An Empirical Study to Examine Whether Monetary Incentives Improve 12th Grade Rea

An Empirical Study to Examine Whether Monetary Incentives Improve 12th Grade Rea www.phwiki.com

An Empirical Study to Examine Whether Monetary Incentives Improve 12th Grade Rea

Kubistant, Tom, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal An Empirical Study to Examine Whether Monetary Incentives Improve 12th Grade Reading Per as long as mance Henry Braun Irwin Kirsch Kentaro Yamamoto Boston College ETS ETS Presented at the PDII Conference Princeton, NJ October 3, 2008 Overview What is NAEP Why this study What were the design criteria How were they operationalized Do monetary incentives make a difference If so, which ones, how much in addition to as long as whom How robust are the findings What are the implications The National Assessment of Educational Progress Large-scale national/state surveys of academic achievement begun in 1969 Tests students in grades 4, 8, 12 Subjects: Reading, Mathematics, Science, Geography, Civics, History, etc. NAEP (“The Nation’s Report Card) provides a snapshot of student achievement overall, by state in addition to by various subgroups

Cedar Crest College PA www.phwiki.com

This Particular University is Related to this Particular Journal

12th Grade NAEP National sample only Lower participation rates than grades 4 in addition to 8 Concerns about levels of motivation/ef as long as t Undergoing expansion to state level Study Rationale Increasing reliance on low-stakes large-scale assessment surveys as long as education policy Issues relate to both national in addition to international LSASs In the U.S., NAEP is the only source of nationally comparable data on student achievement that can be used as long as state-level comparisons Under NCLB, 4th in addition to 8th grade NAEP play an exp in addition to ed role in monitoring state-level results Strong interest in exp in addition to ing role of 12th grade NAEP National Commission on 12th grade NAEP (2004) recommendations Redesign to report on student readiness Exp in addition to to state level Increase participation in addition to motivation Design Criteria Goal: To estimate the effects of different monetary incentives on student per as long as mance on 12th grade NAEP Internal validity External validity Adequate power

Literature Experiments Focus on mathematics O’Neil et al (NAEP items) Baumert et al (PISA items) Psychology Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation Behavioral Economics Monetary incentives can work Participants must be cognizant of incentives Study Features Focus on NAEP reading R in addition to omized trial as long as internal validity Prepared detailed implementation protocol Employed experienced administrative staff External validity (i.e., link directly to NAEP) Used released NAEP materials Followed NAEP administrative in addition to data processing procedures Carried out NAEP-like psychometric in addition to statistical analyses Heterogeneous school sample Large study as long as sufficient power to detect effects Study Design: Incentives Control: St in addition to ard NAEP instructions Incentive 1: St in addition to ard NAEP instructions + Promise of a $20 gift card at conclusion of session Incentive 2: St in addition to ard NAEP instructions + $5 Gift card + $15 as long as a correct answer to each of two questions to be chosen at r in addition to om at the conclusion of session

Study Design: Incentives (2) All students in both incentive conditions were asked to select Target or Barnes & Noble as long as the gift card in addition to to indicate their preference on a sign-up sheet Students in all three conditions actually received $35 gift cards at the end of the sessions Students were in as long as mally debriefed be as long as e leaving Study Design: Instrumentation Mapping to the NAEP Reading Framework (3 contexts) Reading as long as literary experience (35%) Reading as long as in as long as mation (45%) Reading to per as long as m a task (20%) Assembling test booklets 2 reading blocks + background questionnaire Each reading block consists of a passage in addition to a set of associated questions Each block is expected to take 25 minutes Blocks vary with respect to the total number of questions in addition to the proportions of multiple choice, short answer in addition to extended response questions Booklet Design

Survey Design: Background Questionnaire Items drawn from operational questionnaire Two sets of items Set I Demographics in addition to parental education Home environment School absences Set II Reading practices Future educational expectations Level of ef as long as t Study Design: Sample Selection Power analysis indicated need as long as a sample of 60 schools with 60 students per school (20 per condition in each school) Worked with NAEP state coordinators in addition to Westat to obtain a (final) convenience sample of 59 schools Student recruitment was carried out using st in addition to ard NAEP methods (but no special incentives) Number of participating students was lower than target Student Response Rates by State

