Earth Science Summaries by Edward J. Tarbuck Frederick K. Lutgens SOURCE: http:/

Earth Science Summaries by Edward J. Tarbuck Frederick K. Lutgens SOURCE: http:/ www.phwiki.com

Earth Science Summaries by Edward J. Tarbuck Frederick K. Lutgens SOURCE: http:/

Stossel, John, Freelance Columnist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Earth Science Summaries by Edward J. Tarbuck Frederick K. Lutgens SOURCE: http://wps.prenhall.com/esm-tarbuck-escience-11/ Topics: Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Chapter 2: Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks Chapter 3: Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth Chapter 4: Weathering, Soil, in addition to Mass Wasting Chapter 5: Running Water in addition to Groundwater Chapter 6: Glaciers, Deserts, in addition to Wind Chapter 7: Earthquakes in addition to Earth’s Interior Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics Chapter 9: Volcanoes in addition to Other Igneous Activity Chapter 10: Mountain Building Chapter 11: Geologic Time Chapter 12: Earth’s History: A Brief Summary Chapter 13: The Ocean Floor Chapter 14: Ocean Water in addition to Ocean Life Chapter 15: The Dynamic Ocean Chapter 16: The Atmosphere: Composition, Structure, in addition to Temperature Chapter 17: Moisture, Clouds, in addition to Precipitation Chapter 18: Air Pressure in addition to Wind Chapter 19: Weather Patterns in addition to Severe Storms Chapter 20: Climate Chapter 21: Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 22: Touring Our Solar System Chapter 23: Light, Astronomical Observations, in addition to the Sun Chapter 24: Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science

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Earth science is the name as long as all the sciences that collectively seek to underst in addition to Earth in addition to its neighbors in space. It includes geology, oceanography, meteorology, in addition to astronomy. Geology is traditionally divided into two broad areas—physical in addition to historical.

Environment refers to everything that surrounds in addition to influences an organism. These influences can be biological, social, or physical. When applied to Earth science today, the term environmental is usually reserved as long as those aspects that focus on the relationships between people in addition to the natural environment.

Resources are an important environmental concern. The two broad categories of resources are (1) renewable, which means that they can be replenished over relatively short time spans, in addition to (2) nonrenewable. As population grows, the dem in addition to as long as resources exp in addition to s as well.

Environmental problems can be local, regional, or global. Human-induced problems include urban air pollution, acid rain, ozone depletion, in addition to global warming. Natural hazards include earthquakes, l in addition to slides, floods, in addition to hurricanes.

As world population grows, pressures on the environment also increase. All science is based on the assumption that the natural world behaves in a consistent in addition to predictable manner. The process by which scientists gather facts through observation in addition to careful measurement in addition to as long as mulate scientific hypotheses in addition to theories is called the scientific method.

To determine what is occurring in the natural world, scientists often (1) collect facts, (2) develop a scientific hypothesis, (3) construct experiments to validate the hypothesis, in addition to (4) accept, modify, or reject the hypothesis on the basis of extensive testing. Other discoveries represent purely theoretical ideas that have stood up to extensive examination. Still other scientific advancements have been made when a totally unexpected happening occurred during an experiment.

One of the challenges as long as those who study Earth is the great variety of space in addition to time scales. The geologic time scale subdivides the 4.5 billion years of Earth history into various units. The nebular hypothesis describes the as long as mation of the solar system.

Stossel, John Creators Syndicate Freelance Columnist www.phwiki.com

The planets in addition to Sun began as long as ming about 5 billion years ago from a large cloud of dust in addition to gases. As the cloud contracted, it began to rotate in addition to assume a disk shape. Material that was gravitationally pulled toward the center became the protosun.

Within the rotating disk, small centers, called protoplanets, swept up more in addition to more of the cloud’s debris. Because of their high temperatures in addition to weak gravitational fields, the inner planets were unable to accumulate in addition to retain many of the lighter components. Because of the very cold temperatures existing far from the Sun, the large outer planets consist of huge amounts of lighter materials.

Almost 14 billion years ago, a cataclysmic explosion hurled this material in all directions, creating all matter in addition to space. Eventually the ejected masses of gas cooled in addition to condensed, as long as ming the stellar systems we now observe fleeing from their place of origin.

