Session 1813 Traffic Behavior in addition to Queuing in a QoS Environment

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Session 1813 Traffic Behavior in addition to Queuing in a QoS Environment

McCarthy, Todd, Chief Film Critic has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Networking Tutorials Session 1813 Traffic Behavior in addition to Queuing in a QoS Environment Prof. Dimitri P. Bertsekas Department of Electrical Engineering M.I.T. Objectives Provide some basic underst in addition to ing of queuing phenomena Explain the available solution approaches in addition to associated trade-offs Give guidelines on how to match applications in addition to solutions Outline Basic concepts Source models Service models (demo) Single-queue systems Priority/shared service systems Networks of queues Hybrid simulation (demo)

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Outline Basic concepts Per as long as mance measures Solution methodologies Queuing system concepts Stability in addition to steady-state Causes of delay in addition to bottlenecks Source models Service models (demo) Single-queue systems Priority/shared service systems Networks of queues Hybrid simulation (demo) Per as long as mance Measures Delay Delay variation (jitter) Packet loss Efficient sharing of b in addition to width Relative importance depends on traffic type (audio/video, file transfer, interactive) Challenge: Provide adequate per as long as mance as long as (possibly) heterogeneous traffic Solution Methodologies Analytical results ( as long as mulas) Pros: Quick answers, insight Cons: Often inaccurate or inapplicable Explicit simulation Pros: Accurate in addition to realistic models, broad applicability Cons: Can be slow Hybrid simulation Intermediate solution approach Combines advantages in addition to disadvantages of analysis in addition to simulation

Examples of Applications Queuing System Concepts: Arrival Rate, Occupancy, Time in the System Queuing system Data network where packets arrive, wait in various queues, receive service at various points, in addition to exit after some time Arrival rate Long-term number of arrivals per unit time Occupancy Number of packets in the system (averaged over a long time) Time in the system (delay) Time from packet entry to exit (averaged over many packets) Stability in addition to Steady-State A single queue system is stable if packet arrival rate < system transmission capacity For a single queue, the ratio packet arrival rate / system transmission capacity is called the utilization factor Describes the loading of a queue In an unstable system packets accumulate in various queues in addition to /or get dropped For unstable systems with large buffers some packet delays become very large Flow/admission control may be used to limit the packet arrival rate Prioritization of flows keeps delays bounded as long as the important traffic Stable systems with time-stationary arrival traffic approach a steady-state Little’s Law For a given arrival rate, the time in the system is proportional to packet occupancy N = T where N: average of packets in the system : packet arrival rate (packets per unit time) T: average delay (time in the system) per packet Examples: On rainy days, streets in addition to highways are more crowded Fast food restaurants need a smaller dining room than regular restaurants with the same customer arrival rate Large buffering together with large arrival rate cause large delays Explanation of Little’s Law Amusement park analogy: people arrive, spend time at various sites, in addition to leave They pay $1 per unit time in the park The rate at which the park earns is $N per unit time (N: average of people in the park) The rate at which people pay is $ T per unit time (: traffic arrival rate, T: time per person) Over a long horizon: Rate of park earnings = Rate of people’s payment or N = T Delay is Caused by Packet Interference If arrivals are regular or sufficiently spaced apart, no queuing delay occurs Regular Traffic Irregular but Spaced Apart Traffic Burstiness Causes Interference Note that the departures are less bursty Burstiness Example Different Burstiness Levels at Same Packet Rate Source: Fei Xue in addition to S. J. Ben Yoo, UCDavis, “On the Generation in addition to Shaping Self-similar Traffic in Optical Packet-switched Networks”, OPNETWORK 2002 Packet Length Variation Causes Interference Regular arrivals, irregular packet lengths High Utilization Exacerbates Interference As the work arrival rate: (packet arrival rate packet length) increases, the opportunity as long as interference increases Bottlenecks Types of bottlenecks At access points (flow control, prioritization, QoS en as long as cement needed) At points within the network core Isolated (can be analyzed in isolation) Interrelated (network or chain analysis needed) Bottlenecks result from overloads caused by: High load sessions, or Convergence of sufficient number of moderate load sessions at the same queue Bottlenecks Cause Shaping The departure traffic from a bottleneck is more regular than the arrival traffic The inter-departure time between two packets is at least as large as the transmission time of the 2nd packet Bottlenecks Cause Shaping Bottleneck 90% utilization Outgoing traffic Incoming traffic Exponential inter-arrivals gap Bottleneck 90% utilization Outgoing traffic Incoming traffic Large Medium Small Packet Trains Inter-departure times as long as small packets Variable packet sizes Peaks smeared Histogram of inter-departure times as long as small packets sec of packets Variable packet sizes Constant packet sizes Outline Basic concepts Source models Poisson traffic Batch arrivals Example applications – voice, video, file transfer Service models (demo) Single-queue systems Priority/shared service systems Networks of queues Hybrid simulation (demo) Poisson Process with Rate l Interarrival times are independent in addition to exponentially distributed Models well the accumulated traffic of many independent sources The average interarrival time is 1/ l (secs/packet), so l is the arrival rate (packets/sec) McCarthy, Todd Variety Chief Film Critic www.phwiki.com