Administration R in addition to om samples of 12th graders invited to participate In each school students r in addition to omly allocated to the three conditions Fall (not spring) administration Sessions in a school were simultaneous or consecutive to eliminate possibility of contamination Limited accommodations No make-up sessions Student Response Rates by Condition Data Preparation: Scoring in addition to Item Analysis Scoring was conducted by NCS/Pearson Preliminary item analysis held no surprises: Differences by condition in Proportions correct Percentage of omitted items Highest as long as extended CR items Percentage of off-task responses Generally very small ( 1%) Percentage of items not reached Particularly high as long as last CR item

Average Item Proportions Correct by Item TYPE in addition to Incentive Condition Data Preparation: Scaling, Conditioning in addition to Linking Scaling by subscale Fit item characteristic curves to data Compare to archival results Estimate three-group model Reasonable fit Conditioning Combine cognitive data with ancillary data from questionnaires Obtain posterior score distribution as long as each student Generate “plausible values” Linking Linear trans as long as mation to the NAEP scale Construct composite reporting scale Effect Sizes by Subscale, Item parameters Based on Study Data Only Effect Sizes by Subscale, Item parameters Based on Archival Data

Selected Results Effects of incentives range from 3 to 5 points on the NAEP scale overall Male-female differences relatively stable White-Black in addition to White-Hispanic differences grow somewhat larger under incentives Effects of incentives generally positive as long as subgroups Estimates reasonably robust Comparison of Effects by Incentive Condition

Kubistant, Tom Golf Today - West Coast Edition Contributing Editor www.phwiki.com

Study Statistics by Incentive in addition to Gender 5 5 5 5 6 6 Study Statistics by Incentive in addition to Race/Ethnicity 6 2 3 20 28 24

Study Statistics by Condition, Gender, in addition to Race/Ethnicity

Summary Data clearly indicate that the design criteria as long as this study were met Monetary incentives improve NAEP reading per as long as mance Type of incentive makes a difference by reporting subgroup by quantile Caveats Fall rather than Spring administration Represented two of the three NAEP subscales Lower student participation rate than in operational NAEP Subgroup sample size Relationship of the sample to the NAEP population Implications 12th grade NAEP results should be interpreted cautiously Expansion of 12th grade NAEP ought to wait on policy action on incentives Measuring reading as NAEP does may be problematic in the current context In modifying NAEP cognitive instruments (e.g. as long as readiness), the administrative setting should be taken into account

Kubistant, Tom Contributing Editor

Kubistant, Tom is from United States and they belong to Golf Today – West Coast Edition and they are from  Tehachapi, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Kubistant, Tom deal with the subjects like Golf

Journal Ratings by Cedar Crest College

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Cedar Crest College and short form of this particular Institution is PA and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.

 

Hip Joint Professor Emeritus Moira O’Brien FRCPI, FFSEM, FFSEM (UK), FTCD Trinit

Hip Joint Professor Emeritus Moira O’Brien FRCPI, FFSEM, FFSEM (UK), FTCD Trinit www.phwiki.com

Hip Joint Professor Emeritus Moira O’Brien FRCPI, FFSEM, FFSEM (UK), FTCD Trinit

Bender, Amy, Host – Better Arizona has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Hip Joint Professor Emeritus Moira O’Brien FRCPI, FFSEM, FFSEM (UK), FTCD Trinity College Dublin Hip Joint Synovial ball in addition to socket joint Multiaxial Three degrees of freedom Movement in three planes Close pack extension in addition to medial rotation Least pack semiflexion

Cedar Crest College US www.phwiki.com

This Particular University is Related to this Particular Journal

One of most stable joints in the body Articular surface of hip joint are reciprocally curved Superior surface of femur in addition to acetabulum sustain greatest pressure Hip Joint Acetabulum Y-shaped epiphyseal cartilage Start to ossify at 12 years Fuse 16-17 years Acetabular notch is inferior Nonarticular fossa, thin related medially to obturator internus Pad of fat, proprioceptive nerves Articular Surface of Hip Joint Semilunar articular surface covered with hyaline cartilage Deepened by acetabular labrum Wedge shaped fibrocartilage

Head of femur 2/3rd of sphere Pit as long as ligamentum teres Covered with articular cartilage Cartilage thicker posterior superior Epiphyseal line as long as head intracapsular Articular Surface Femur Trabeculae develop along lines of stress Calcar femorale is the cortical bone on inferior aspect of neck Neck is cancellous bone Capsule of Hip Proximally attached Margins of the acetabular fossa Base of labrum Distally, anterior to the intertrochanteric line Inferiorly, femoral neck close to lesser trochanter

