Behavior University of Cali as long as nia, Irvine xiongm@uci.edu

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Is it unusual to observe a sample of 66 men with a sample proportion ( ) of 30% if the true population proportion (p) is 15%

Is it unusual to observe a sample of 66 men with a sample proportion ( ) of 30% if the true population proportion (p) is 15% www.phwiki.com

Is it unusual to observe a sample of 66 men with a sample proportion ( ) of 30% if the true population proportion (p) is 15%

Faller, Mary Beth, Health Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal If we live with a deep sense of gratitude, our life will be greatly embellished. Chapter 19 Inference about a Population Proportion BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Proportions BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 The proportion of a population that has some outcome (“success”) is p. The proportion of successes in a sample is measured by the sample proportion:

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Inference about a Proportion Simple Conditions BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Inference about a Proportion Sampling Distribution BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Case Study BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Science News, Jan. 27, 1995, p. 451. Comparing Fingerprint Patterns

Case Study: Fingerprints BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Fingerprints are a “sexually dimorphic trait which means they are among traits that may be influenced by prenatal hormones.” It is known Most people have more ridges in the fingerprints of the right h in addition to . (People with more ridges in the left h in addition to have “leftward asymmetry.”) Women are more likely than men to have leftward asymmetry. Compare fingerprint patterns of heterosexual in addition to homosexual men. Case Study: Fingerprints Study Results BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 66 homosexual men were studied. 20 (30%) of the homosexual men showed leftward asymmetry. 186 heterosexual men were also studied. 26 (14%) of the heterosexual men showed leftward asymmetry. Case Study: Fingerprints A Question BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Assume that the proportion of all men who have leftward asymmetry is 15%. Is it unusual to observe a sample of 66 men with a sample proportion ( ) of 30% if the true population proportion (p) is 15%

Case Study: Fingerprints Sampling Distribution BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Case Study: Fingerprints Answer to Question BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Where should about 95% of the sample proportions lie mean plus or minus two st in addition to ard deviations 0.15 2(0.044) = 0.062 0.15 + 2(0.044) = 0.238 95% should fall between 0.062 & 0.238 It would be unusual to see 30% with leftward asymmetry (30% is not between 6.2% & 23.8%). St in addition to ardized Sample Proportion BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Inference about a population proportion p is based on the z statistic that results from st in addition to ardizing : z has approximately the st in addition to ard normal distribution as long as the sample is not too small in addition to the sample is not a large part of the entire population.

Building a Confidence Interval Population Proportion BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 St in addition to ard Error BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Since the population proportion p is unknown, the st in addition to ard deviation of the sample proportion will need to be estimated by substituting as long as p. Confidence Interval BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19

Case Study: Soft Drinks BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 A certain soft drink bottler wants to estimate the proportion of its customers that drink another br in addition to of soft drink on a regular basis. A r in addition to om sample of 100 customers yielded 18 who did in fact drink another br in addition to of soft drink on a regular basis. Compute a 95% confidence interval (z = 1.960) to estimate the proportion of interest. Case Study: Soft Drinks BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 We are 95% confident that between 10.5% in addition to 25.5% of the soft drink bottler’s customers drink another br in addition to of soft drink on a regular basis. The Hypotheses as long as Proportions BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Null: H0: p = p0 One sided alternatives Ha: p > p0 Ha: p < p0 Two sided alternative Ha: p ¹ p0 Test Statistic as long as Proportions BPS - 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Start with the z statistic that results from st in addition to ardizing : Assuming that the null hypothesis is true (H0: p = p0), we use p0 in the place of p: P-value as long as Testing Proportions BPS - 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Ha: p > p0 P-value is the probability of getting a value as large or larger than the observed test statistic (z) value. Ha: p < p0 P-value is the probability of getting a value as small or smaller than the observed test statistic (z) value. Ha: p p0 P-value is two times the probability of getting a value as large or larger than the absolute value of the observed test statistic (z) value. BPS - 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Case Study BPS - 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Brown, C. S., (1994) “To spank or not to spank.” USA Weekend, April 22-24, pp. 4-7. Parental Discipline What are parents’ attitudes in addition to practices on discipline Case Study: Discipline BPS - 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Nationwide r in addition to om telephone survey of 1,250 adults that covered many topics 474 respondents had children under 18 living at home results on parental discipline are based on the smaller sample reported margin of error 5% as long as this smaller sample Scenario Case Study: Discipline BPS - 5th Ed. Chapter 19 “The 1994 survey marks the first time a majority of parents reported not having physically disciplined their children in the previous year. Figures over the past six years show a steady decline in physical punishment, from a peak of 64 percent in 1988.” The 1994 sample proportion who did not spank or hit was 51% ! Is this evidence that a majority of the population did not spank or hit (Per as long as m a test of significance.) Reported Results Faller, Mary Beth Arizona Republic Health Reporter www.phwiki.com