Batch Arrivals Some sources transmit in packet bursts May be better modeled by a batch arrival process (e.g., bursts of packets arriving according to a Poisson process) The case as long as a batch model is weaker at queues after the first, because of shaping Markov Modulated Rate Process (MMRP) Extension: Models with more than two states Stay in each state an exponentially distributed time, Transmit according to different model (e.g., Poisson, deterministic, etc) at each state Source Types Voice sources Video sources File transfers Web traffic Interactive traffic Different application types have different QoS requirements, e.g., delay, jitter, loss, throughput, etc.

Source Type Properties Typical Voice Source Behavior MPEG1 Video Source Model The MPEG1 MMRP model can be extremely bursty, in addition to has “long range dependency” behavior due to the deterministic frame sequence Diagram Source: Mark W. Garrett in addition to Walter Willinger, “Analysis, Modeling, in addition to Generation of Self-Similar VBR Video Traffic, BELLCORE, 1994

Hybrid Simulation Results as long as Target Flow Total traffic volume 500 Mbps Time modeled 35 minutes Simulation duration 14 minutes Comparison: Hybrid vs Explicit Simulation References Networking Bertsekas in addition to Gallager, Data Networks, Prentice-Hall, 1992 Device Queuing Implementations Vegesna, IP Quality of Service, Ciscopress.com, 2001 http://www.juniper.net/techcenter/techpapers/200020.pdf Probability in addition to Queuing Models Bertsekas in addition to Tsitsiklis, Introduction to Probability, Athena Scientific, 2002, http://www.athenasc.com/probbook.html Cohen, The Single Server Queue, North-Holl in addition to , 1992 Takagi, Queuing Analysis: A Foundation of Per as long as mance Evaluation. (3 Volumes), North-Holl in addition to , 1991 Gross in addition to Harris, Fundamentals of Queuing Theory, Wiley, 1985 Cooper, Introduction to Queuing Theory, CEEPress, 1981 OPNET Hybrid Simulation in addition to Micro Simulation See Case Studies papers in http://secure.opnet.com/services/muc/mtdlogis-cse-stdies-81.html

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REPORTING AND ANALYZING LIABILITIES Accounting, Fourth Edition 10 Explain a curr

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REPORTING AND ANALYZING LIABILITIES Accounting, Fourth Edition 10 Explain a curr

Sato, Pablo, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal REPORTING AND ANALYZING LIABILITIES Accounting, Fourth Edition 10 Explain a current liability in addition to identify the major types of current liabilities. Describe the accounting as long as notes payable. Explain the accounting as long as other current liabilities. Identify the types of bonds. Prepare the entries as long as the issuance of bonds in addition to interest expense. Describe the entries when bonds are redeemed. Identify the requirements as long as the financial statement presentation in addition to analysis of liabilities. Study Objectives