Posterior Free border, finger’s breath from trochanteric crest due to insertion of obturator externus Into trochanteric fossa in addition to Root greater trochanter Capsule of Hip Strongest superiorly Anteromedially, deep fibres reflected head of rectus femoris Iliopsoas is anterior Lateral deep fibres of gluteus minimus Capsule of Hip Retinacular Fibres Fibres of capsule reflected along neck to articular margin called retinacular fibres Blood supply to head run under retinacular fibres

Ligaments of Hip Acetabular labrum Transverse ligament Ligament of head Iliofemoral ligament Pubofemoral ligaments Ischiofemoral ligaments Zona orbicularis Transverse ligament is part of the labrum Ligamentum teres is triangular, its base is attached to transverse ligament, in addition to the apex to the pit on the head of femur Blood supply to epiphysis from obturator artery Only supplies a flake of bone in elderly Ligaments of Hip Iliofemoral Ligament Thickening of capsule Lower half of anterior inferior iliac spine in addition to adjoining acetabulum Distally Upper in addition to lower parts of inter trochanteric line

One of strongest ligaments in body Tightens in extension Helps maintain erect posture Facet on anterior aspect of neck Prevents hyperextension Fulcrum reducing hip Iliofemoral Ligament Pubofemoral Ligament Superior pubic ramus Inferior part of inter trochanteric line in addition to upturned part Relatively weak Prevents abduction Bursa between it in addition to iliofemoral Ischiofemoral Ligament Ischium to posterior part of joint (weak) Circular fibres called zona orbicularis Centre of gravity in front of head Synovial under obturator externus

Synovial Membrane Lines inner portion of capsule in addition to non articular structures Ligament of head Fat in acetabular fossa May communicate with psoas bursa Bursa under obturator externus Bursa Under Gluteus Maximus Trochanteric bursa Posterolateral aspect of greater trochanter gluteofemoral Vastus lateralis ischial bursa Ischial tuberosity Blood Supply to Head of Femur Child, obturator artery via ligamentum teres supplies epiphysis Elderly, main supply via retinacular vessels from trochanteric in addition to cruciate anastamoses Medial in addition to lateral circumflex femoral vessels

Blood Supply Superior gluteal supplies the upper part of the acetabulum Inferior gluteal supplies the inferior in addition to posterior in addition to the capsule Transverse in addition to ascending branches of lateral circumflex femoral artery Transverse in addition to ascending branch of medial circumflex femoral Cruciate in addition to trochanteric anastomosis Fractures of neck may cause avascular necrosis, extra capsular arteries enter the trochanter at the base of neck Medial in addition to lateral circumflex femoral vessels in addition to superior gluteal Blood Supply Femoral nerve Obturator nerve Superior gluteal nerve Nerve to quadratus femoris Posterior dislocation may damage sciatic Pain in hip referred to knee Nerve Supply

Bender, Amy KPHO-TV Host - Better Arizona www.phwiki.com

Anterior Relations Rectus femoris Adductor longus Pectineus Psoas in addition to iliacus Femoral sheath Femoral nerve Inferior in addition to Posterior Relations Obturator externus Passes inferior in addition to then posterior to joint Superior gluteal nerve Inferior gluteal nerve Sciatic nerve Posterior cutaneous nerve thigh Nerves to obturator internus in addition to quadratus femoris Pudendal nerve Lateral Relations Gluteus minimus Gluteus medius Superior gluteal vessels in addition to nerves between Iliotibial tract Superficial three quarters of gluteus maximus

Posterior Relations Piri as long as mis Superior gemellus Obturator internus Inferior gemellus Quadratus femoris Adductor magnus Obturator externus Gluteus maximus Movements: Flexion Limited by anterior abdominal wall Psoas Iliacus Pectineus Adductor longus in addition to brevis Rectus femoris Movements: Extension Hamstrings first 10° Long head of biceps Semitendinosus Semimembranosus 123, extended knee ++ Adductor magnus Gluteus maximus most efficient when hip is flexed 45°

“BMJ Publishing Group Limited (“BMJ Group”) 2012. All rights reserved.”