Stossel, John Freelance Columnist

Stossel, John is from United States and they belong to Creators Syndicate and they are from  Los Angeles, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Stossel, John deal with the subjects like Economy/Economic Issues; Local News; National News

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THE TWO PRINCIPLES SOME SPEEDS Synchronizing Clocks in our Reference Frame Consequences of the Principles: Simultaneity Bob’s View

THE TWO PRINCIPLES SOME SPEEDS Synchronizing Clocks in our Reference Frame Consequences of the Principles: Simultaneity Bob’s View www.phwiki.com

THE TWO PRINCIPLES SOME SPEEDS Synchronizing Clocks in our Reference Frame Consequences of the Principles: Simultaneity Bob’s View

Nevarez, Vanessa, Executive Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal THE TWO PRINCIPLES The laws of physics are the same in all unaccelerated reference frames. The speed of light is not affected by the motion of its source. SOME SPEEDS Example Speed v/c Earth about Sun 30km/s 0.0001 Sound in air 343 m/s 0.0000011 90 mph fastball 40 m/s 0.00000013 10 MeV electron 300000 km/s 0.99 c = 1 ft/ns Synchronizing Clocks in our Reference Frame Place clocks in their needed locations (probably far from each other), in addition to use light signals to synchronize them. Clock A sends a light pulse to clock B where it is detected in addition to reflected back. The two will be synchronized if when the pulse reaches it, clock B reads: tB(receive) = tA(sent) + ½(tA(return) – tA(sent))

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Consequences of the Principles: Simultaneity v Bob Alice A B Bob’s View v Location of A when light reaches it. Location of B when light reaches A Location of source when flashes were emitted. Time Dilation mirror Alice fires a light pulse that goes from the floor of her reference frame to a mirror on the ceiling a distance H away in addition to is reflected back. Two events have occurred: The launching of the light pulse in addition to its return. The time interval between them is: Dt = 2H/c 1 2

Bob’s View of Alice’s Clock vDtBob ½ cDtBob H Pythagoras: (1/2cDtBob)2 = (1/2vDtBob)2 + H2 Quantifying the Comparison From Pythagoras: (c2 – v2)(1/2DtBob)2 = H2 (1 – v2/c2)(DtBob)2 = 4H2/c2 (1 – v2/c2)1/2(DtBob) = 2H/c = DtAlice DtBob = [1/(1 – v2/c2)1/2](DtAlice) DtFrame with speed v = [1/(1 – v2/c2)1/2](DtFrame with events at same place) Example Suppose v/c = 3/5 Then v2/c2 = 9/25, in addition to 1 – v2/c2 = 16/25 in addition to 1/(1 – v2/c2)1/2 = 5/4 So DtBob = 5/4DtAlice

Qualitative Summary An observer as long as whom two events occur at the same place measures the least elapsed time between them. Perpendicular Lengths Is H the same as long as Alice in addition to Bob Do lengths perpendicular to the relative motion appear different as long as different observers Perpendicular Length Test v Bob Alice

Test of Time Dilation Muons are unstable particles produced by incident cosmic rays high in Earth’s atmosphere. They have a mean lifetime of 2.210-6 s when measured at rest in the laboratory. The atmospheric muons come raining down on us at lower altitudes, decaying as they come. In the early 1960’s the number of muons per hour arriving at the top of Mount Washington, 2000 m above sea level, was measured. Then the number arriving at sea level was measured in addition to found to be about 70% of the number at the mountain top. Numbers as long as Muon Experiment Speed of descending muons = 0.995c (known from energy of the production reaction high in the atmosphere). This corresponds to (1 – v2/c2)1/2 = 0.1 Time to travel 2000 m = 2000m/(3108 m/s) = 6.710-6 s This is 3 times the mean lifetime, so only 5% should survive to sea level, while 70% did so. Dtobserved by us = [1/(1 – v2/c2)1/2](Dtmuon) Dtmuon = (1 – v2/c2)1/2(Dtobserved by us) = (0.1)(6.710-6) = 0.6710-6 s This is 1/3 of a mean lifetime, in addition to corresponds to 70% survival Length Contraction Alice leaps across the net after winning another tennis game in addition to marks the take-off in addition to l in addition to ing spots on the court. She is so impressed by her distance that she adds this to her CV as another athletic achievement. Once again, Bob disputes her claim, measuring a shorter distance. What is a good method as long as them both to measure this distance