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Current Liabilities Bonds: Long-Term Liabilities Accounting as long as Bond Issues Accounting as long as Bond Retirements Financial Statement Presentation in addition to Analysis Reporting in addition to Analyzing Liabilities What is a current liability Notes payable Sales taxes payable Unearned revenues Current maturities of long-term debt Payroll in addition to payroll taxes payable Types of bonds Issuing procedures Determining the market value of bonds Issuing bonds at face value Discount or premium on bonds Issuing bonds at a discount Issuing bonds at a premium Redeeming bonds at maturity Redeeming bonds be as long as e maturity Balance sheet presentation Analysis Off-balance-sheet financing Two key features: Company expects to pay the debt from existing current assets or through the creation of other current liabilities. Company will pay the debt within one year or the operating cycle, whichever is longer. Current Liabilities SO 1 Explain a current liability in addition to identify the major types of current liabilities. Current liabilities include notes payable, accounts payable, unearned revenues, in addition to accrued liabilities such as taxes, salaries in addition to wages, in addition to interest payable. What is a Current Liability To be classified as a current liability, a debt must be expected to be paid: out of existing current assets. by creating other current liabilities. within 2 years. both (a) in addition to (b). SO 1 Explain a current liability, in addition to identify the major types of current liabilities. Current Liabilities Question

SO 2 Describe the accounting as long as notes payable. Notes Payable Written promissory note. Require the borrower to pay interest. Those due within one year of the balance sheet date are usually classified as current liabilities. Current Liabilities Illustration: First National Bank agrees to lend $100,000 on September 1, 2012, if Cole Williams Co. signs a $100,000, 12%, four-month note maturing on January 1. When a company issues an interest-bearing note, the amount of assets it receives generally equals the note’s face value. Notes payable 100,000 Cash 100,000 SO 2 Describe the accounting as long as notes payable. Current Liabilities Sept. 1 Illustration: If Cole Williams Co. prepares financial statements annually, it makes an adjusting entry at December 31 to recognize interest. Interest payable 4,000 Interest expense 4,000 SO 2 Describe the accounting as long as notes payable. Current Liabilities Dec. 31 $100,000 x 12% x 4/12 = 4,000

Illustration: At maturity (January 1), Cole Williams Co. must pay the face value of the note plus interest. It records payment as follows. Interest payable 4,000 Notes payable 100,000 SO 2 Describe the accounting as long as notes payable. Current Liabilities Jan. 1 Cash 104,000 SO 3 Explain the accounting as long as other current liabilities. Sales Tax Payable Sales taxes are expressed as a stated percentage of the sales price. Retailer collects tax from the customer. Retailer remits the collections to the state’s department of revenue. Current Liabilities Illustration: The March 25 cash register readings as long as Cooley Grocery show sales of $10,000 in addition to sales taxes of $600 (sales tax rate of 6%), the journal entry is: SO 3 Explain the accounting as long as other current liabilities. Current Liabilities Mar. 25 Sales revenue 10,000 Cash 10,600 Sales tax payable 600

Illustration: Cooley Grocery rings up total receipts of $10,600. Because the amount received from the sale is equal to the sales price 100% plus 6% of sales, (sales tax rate of 6%), the journal entry is: SO 3 Explain the accounting as long as other current liabilities. Current Liabilities Mar. 25 Sales revenue 10,000 Cash 10,600 Sales tax payable 600 Sometimes companies do not ring up sales taxes separately on the cash register. $10,600 / 1.06 = 10,000 SO 3 Explain the accounting as long as other current liabilities. Unearned Revenue Revenues that are received be as long as e the company delivers goods or provides services. Current Liabilities Company debits Cash, in addition to credits a current liability account (unearned revenue). When the company earns the revenue, it debits the Unearned Revenue account, in addition to credits a revenue account. Illustration: Superior University sells 10,000 season football tickets at $50 each as long as its five-game home schedule. The entry as long as the sales of season tickets is: SO 3 Explain the accounting as long as other current liabilities. Unearned ticket revenue 500,000 Cash 500,000 Aug. 6 Ticket revenue 100,000 Unearned ticket revenue 100,000 Sept. 7 Current Liabilities As each game is completed, Superior records the earning of revenue.