Bender, Amy Host – Better Arizona

Bender, Amy is from United States and they belong to KPHO-TV and they are from  Phoenix, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Bender, Amy deal with the subjects like Human Interest; Local News; Regional News

Journal Ratings by Cedar Crest College

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Cedar Crest College and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.

 

Main Empirical Innovations Main Idea: Crisis Research 2.0 Credit Spreads in addition to the Severity of Financial Crises

 www.phwiki.com

 

The Above Picture is Related Image of Another Journal

 

Main Empirical Innovations Main Idea: Crisis Research 2.0 Credit Spreads in addition to the Severity of Financial Crises

Cedar Crest College, PA has reference to this Academic Journal, Credit Spreads in addition to the Severity of Financial CrisesKrishnamurthy in addition to MuirDiscussion by Robin GreenwoodMain Idea: Crisis Research 2.0Many of the empirical papers that either forecast crises or uses crises so that forecast X are a bit ad hocSelecting crisis dates in particular involves judgmentSupplement crisis data alongside (impressive data on) credit spreads from historical sourcesCan this data help us say anything about crises?Yes! Cross-sectional variation helpsHelps sort crises ex ante as so that which ones will be particularly badHelps look at role of expectationsPosition of the Financial Sector

 Gibson, Steve Cedar Crest College www.phwiki.com

 

Related University That Contributed for this Journal are Acknowledged in the above Image

 

Main Empirical InnovationsGDP(t+1) = a + b*CrisisDummy(t)*Spread(t)Cross-sectional variation in the spread across crises is useful in consideration of forecasting impact of the crisisAlso shows that spread crises preceded by credit growth turn out poorly in consideration of subsequent GDP, but unclear whether the credit spread adds anything hereDoes not run horse race compared so that traditional crisis variablesTable 3Credit spreads are mainly useful in forecasting output during financial eventsDuring garden variety recessions, the credit spread is not particularly usefulPoses a bit of a puzzle in terms of the forward looking nature of the credit spreadWhich Spread Crises Turn Out Badly?Table 11Regress GDP growth on dummy in consideration of SpreadCrisis in addition to SpreadCrisisxLaggedCreditGrBottom panel just uses credit growth alongside nearly identical resultsIs the paper saying that we can ignore whether a financial crisis actually happened? I would have liked a bit more nuance here, perhaps showing quantile regressionsMost of the time, credit growth is good in consideration of GDP growth, except when it leads so that financial crisis

Comment 1: Timing of the Credit SpreadCrisis Forecasting & the Credit Spread

Review AE430 Aircraft Propulsion Systems Note Goals Analysis Analysis Analysis Control Volume Analysis: Basic Idea Engine Performance Parameters Thermodynamic cycles Ideal Ramjet Ideal Ramjet Non-ideal ramjet Non-Ideal turbojet Definition of component efficiencies Turbofan Detailed analysis of components Intakes Supersonic intake Supersonic diffuser Combustor + Compressor

Forecasting is HardIn the future, when financial crises occur, we will be watching them in real timeWhich credit spread will be relevant in consideration of forecasting GDP? When should we measure it? At the onset of the crisis?6 months in?Data from the last crisis show that this is not at all obviousPaper is not very clear about exact timing of this measurement Comment 2: Value Added of Incorporating Credit Spreads

Credit Growth in addition to Credit SpreadsPaper shows very clearly that credit spreads help forecast impact of crisis on economyLess clear that there is much new in the results the paper shows using credit spreadsWe know from many other papers that credit growth is associated withFinancial crises (Schularik in addition to Taylor)Low subsequent returns on credit (Greenwood in addition to Hanson) in addition to equities (Baron in addition to Xiong)Paper does not show very persuasively that using credit spreads increases the information content of credit growth in consideration of forecasting outcomes Would be helpful so that show some horse races (like in Table 7, but using GDP growth as the dependent variable) alongside crisis measures vs. the authors? augmented crisis measuresForecasting PowerCrisis forecasting literature often focuses on R-squared concept, on which the paper is largely silentHow much of an edge are credit spreads giving us in forecasting?Comment 3: Forecasting the Crisis vs. The Impact of the Crisis Conditional of it Happening

Paper?s perspective on expectationsCrisis itself is (not very) forecastable, but high credit growth before the event leads so that fragility, so that if a crisis unfolds, credit spreads quickly change ?It occurs at first very slowly, then all at once.? – Ernest Hemingway describing the process of going broke I would have liked help in separately unpacking theForecastability of the crisis itselfIs the ?surprise? predictable?Fragility of the crisisResults in Lopez-Salido, Stein, in addition to Zakrajsek (2015) suggest that it is the forecastability of credit spreads, rather than fragility, that is the driving factor forecasting GDP in the USCould easily be extended using the authors? databaseMy Preferred Crisis NarrativePeriods of credit growth are driven by investor optimismExtrapolation of GDP growth; extrapolation of past default ratesOne result is misallocation of creditHigher credit growth forecasts low returns on averageIn some particularly severe incidents, losses affect financial institutions, resulting in a crisisCan the paper reject this narrative?Are Credit Spreads too low?