Case Study: Discipline BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Null: The proportion of parents who physically disciplined their children in 1993 is the same as the proportion [p] of parents who did not physically discipline their children. [H0: p = 0.50] Alt: A majority (more than 50%) of parents did not physically discipline their children in 1993. [Ha: p > 0.50] The Hypotheses Case Study: Discipline BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Based on the sample n = 474 (large, so proportions follow Normal distribution) no physical discipline: 51% st in addition to ard error of p-hat: (where .50 is p0 from the null hypothesis) st in addition to ardized score (test statistic) z = (0.51 – 0.50) / 0.023 = 0.43 Test Statistic Case Study: Discipline BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 P-value = 0.3336 From Table A, z = 0.43 is the 66.64th percentile. P-value

Case Study: Discipline BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Comparing Two Proportions BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 20 Two-Sample Problems BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 20 The goal of inference is to compare the responses to two treatments or to compare the characteristics of two populations. We have a separate sample from each treatment or each population. The units are not matched, in addition to the samples can be of differing sizes.

Chapter 21 Inference about Variables: Part III Review BPS – 5th Ed. Chapter 21

Faller, Mary Beth Health Reporter

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The Five Aggregates or bundles (Skandha) Main Principles szia

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The Five Aggregates or bundles (Skandha) Main Principles szia

Black Hawk College, IL has reference to this Academic Journal, szia Main Principles Not-self principle (rejection of the principle of identity) Impermanence principle (pertaining so that physical phenomena in addition to physiological states) Dependent origination principle Non-discriminative in addition to non-imaginative wisdom principle (the faculty that directly experiences reality without passing through concepts) The Five Aggregates or bundles (Skandha) Material form or the body Sensations/ feelings Perceptions Mental formations (e.g. hate in addition to love) States of consciousness (mental awareness, thought) The self is only the compilation of these aggregates. Since non of these aggregates is permanent, the self is not permanent. The empirical self is a shifting, continual flux.

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THE MIDDLE WAY Buddha realized that self-mortification is no more conducive than is self-indulgence. Both are extremes that contribute nothing so that self-realization. The middle way is the way of the center. It is an understanding that extremes lead away from the truth. THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS A necessary part of human existence is suffering. Suffering is caused by ignorant craving. Suffering may be rooted out by overcoming desire. Following the Eightfold Path is the way so that overcome desire. (methodology) 1. The Noble Truth of Suffering Dukkha includes: birth, decay, illness, death, presence of hated things, separation from loved ones, failure so that obtain one?s desires, all dissatisfaction in addition to discontentment

Three modes of the concept of dukkha Ordinary suffering: pain, sickness, distress, in addition to death Suffering produced by change Suffering produced by conditioned states or consciousness ? the deepest form Suffering: Uncertainty (nothing is the same) Insatiability (no matter how much worldly pleasure one gets, it is not enough) Horror of death Repeated birth Repeatedly descending from high so that low Having no companion (existential aloneness) 2. The Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering: Desire The thirst of desire is threefold: Desire in consideration of pleasure Desire in consideration of existence Desire in consideration of prosperity

Forecasting -2.2 Regression Analysis

What precisely is craving in addition to why do Buddhists think that it causes suffering? 3. The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering Suffering ceases alongside the complete cessation of desire This presupposes the understanding that everything is impermanent in addition to no substantial self exists It is the annihilation of the illusion of the self, of craving, lust, in addition to selfish desire 4. The Noble Truth of the Path: The Eightfold Path Referred so that as the ?middle way? The way so that enlightenment is through spiritual, moral, in addition to mental exercise

The Eightfold Path Right views Right intention Right speech Right conduct/action Right livelihood Right effort Right mindfulness Right concentration The Five Precepts Killing or hurting any living creature Stealing Wrong indulgence in sexual pleasure Lying Use of intoxicants

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Origin of Course Overview One-Semester General Chemistry Course in consideration of Engineers

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Origin of Course Overview One-Semester General Chemistry Course in consideration of Engineers

Black Hawk College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, One-Semester General Chemistry Course in consideration of Engineers By Dr. Ben Hutchinson Dr. Sandra Dudley Lipscomb University Overview Origin of Course Need in consideration of Course What Chemistry do Engineers Need? Engineering Students Learn Chemistry Pedantic Techniques Laboratory Experiences What Have We Learned? Conclusions in addition to Recommendations Origin of Course Changing standards by the Accreditation Board of Engineering & Technology (ABET) Engineering majors (other than chemical or materials related) often take only one semester of chemistry at the general chemistry level.