Illustration: Wendy Construction issues a five-year, interest-bearing $25,000 note on January 1, 2011. This note specifies that each January 1, starting January 1, 2012, Wendy should pay $5,000 of the note. When the company prepares financial statements on December 31, 2011, What amount should be reported as a current liability — What amount should be reported as a long-term liability – Current Maturities of Long-Term Debt Portion of long-term debt that comes due in the current year. No adjusting entry required. SO 3 Explain the accounting as long as other current liabilities. Current Liabilities $5,000 $20,000 The term “payroll” pertains to both: Salaries – managerial, administrative, in addition to sales personnel (monthly or yearly rate). Wages – store clerks, factory employees, in addition to manual laborers (rate per hour). Determining the payroll involves computing three amounts: (1) gross earnings, (2) payroll deductions, in addition to (3) net pay. SO 3 Explain the accounting as long as other current liabilities. Payroll in addition to Payroll Taxes Payable Current Liabilities Illustration: Assume Cargo Corporation records its payroll as long as the week of March 7 as follows: Salaries in addition to wages expense 100,000 Federal tax payable 21,864 FICA tax payable 7,650 State tax payable 2,922 Salaries in addition to wages payable 67,564 SO 3 Cash 67,564 Salaries in addition to wages payable 67,564 Mar. 7 Record the payment of this payroll on March 7. Mar. 7 Current Liabilities

Payroll tax expense results from three taxes that governmental agencies levy on employers. These taxes are: FICA tax Federal unemployment tax State unemployment tax SO 3 Explain the accounting as long as other current liabilities. Current Liabilities Illustration: Based on Cargo Corp.’s $100,000 payroll, the company would record the employer’s expense in addition to liability as long as these payroll taxes as follows. Payroll tax expense 13,850 State unemployment tax payable 800 FICA tax payable 7,650 Federal unemployment tax payable 5,400 SO 3 Explain the accounting as long as other current liabilities. Current Liabilities Employer payroll taxes do not include: Federal unemployment taxes. State unemployment taxes. Federal income taxes. FICA taxes. Question SO 3 Explain the accounting as long as other current liabilities. Current Liabilities

Bonds are a as long as m of interest-bearing notes payable issued by corporations, universities, in addition to governmental agencies. Sold in small denominations (usually $1,000 or multiples of $1,000). SO 4 Identify the types of bonds. Bond: Long-Term Liabilities Types of Bonds Secured Unsecured Convertible Callable SO 4 Identify the types of bonds. Bond: Long-Term Liabilities

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Bond certificate Issued to the investor. Provides name of the company issuing bonds, face value, maturity date, in addition to contractual (stated) interest rate. Face value – principal due at the maturity. Maturity date – date final payment is due. Contractual interest rate – rate to determine cash interest paid, generally semiannually. SO 4 Identify the types of bonds. Bond: Long-Term Liabilities Issuing Procedures Bond: Long-Term Liabilities SO 4 Illustration 10-3

Determining the Market Value of Bonds The process of finding the present value is referred to as discounting the future amounts. Bond: Long-Term Liabilities SO 4 Identify the types of bonds. Market value is a function of the three factors that determine present value: the dollar amounts to be received, the length of time until the amounts are received, in addition to the market rate of interest. Illustration: Assume that Acropolis Company on January 1, 2012, issues $100,000 of 9% bonds, due in five years, with interest payable annually at year-end. Bond: Long-Term Liabilities Illustration 10-5 Computing the market price of bonds Illustration 10-4 Time diagram depicting cash flows SO 4 Identify the types of bonds. A corporation records bond transactions when it issues or retires (buys back) bonds in addition to when bondholders convert bonds into common stock. Accounting as long as Bond Issues Bonds may be issued at face value, below face value (discount), or above face value (premium). Bond prices are quoted as a percentage of face value. SO 5 Prepare the entries as long as the issuance of bonds in addition to interest expense.