Both Measure the Jump Bob’s marker Length Contraction Results Bob’s measured length: d = vDtBob Alice’s measured length: d0 = vDtAlice The two events occur at the same place in Bob’s frame, so DtAlice = [1/(1 – v2/c2)1/2](DtBob) Combining the above results we have: d = (1 – v2/c2)1/2d0 Length along the direction of motion is shorter when measured from moving frame than when measured in its own rest frame. MUONS REVISITED Time dilation provided an explanation as long as how 70% of the atmosphetric muons observed at 2000 ft altitude survive to sea level. In that explanation the reference frame used was that of the Earth. Instead let’s view the situation from the frame of the muons. Now it is the mountain that moves at 0.995c. It’s height is there as long as e contracted from 2000 to 200m. The time as long as the muons to go 200 m is 0.6710-6 s, just what we found using the Earth as a reference frame. The two explanations are consistent.

TWO BASIC RESULTS Time dilation Dt(v) = [1/(1 – v2/c2)1/2]Dt(0) Length Contraction d(v) = (1 – v2/c2)1/2d(0)

Nevarez, Vanessa Southwestern Sun Executive Editor www.phwiki.com

Nevarez, Vanessa Executive Editor

Nevarez, Vanessa is from United States and they belong to Southwestern Sun and they are from  Chula Vista, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Nevarez, Vanessa deal with the subjects like Student/Alumni Interest

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Indicators as long as Good Governance Indicators as long as on what level Good Governance

Indicators as long as Good Governance Indicators as long as on what level Good Governance www.phwiki.com

Indicators as long as Good Governance Indicators as long as on what level Good Governance

Randazzo, Sara, Editorial Assistant has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Indicators as long as Good Governance Richard Murray Swedish Agency as long as Public Management Indicators as long as Steering Rewarding Controll Mobilising Underst in addition to ing on what level Micro – agency Meso – policy areas (eduction, transport ) Macro – the government as a whole

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Good Governance Trust of citizens Due process of law Efficient production in addition to programs Democratically controlled Attracting FDI The Lisbon Agenda – per as long as mance of the public sector as a whole

Allocation of resources Health status Educational attainment Crime rate Resources Quality of public administration Size of bureaucracy Transparency (citizens’ survey) Effectiveness of government interventions (implementation) Corruption by what means Organisation Internal regulation of agency work External regulation of agency work Resources: staff, technology Research in addition to development Steering Control Other

Efficiency in addition to effectiveness Efficiency (productivity) Quality Outputs Costs Correct Speedy Useful/appropriate Service quality Impact Rule of Law Correct decisions According to the law Identical Foreseeable Due process Correct h in addition to ling Transparency Competent staff Appeal Possibilities of appeal Possibility to sue the government

Democracy Political control Loyal civil service Objective in addition to relevant decision preparations Efficient means of steering in addition to control A well coordinated in addition to flexible administration Citizens’ influence Lucid organisation Transparency in addition to openness Means of direct influence In as long as mation on citizens’ preferences Possibilities to hold accountable General in as long as mation on society Democratic attitudes Basic principle.: comparable with other statistics National Accounts definitions Delimitation of the public sector Hours worked Output, input Costs Quality Education at a glance Educational levels Labour as long as ce surveys Employed Part-time, full-time Sick-leave

Other sources OECD indicators on market regulation World Value Studies Transparency International Competitiveness reports

Randazzo, Sara Los Angeles Daily Journal Editorial Assistant www.phwiki.com

Randazzo, Sara Editorial Assistant

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h interpretation II (Variance) You may wonder why we use h in haploid syste

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h interpretation II (Variance) You may wonder why we use h in haploid syste

Dade Medical College-Jacksonville, FL has reference to this Academic Journal, * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Polymorphic What is it? * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Pop A Pop B X Monomorphic (if referring so that single-locus data) Diversity Why is it important? Diversity is a reflection of 1) Demographic history 2) Mutational processes Almost without exception, when comparing two populations, we can assume that mutational processes are the same in both pops. Hence differences in diversity indicate differences in demographic history Diversity TMRCA dictates diversity More diversity Large sum of branch lengths More time in consideration of mutations so that accumulate Time Less diversity Small sum of branch lengths Less time in consideration of mutations so that accumulate Factors which increase TMRCA?? Large N (constant through time) No bottlenecks (N varies through time) Recent admixture Diversity

