Earth Science Summaries by Edward J. Tarbuck Frederick K. Lutgens SOURCE: http:/
Stossel, John, Freelance Columnist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Earth Science Summaries by Edward J. Tarbuck Frederick K. Lutgens SOURCE: http://wps.prenhall.com/esm-tarbuck-escience-11/ Topics: Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Chapter 2: Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks Chapter 3: Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth Chapter 4: Weathering, Soil, in addition to Mass Wasting Chapter 5: Running Water in addition to Groundwater Chapter 6: Glaciers, Deserts, in addition to Wind Chapter 7: Earthquakes in addition to Earth’s Interior Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics Chapter 9: Volcanoes in addition to Other Igneous Activity Chapter 10: Mountain Building Chapter 11: Geologic Time Chapter 12: Earth’s History: A Brief Summary Chapter 13: The Ocean Floor Chapter 14: Ocean Water in addition to Ocean Life Chapter 15: The Dynamic Ocean Chapter 16: The Atmosphere: Composition, Structure, in addition to Temperature Chapter 17: Moisture, Clouds, in addition to Precipitation Chapter 18: Air Pressure in addition to Wind Chapter 19: Weather Patterns in addition to Severe Storms Chapter 20: Climate Chapter 21: Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 22: Touring Our Solar System Chapter 23: Light, Astronomical Observations, in addition to the Sun Chapter 24: Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science
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Earth science is the name as long as all the sciences that collectively seek to underst in addition to Earth in addition to its neighbors in space. It includes geology, oceanography, meteorology, in addition to astronomy. Geology is traditionally divided into two broad areasphysical in addition to historical.
Environment refers to everything that surrounds in addition to influences an organism. These influences can be biological, social, or physical. When applied to Earth science today, the term environmental is usually reserved as long as those aspects that focus on the relationships between people in addition to the natural environment.
Resources are an important environmental concern. The two broad categories of resources are (1) renewable, which means that they can be replenished over relatively short time spans, in addition to (2) nonrenewable. As population grows, the dem in addition to as long as resources exp in addition to s as well.
Environmental problems can be local, regional, or global. Human-induced problems include urban air pollution, acid rain, ozone depletion, in addition to global warming. Natural hazards include earthquakes, l in addition to slides, floods, in addition to hurricanes.
As world population grows, pressures on the environment also increase. All science is based on the assumption that the natural world behaves in a consistent in addition to predictable manner. The process by which scientists gather facts through observation in addition to careful measurement in addition to as long as mulate scientific hypotheses in addition to theories is called the scientific method.
To determine what is occurring in the natural world, scientists often (1) collect facts, (2) develop a scientific hypothesis, (3) construct experiments to validate the hypothesis, in addition to (4) accept, modify, or reject the hypothesis on the basis of extensive testing. Other discoveries represent purely theoretical ideas that have stood up to extensive examination. Still other scientific advancements have been made when a totally unexpected happening occurred during an experiment.
One of the challenges as long as those who study Earth is the great variety of space in addition to time scales. The geologic time scale subdivides the 4.5 billion years of Earth history into various units. The nebular hypothesis describes the as long as mation of the solar system.
The planets in addition to Sun began as long as ming about 5 billion years ago from a large cloud of dust in addition to gases. As the cloud contracted, it began to rotate in addition to assume a disk shape. Material that was gravitationally pulled toward the center became the protosun.
Within the rotating disk, small centers, called protoplanets, swept up more in addition to more of the cloud’s debris. Because of their high temperatures in addition to weak gravitational fields, the inner planets were unable to accumulate in addition to retain many of the lighter components. Because of the very cold temperatures existing far from the Sun, the large outer planets consist of huge amounts of lighter materials.
Almost 14 billion years ago, a cataclysmic explosion hurled this material in all directions, creating all matter in addition to space. Eventually the ejected masses of gas cooled in addition to condensed, as long as ming the stellar systems we now observe fleeing from their place of origin.
Stossel, John Freelance Columnist
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