Under IFRS, a contingent liability is: disclosed in the notes if certain criteria are met. reported on the face of the financial statements if certain criteria are met. the same as a provision. not covered by IFRS. The joint projects of the FASB in addition to IASB could potentially: change the definition of liabilities. change the definition of equity. change the definition of assets. All of the above. “Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request as long as further in as long as mation should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies as long as his/her own use only in addition to not as long as distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility as long as errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the in as long as mation contained herein.” Copyright

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Your Introductions: Leah Marcal (cont.) Leah Marcal

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Your Introductions: Leah Marcal (cont.) Leah Marcal

Canisius College, NY has reference to this Academic Journal, Leah Marcal Education: B.A. in Economics ?UCSC M.S. in addition to PhD in Economics ?UW Madison Background: Bass Lake Teaching Experience: ECON 160, 310, in addition to 406 & BUS 302 Leah Marcal (cont.) Research: College Assessment Director Employer, alumni, in addition to student satisfaction surveys Returns so that college education Interests: Hiking Texas Hold?em Your Introductions: Name Major Employment Favorite movie

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Syllabus Preparation: Strong working knowledge of high school algebra in addition to geometry Textbook: Baumol in addition to Blinder, Microeconomics: Principles in addition to Policy, 11th edition (2009) Syllabus (cont.) Review: Class website: csun /~lem50734/ PPT slides in consideration of each lecture Answers so that selected questions at the end of each chapter Online practice quizzes Syllabus (cont.) Assessment: In-class quizzes (10%) Drop lowest score Midterm (40%) Final (50%) Contain T/F, multiple choice, in addition to essay questions No make-up quizzes or exams

Syllabus (cont.) Office Hours: JH 4250 on Tues. in addition to Wed. 4:30 so that 5:30; or by appointment Email your questions: leah.marcal@csun Classes: 13 meetings: 11 lectures in addition to 2 exams 1 chapter covered per day 1 The Fundamental Economic Problem: Scarcity in addition to Choice

Summary

Scarcity in addition to Choice Central problem in economics: how so that chose among competing alternatives given the limited resources of decision makers Scarcity in addition to Choice All resources are scarce, so a decision so that have more of one thing is a decision so that have less of something else. Cost of any decision is its opportunity cost ?value of the next best alternative that is given up. What is the cost of producing one car? Scarcity in addition to Choice Goods are scarce because the resources (land, labor, capital, in addition to fuel) that are used so that produce goods are scarce. How does society decide whether cars or refrigerators are produced? Forces of S in addition to D

Opportunity Cost in addition to Money Cost Opportunity cost is closely related so that money cost if markets function properly E.g., D in consideration of steel ? high P in consideration of steel ? high opportunity cost of car ? high P in consideration of cars No explicit P in consideration of some valuable resources ?like time TC = money cost + opportunity cost E.g., college education Copyright? 2006 South-Western/Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Scarcity in addition to Choice in consideration of a Single Firm Production Possibilities Frontier PPF = graph showing different combinations of output in consideration of a fixed number of inputs More of one good ? less of another Illustrates opportunity costs in production TABLE 1. PPF in consideration of a Farmer Copyright? 2006 South-Western/Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

FIGURE 1. PPF in consideration of a Farmer Soybeans Wheat 60 65 52 38 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 Copyright? 2006 South-Western/Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Features of the PPF Negatively sloped ? Q wheat by moving resources out of soybean production in addition to into wheat production Slope = opportunity cost Bowed outward ? Opportunity cost of wheat as ? wheat production Why? Inputs tend so that be specialized. E.g., some land may be better suited in consideration of wheat vs. soybean production. Copyright? 2006 South-Western/Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Principle of Increasing Costs Principle of increasing costs: ? production of one good ? ? opportunity cost of producing another unit PPF is bowed outward Reason: inputs tend so that be specialized If not, then PPF is a straight line Copyright? 2006 South-Western/Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