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Need in consideration of Course First semester of two-semester general chemistry may be insufficient in consideration of engineers? understanding of chemistry Some topics needed by engineers are normally included in the second semester of general chemistry Some topics included in the first semester of general chemistry may not be essential in consideration of engineers Consider What Engineering Students Need from Chemistry Some concepts included in general chemistry are also covered in physics or an engineering course Some concepts included in general chemistry, but not elsewhere, may be assumed in later engineering courses Some concepts are critical in consideration of successful completion of the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Consider What Engineers Need from Chemistry Most importantly, engineers need so that understand enough general chemistry so that perform successfully in the workplace on multidisciplinary teams, including: Working alongside chemists Preparing reports which accurately represent chemical concepts Reporting so that chemists Supervising chemists

What Topics Should be Included in a One-Semester Chemistry Course? Chemistry concepts included on the FE exam Chemistry concepts which are not covered elsewhere in the engineering curriculum or which are assumed in engineering courses Chemistry concepts which are generally understood in the scientific in addition to engineering multidisciplinary community Calculational techniques rather than theoretical concepts Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam The first of two exams engineers must pass in order so that be licensed. It is normally taken by senior undergraduate engineering students. The exam is divided into two 4-hour portions. All students take the fundamentals portion which has a chemistry section. What Topics Should Not be Emphasized? In-depth coverage of historical discoveries Topics introduced in other engineering courses Theoretical topics not necessary in consideration of the applied fields of engineering Topics not required in consideration of successful completion of the FE Exam

Videoconferencing Room Setup in addition to Etiquette Topic Roadmap Videoconferencing Etiquette Videoconferencing Etiquette Tips in consideration of Getting Started Tips in consideration of Getting Started Example: Change in Location Error Clothing Lighting Backdrop Example: Poor Backdrop Example: Better Backdrop Audio Setup Videoconferencing from Your Cube or Shared Office Videoconferencing from a Rolling Cart Large Conference Rooms

How do Engineering Students Learn Chemistry Differently from Others? Engineering students Perform better on calculations Request additional calculations Think calculations are cool Mainstream students Perform better on concept problems Request additional concept problems May find some concepts cool How do Engineering Students Learn Chemistry Differently from Others? Engineering students Think demonstrations are cool Retain concepts from demonstrations Mainstream students Think demonstrations are cool Retain events of the demonstration How do Engineering Students Learn Chemistry Differently from Others? Engineering students Skeptical of practical uses of chemistry Able so that focus on specific examples of chemistry in consideration of engineering applications Mainstream students Skeptical of practical uses of chemistry Unable so that focus on specific examples of chemistry in consideration of every major

How do Engineering Students Learn Chemistry Differently from Others? Engineering students Fascination alongside how things work Often play alongside or disassemble laboratory equipment Independently experiment alongside acid-base indicators or whatever is available Mainstream students Accept mechanical functions as is Do not exhibit the curiosity in consideration of ?what would happen if . . . ?? How do Engineering Students Learn Chemistry Differently from Others? Engineering students Charmed by field trips Provides great opportunity in consideration of realistic writing experience Mainstream students Did not have the opportunity so that engage in field trips; students did not show interest How do Engineering Students Learn Chemistry Differently from Others? Engineering students Given the opportunity so that design in addition to implement an extra credit project, students selected experiments or field based projects Mainstream students Given the opportunity so that design in addition to implement an extra credit project, students selected literature projects

Pedantic Techniques Descriptions of how chemistry is of benefit so that an engineer Application problems taken from actual engineering practice (especially those alongside insufficient information) Calibrated Peer Review Daily, student-led Chemistry in the News Student-proposed projects in consideration of extra credit Combination of essay in addition to calculational problems on exams Pedantic Techniques Student ?helpfulness? survey Extra credit opportunities (most helpful) Practical advice in consideration of engineers Laboratory experiences (short) Real world tip of the day De-emphases of theoretical concepts Application problems (least helpful) Laboratory Experiments Field trips so that chemical, petrochemical, or other manufacturing facilities Environmental chemistry of streams, lakes, wastewater treatment plants Fuel cells Gas law demonstrations Semi/super-conductor experiments Nanotechnology experiments (TiO2 as photocatalyst) Student-selected experiments

Laboratory Teaching Techniques Safety first?preparation in consideration of industrial safety paradigm Lab application tests Engineering report style write-ups CPR writing combined alongside experiments Economic or environmental connections alongside experiments Polymer emphases Ethical laboratory issues?reporting results accurately even when counterproductive in consideration of you Emphasis on authenticity of data What have we learned? Directly applicable laboratory exercises are best Students need more stepwise direction so that learn problem-solving techniques Student discretion in selecting individual projects results in greater interest in addition to initiative Students love technology but often request simple methods (e.g., chalkboard) in consideration of learning Engineering students yearn in consideration of real world settings in addition to are willing so that work hard so that encounter them Scoring can foster neatness, significant figures, courtesy, laboratory documentation, writing skill Professional habits may be developed early Conclusions in addition to Recommendations Communicating appropriate chemistry so that an audience alongside different needs in consideration of chemistry can be a challenge in addition to growth experience Focus on the engineering students? long term needs when teaching chemistry Role model essential skills Consult an engineer when designing in addition to teaching a chemistry course in consideration of engineering students Don?t be constrained by traditional chemistry courses in addition to teaching methods

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