Are credit spreads too low?A more natural way so that capture this is using return forecasting regressionsGreenwood in addition to Hanson (2013)Lopez-Salido, Stein, in addition to Zakrajsek (2015)Suppose we start alongside baseline view that returns so that credit are constant over timeThen ?forecastable part? of returns is then the amount that credit spreads are too lowTable 4: Panel AQuantity vs. QualityIntroduction Empirical Strategy Issuer Quality Forecasting Results Interpretation SummaryCredit growth of low quality firms is most useful in consideration of forecasting returnsQuality beats Quantity in a horseraceDifferential debtgrowth of low vs. high quality firms is a strong predictor?Similar results in consideration of HYSOpen QuestionsThe calm before the storm ?It occurs at first very slowly, then all at once.? – Ernest Hemingway describing the process of going brokeCredit growth vs. Credit LevelsThe role of expectations in driving the crisis in the first place

?The US housing marketplace developed an axiom over time. Since housing prices had never fallen, housing prices could therefore never fall. This is exactly how repetitive events, whether it?s housing moving higher year after year, or JGBs going higher in price every single year, become cognitive biases. Then, at some point in time, they actually become axiomatic. These axioms are rooted in belief systems that are developed through inductive reasoning based upon repetition of perceived fact patterns. When these patterns move so that excess in addition to can no longer be sustained, they reverse themselves in a violent manner.? Kyle Bass (investor short subprime)

Gibson, Steve Contributing Editor

Gibson, Steve is from United States and they belong to Contributing Editor and work for Ladies’ Home Journal in the CA state United States got related to this Particular Article.

Journal Ratings by Cedar Crest College

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by and short form of this particular Institution is PA and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.

 

Why is Sexual Agency Important? Sexual Agency Identifying Women?s ?Sexual Agency? in their Reports of First Sexual Encounters: A Qualitative Study

 www.phwiki.com

 

The Above Picture is Related Image of Another Journal

 

Why is Sexual Agency Important? Sexual Agency Identifying Women?s ?Sexual Agency? in their Reports of First Sexual Encounters: A Qualitative Study

Cedar Crest College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Identifying Women?s ?Sexual Agency? in their Reports of First Sexual Encounters: A Qualitative Study Rachel Pittard in addition to Rachel Robertson Hanover College * Sexual Agency Little research on the relatively new concept of sexual agency We hope so that elaborate in addition to expand on previous research examining the construct Sexual agency defined: ?the possession of control over one?s body in addition to sexual choices? (Phillips, 2000) ?the ability so that act according so that one?s will in a sexual realm? (Crown & Roberts, 2007) * Why is Sexual Agency Important? Our results may help improve sex education programs in addition to therapies by Encouraging women?s sexual health,ÿwell-being, in addition to satisfaction Empowering women so that be confident in addition to in control during sexual encounters

 Margolis, Matthew Cedar Crest College www.phwiki.com

 

Related University That Contributed for this Journal are Acknowledged in the above Image

 

* Positive Psychology ÿ Advocates in consideration of the study ofÿnormative subjective experience (Seligman, Steen, & Parks, 2005) Addresses positive impacts that sex can have on those who are experiencing it Examines what goes right in sexual situations * Feminismÿ Equality among genders Sexism in culture leads so that power inequities in the bedroom (Strong, Yarber, Sayad, & DeVault, 2008) Sexual scripts influence women so that be sexually passive Women often experience sex as ?something [they] went along with? (Dunn, 1998) ?Traditional femininity constitutes an unsafe sexual identity and?conventionally feminine behavior is putting young women at risk? (Holland, Ramazanoglu, Sharpe, &ÿThomson, 2000) * Research Question How do women portray themselves as agents in their reflections on theirÿfirst sexual encounter? ÿ