FIGURE 2. PPF without Specialized Resources Brown Shoes Black Shoes 50 40 30 20 10 0 50 40 30 20 10 Copyright? 2006 South-Western/Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Principle of Increasing Costs Straight line PPF: Constant opportunity costs Inputs are not specialized Above, inputs used so that produce black shoes are equally well suited so that produce brown shoes Copyright? 2006 South-Western/Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Scarcity in addition to Choice in consideration of the Entire Society Use PPFs so that show scarcity in addition to choice in consideration of the entire economy PPF in consideration of a country depends on: Resources Skills of its labor force Technology Willingness so that work Past investments in factories, educ., in addition to research

FIGURE 3. PPF in consideration of Entire Economy Thousands of Automobiles per Year Missiles per Year 500 400 300 200 100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Copyright? 2006 South-Western/Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Scarcity in addition to Choice in consideration of the Entire Society B ? D: give up 150,000 cars so that get 300 missiles. F ? C: give up 200,000 cars so that get 50 missiles. ? Opportunity cost of military strength as more resources that are suited in consideration of car prod. are forced into missile prod. Economic Growth ?resources or technology shifts the PPF outward Factors that promote growth: ? labor skills Technological advances Investments in K ?robots, computers, in addition to factories Grow faster by investing in educ., R&D, in addition to new factories in addition to equipment

Economic Growth Resources can be used so that produce C goods or K goods E.g., steel used so that produce cars instead of assembly lines; workers used so that produce clothing instead of attending school. Investment in K goods shifts out the PPF What is the cost of economic growth? Figure 4. Growth in the U.S. in addition to Asia Capital Goods (a) United States Capital Goods (b) Asia Consumption Goods Consumption Goods Copyright? 2006 South-Western/Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Efficiency Efficiency = no waste Economy produces max. output using available resources Efficiency in addition to the PPF Any point on the boundary is efficient Efficiency does not indicate which point is best Any point on the interior is inefficient

FIGURE 5. PPF in addition to Efficiency Thousands of Automobiles per Year Missiles per Year 500 400 300 200 100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Copyright? 2006 South-Western/Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Point A is inefficient Efficiency Sources of inefficiency: Unemployment Inputs assigned so that the wrong task Discrimination Three Coordination Tasks of Any Economy How so that utilize resources efficiently ?get on the boundary of the PPF What combinations of goods so that produce ?which point on the PPF How much of each good so that distribute so that each person ?who gets what Goals can be accomplished by a central planner or a price system

Distribution of Goods Task (3) ?who gets what ?is accomplished by consumers purchasing what they like best given their income. Ability so that purchase goods is not equally distributed. Highly skilled workers in addition to individuals who own valuable resources can sell their labor or resources at high prices giving them greater incomes. Should we redistribute income so that everyone can consume the same amount of goods in addition to services?

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Chemical Properties What are Phthalates? Phthalates

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Chemical Properties What are Phthalates? Phthalates

Canisius College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Phthalates Edwin Chiang May 18, 2005 Bio 2B What are Phthalates? Phthalates are a class of widely used industrial compounds used as plasticizers especially in PVC (polyvinyl chloride) Various types of phthalates Range from one carbon so that seventeen carbons PVC plasticizers generally range from 4-13 carbons Examples: DINP (di-isononyl phthalate) DIDP (di-isodecyl phthalate) DBP (di-butyl phthalate)-common ingredient in nail polish DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate)-used so that make PVC Chemical Properties Insoluble in water Soluble in most organic solvents Colorless liquid alongside almost no odor DINP: Superior anti-heat, anti-cold, in addition to anti-volatile properties DIDP: Low volatile properties, anti-heat in addition to anti-aging properties, in addition to electricity insulation properties

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Uses of Phthalates Accounts in consideration of 80?90 percent of the world plasticizer consumption Used primarily as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products Child?s toys Kitchen floor Building materials Medical devices: Plastic in IV, blood bags, etc. Fixatives in consideration of perfume, slowing down evaporation in addition to making the scent linger longer Other Uses Keep nail polish from chipping Hair sprays Coatings on numerous pharmaceutical products New car smell: Partly the pungent odor of phthalates volatilizing from a hot plastic dashboard. In the evening’s cool they then condense out of the inside air of the car so that form an oily coating on the inside of the windshield. Make tool handles strong in addition to more resistant so that breaking Nail extenders Bath soaps Detergents Aftershave lotions Exposure Anything plastic Fatty items like cheese in addition to meat from food packages Medical tubing/bags New car smell Toys Cosmetics Leather Cables Products alongside vinyl Study on the Levels of Seven Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in a Human Reference Population conducted by Blount, BC, MJ Silva, SP Caudill, LL Needham, JL Pirkle, EJ Sampson, GW Lucier, RJ Jackson, JW Brock in 2000 Highest level of exposure was women of child-bearing age, High levels of DEP, DBP, BBP Likely sources of these exposures are through cosmetics, including hair sprays, nail polishes in addition to perfumes, which are common applications of DBP DEHP & DINP were not found in high concentrations