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Hence, finding differences in diversity can give us clues about differences in the demographic history of two populations So, how do we measure diversity? Depends on what we?re measuring. The simplest data are simple categories: Allele A, B, C, D etc. Even here, there is more than one way so that measure diversity – Number of different alleles – Genetic diversity, h How do we measure diversity? Diversity h interpretation I (Probability) h is the probability that two chromosomes picked at random from the population will be different (using the given genetic markers) Diversity h interpretation I (Probability) h is the probability that two chromosomes picked at random from the population will be different (using the given genetic markers) e.g?. In diploid systems, chromosomes naturally come in pairs. Here, h is also the ?expected heterozygosity? ? i.e. the expected frequency of heterozygotes if alleles joined at random (Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium) Diversity

h interpretation II (Variance) You may wonder why we use h in haploid systems, when chromosomes do not come naturally in pairs The answer is that h is still a good measure of diversity, in addition to that thinking about pairs of chromosomes is still a natural way so that think about the problem h is twice the ?within-population variance?, when defined as follows? Diversity Variance In statistics, the most widely used measure of diversity is variance (Note: standard deviation is derived from the variance alongside a 1-to-1 correspondence, so mathematically contains the same information (it is the square root of the variance)) E[X] X Variance is the expected squared deviation from the mean Var(X) = E[ (X ? E[X])2 ] A little-known fact is the variance is also half the expected squared difference between 2 randomly-sampled X values Var(X) = E[ (X ?X?)2 ]/2 = E[diff 2]/2 Diversity h interpretation II (Variance) Going back so that diversity in a population, let us define diff=0 if 2 chromos are the same, in addition to define diff=1 if 2 chromos are different What is E[ diff 2 ] in consideration of 2 randomly-drawn chromosomes? = Fr(same) x 02 + Fr(different) x 12 Hence, by defining variance in terms of difference between 2 objects, in addition to defining diff=0 in consideration of ?same? in addition to diff=1 in consideration of ?different?, we gain a mathematical 1-to-1 relationship between h in addition to variance h = Fr(different) = E[ diff 2 ] = 2*variance This is more nifty than it may at first appear, because variance is a concept normally applied so that a scalar variable X, whereas h applies so that a vector of frequency variables p1, p2, p3 ? pm (where m is the number of different alleles in the population) Diversity

h interpretation II (Variance) You may wonder why we use h in haploid syste

Estimating h In practice, we never know p i , only an estimate x i based on sample counts: x i = a i /n where a i = number of Allele i in sample in addition to n = total sample size Diversity Deriving an unbiased estimate of h The following is is not a full explanation, but hopefully will give the gist of it Remember that h can be derived by thinking about picking 2 chromosomes at random from the true population The true population, in consideration of this purpose, is assumed so that be infinite so that it is impossible so that pick the same chromosome twice To mimic this situation in the sample we have taken, we must arrange things so that the two chromosomes are picked without replacement from the sample Diversity Deriving an unbiased estimate of h Adjust so that avoid self-matches? Each number in the grid below represents a different chromosome in the sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 n a1 = 3 a2 = 3 a3 = 4 Area of ?box? = n 2 Unadjusted frequency of ?same? matches: (a12 + a22 + a32)/n 2 Adjusted frequency of ?same? matches: (a12 + a22 + a32 ? n) / (n 2 ? n) Adjusted frequency of ?different? matches: 1 ? (a12 + a22 + a32 ? n) / (n 2 ? n) Diversity a1 a2 a3

The sampling distribution of hunb ?True? h has no variance ? there is only one unique value in consideration of each population Estimated h does have a variance ? you will get a slightly different value every time you sample n chromosomes from the population, because the sample will be different ?true? h = 0.9 Diversity ^ The sampling distribution of hbiased ?true? h = 0.9 Diversity ^ Estimating the sampling distribution of h by bootstrapping What is bootstrapping? In bootstrapping, we assume that the estimated allele frequencies x i ARE the ?true? frequencies p i We now resample ?fake? samples of size n from this imaginary population, lots of times Diversity ^

The bootstrap distribution of hunb Because bootstrapping resamples the sample, in addition to not the population, the resulting bootstrap distribution is biased In fact, there is no absolutely watertight way of testing in consideration of the difference between two h values. For this reason, I use a double-conservative procedure (see tcga.ucl /software) ?true? h = 0.9 Diversity ^

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