* Online SurveyÿDesign Recruited by email Study description page Informed consent signed electronically Demographics Four open-ended survey questions Debriefing screen * Participantsÿ (N = 21) Small mid-western College Womenÿ18-25 years (M = 20.1 yrs.) Definition of ?first sexual encounter?: Participants told: “However you define it” Additional guideline: ?Mayÿhave involvedÿgenital contact, loss of virginity, or other sexually intimate acts (beyond just kissing or non-intimate touching)? Heterosexual, homosexual, in addition to bisexual * Questionnaireÿ Elicited in-depth narratives regarding their emotional experiences of the first sexual encounter Not looking in consideration of details, but feelings about the experience Four questions, each building upon the other

Routing Measurements: Three Case Studies

* Initial Questionÿ ÿ ?Immediately following your first sexual encounter, what were your initial thoughts in addition to feelings about, or reactions to, the experience?? * Follow-up Questions 2. ?Looking back on that experience, what are your current thoughts in addition to feelings about your first sexual encounter?? 3. ?How do you currently evaluate your choice so that engage in your first sexual encounter?? 4. ?Do you have any additional thoughts in addition to feelings about that experience now? Is there anything else about your reactions that we have not asked about which you feel is important?? 1st Coding Scheme: Agency Dimensions Connection Disconnection Interaction Isolation Activity Passivity

* 1st Coding Scheme: Agency CONNECTION: attachment or bond alongside the experience Joni: ?I felt intrigued in addition to somewhat mesmerized by the whole experience.?ÿÿ DISCONNECTION: disengagement from the experience Judy: ?It was a very uncomfortable in addition to forced experience.? 1st Coding Scheme: Agency INTERACTION: reciprocal action in addition to equality between the sexual partners Marie: ?It made me feel close so that the person as though we had some type of connection between the two of us.?ÿ ISOLATION: feeling separated from the sexual partner Cathy: ?I felt badÿguilty. My boyfriend said we should not have done it. He wanted so that try it in the first place. I was very confused.?ÿ * 1st Coding Scheme: Agency ACTIVITY: making in addition to asserting decisions in addition to participating by one?s own will Carly: ?I only had sexual experiences that I was OK with.? PASSIVITY: being submissive in addition to receiving others? actions Brandy: ?It was something I went along with.?

* 2nd Coding Scheme: Affective Contentÿ Positive Affect: favorable feelings about the experience and/or self Experience Katie: ?It was ultimately a comfortable, happy experience alongside a loving partner.? Self (esteem) Deb: ?It was my own decision in addition to if I were so that do it again, it would have probably happened in much the same way.? 2nd Coding Scheme: Affective Contentÿ Negative Affect: unfavorable feelings about the experience and/or self Experience Jenna: ?Horror, shame, disappointment, fear. I have come so that accept it as just a mistake .? Self (esteem) Cathy: ?I cannot get over the idea that I am a bad person when I do that stuff. ? Interpretive Analysis Patterns of how agency is portrayed Variations of sexual agency described within the three dimensions Patterns of affective content were compared so that agency portrayals on the three dimensions

Fully Agentic Connection, interaction, in addition to activity No nonagentic codes Described encounters positively Katie: ?I don?t regret it in addition to I wouldn?t change anything about it. I?m happy alongside the choice I made knowing it was alongside the right person in addition to at the right time.? Partially Agentic Less than 3 agentic codes 3 or less agentic codes in addition to 1 or more nonagentic codes Ambivalence: described encounters both positively in addition to negatively Cathy: ?I thought I was ready, but looking back I wish I had been more emotionally mature. I am still getting over the guilt, but it has made me a stronger person.? Fully Nonagentic Disconnection, isolation, in addition to passivity No agentic codes Described encounters negatively Jenna: ?In my particular instance I was very disappointed in addition to horrified by my own lack of self-control. My biggest fears following the encounter were that sex would always be like that in addition to that my friends would find out about it (they still haven?t).?

Sexual Agency Research Homogenous population Normative views Benefits of elaborating the concept of sexual agency Improve sex education programs Empower women so that be active sexual agents

Margolis, Matthew Host/Producer

Margolis, Matthew is from United States and they belong to Host/Producer and work for Johnjay and Rich Morning Show – KZZP-FM, The in the AZ state United States got related to this Particular Article.

Journal Ratings by Cedar Crest College

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.