Exposures (DEHP) Air Diethyl phthalate has been measured in the indoor air of a telephone switching office in addition to in outdoor air in Newark, USA, at concentrations ranging from 1.60 so that 2.03 æg/m3 in addition to from 0.40 so that 0.52 æg/m3, respectively, during a 43-day sampling period (Shields & Weschler, 1987). Water Concentrations range from 0.01ÿæg/litre (in 6 of 10 US cities) so that 1.0 æg/litre (in Miami, Florida) found in drinking-water samples from water treatment US EPA (1989) summarized various studies (originally reported in 1980?1982) in which diethyl phthalate was detected in the groundwater of 33% of 39 public water wells in New York state; other phthalate esters were also detected. Again, it is difficult so that determine whether these phthalates originated from the waterworks systems or from sample contaminations. (continue?) Food Baked foods in the United Kingdom packaged in cardboard boxes alongside cellulose acetate windows (containing 16?17% w/w diethyl phthalate) had diethyl phthalate concentrations of 1.7?4.5 mg/kg. It was suggested that diethyl phthalate may volatilize from the plastic window so that the food without direct contact or be adsorbed in condensate on the window, which would then fall back onto the food (Castle et al., 1988). Diethyl phthalate was quantified from retort food at concentrations of 0?0.51 mg/kg (Giam & Wong, 1987). Based on the levels of diethyl phthalate found in food by Castle et al. (1988), Kamrin & Mayor (1991) estimated a total daily dietary exposure so that diethyl phthalate of 4 mg, assuming daily ingestion of 1 kg of cellulose acetate-wrapped food containing 4 mg diethyl phthalate/kg. This represents a worst-case scenario, as it assumes that most foods are packed in cardboard boxes alongside cellulose acetate windows containing diethyl phthalate. Cosmetics A 2001 survey of fragrance manufacturers in the USA provided maximum concentrations of 1?11% diethyl phthalate in perfume in addition to up so that 1.0% in deodorants in addition to other personal cleanliness products. The products may be applied so that skin, eyes, hair, in addition to nails, in addition to they may come in contact alongside mucous membranes in addition to the respiratory tract; contact may be frequent (several times a day) in addition to of prolonged duration (years). Diethyl phthalate is also approved in consideration of use as a component of food manufacturing equipment in addition to packaging at unlimited concentrations (Anonymous, 1985) in addition to in drug product containers (Kamrin & Mayor, 1991). Harmful Effects At high doses of phthalates do constitute risks in the sense of traditional toxicology, these low doses change the stakes dramatically Male reproductive development is acutely sensitive so that some phthalates DBP & DEHP produced dramatic changes in male sexual characteristics when exposure took place in utero, at levels far beneath those of previous toxicological concern Males Hypospadias (anomaly of the urethra ) Damage of Sertoli cells caused by a metabolite of DEHP, monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) Low sperm count Reductions in semen quality DNA damage so that sperm Females Premature breast development Premature birth

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(continued?) Carcinogenic Damaged the liver of rats in addition to mice at high doses Relevant so that humans: unknown Research Scientists have long known that relatively large doses of some phthalates can lead so that health problems, including cancer. Lower levels may also have negative effects. Lowest level that produced adverse effects in the rats was 100 mg a day/kg body weight Animal studies have shown that phthalates can disrupt the endocrine system, inhibiting male hormones in addition to causing male infertility in addition to birth defects A study published in the Environmental Health Perspectives found that a group of men alongside DNA-damaged sperm also had higher levels of diethyl phthalate (DEP) – regarded as one of the less toxic phthalates DINP causes liver damage in animals & constitutes 40% of plastic toys More Studies DINP can leach out at risky levels when kids suck on them Study by the Silent Spring Institute found “significant concentrations” of phthalates including DEHP in addition to DBP in air in addition to house dust of 120 Massachusetts houses

DEHP & Male Reproductive System In 1999 Gray, LE, C Wolf, C Lambright, P Mann, M Price, RL Cooper in addition to J Ostby studied effects of anti-androgenic pesticides in addition to toxic substances on male rats Purpose: See effects on sexual differentiation in male rats Results: diverse profiles of reproductive malformations in the male rat. DEHP proved so that be highly toxic so that the reproductive system of male offspring in transgenerational studies (in which the pregnant female was exposed in addition to effects measured in her offspring). DEHP induced high levels of testicular in addition to epididymal abnormalities Atrophy in addition to agenesis. (continue?) A striking effect of DEHP was noted in 8-day old pups Several males from different litters displayed hemorrhagic testes that were visible by gross examination of the inguinal region Conclusion: the testis is a direct target of DEHP during prenatal life One of the endpoints study. measured was the percentage of male pups born alongside hypospadias (left). Males in the control group never had hypospadias (continue?) The study also determined the percentage of male pups born alongside areola. Males in the control group never had areolas.

Pre-mature Birth Research: Took cord blood from babies at birth in a hospital in Brindisi, Italy Analyzed the blood in consideration of DEHP in addition to its metabolite MEHP Examined the relationships between several aspects of the infants’ health at birth in addition to exposure so that DEHP in addition to MEHP Pre-mature Birth Found: Of 84 babies born consecutively 11 were preterm 3 had low birth weight 4 considered small in consideration of gestational age DEHP and/or MEHP present in 88% of the cord serum samples Both were present in 77% of samples Babies alongside MEHP had a significantly lower gestational age than those without MEHP exposures, averaging 38-39 weeks Other Results from Research Lowest level that produced adverse effects in the rats was 100 mg/day kg of body weight About 500 times more than what a 2001 study by CDC found in the general human population Phthalates found in largest quantities were DBP in addition to DEP , which tend so that be used in cosmetics in addition to perfumes Maximum exposure level w/o adverse affects: 0.1 mg / kg body weight a day (DBP & DEP) Of 72 name-brand cosmetics – everything from shampoo so that perfume so that deodorant ? 52 had phthalates Word ?phthalate? not on label b/c Federal laws don?t require it

Should We Worry ? Issue since early 1980’s Very controversial Some sources claim that they pose no risk so that humans or environments Carcinogenic in addition to reproductive effects found in rodents are species specific in addition to of little relevance so that humans Environmental impact considered so that be low due so that their ready biodegradability in addition to low toxicity (continued?) European Union conducted a risk assessment on DINP, DIDP in addition to DBP in addition to found no risk Assessments on DEHP in addition to BBP by EU are still underway FDA says phthalate-containing beauty products are safe U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission concluded after 4 yr study of DINP: children sucked on toys an average of 1.9 minutes per day, in addition to would have so that suck in consideration of 39 minutes so that ingest risky levels Industry argues that years of phthalate use without visible harm prove product safety. But? Contrary so that EU assessment, toxicologist Paul Foster of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences DBP & DEHP is considered so that be the most toxic phthalate. Studies found that human health endpoints are consistent alongside phthalate damage found in animal experiments.

What?s Being Done? In 1998, U.S. toy manufacturers voluntarily agreed so that stop using phthalates in pacifiers in addition to rattlers The EU has banned DINP in toys in consideration of kids 3 in addition to under, while Japan has announced a plan so that get rid of DEHP in addition to DINP in toys in consideration of kids 6 in addition to under Still more research Credits dcchem.co.kr epa.gov/safewater/dwh/c-soc/phthalat.html nsc /library/chemical/di(2-eth.htm atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts9.html

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