This composite image of sunspot group was collected with the Dunn solar telescop

This composite image of sunspot group was collected with the Dunn solar telescop www.phwiki.com

This composite image of sunspot group was collected with the Dunn solar telescop

Regan, Gary, Freelance Columnist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal This composite image of sunspot group was collected with the Dunn solar telescope at the Sacramento Peak Observatory in New Mexico on Mar. 29, 2001. The lower portion, consisting of four frames, was collected at a wavelength of 293.4 nm. The upper portion was collected at 430.4 nm. The lower image represents calcium ion concentration, with the intensity of color proportional to the amount of calcium ion in the sunspot. The upper image shows the presence of the CH molecule. Richard P. Feynman (1918~1988) was one of the most well-known in addition to renowned scientists of the 20th century. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965. Spectrophotometry Spectroscopy : the science that deals with the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Spectrometry : a more restrictive term, denotes the quantitative measurement of the intensity of electromagnetic radiation at one or more wavelengths with photoelectric detector. Spectrum (pl. spectra) : a display of the intensity of radiation emitted, absorbed, or scattered by a sample versus a quantity related to photon energy(E), such as wave length() or frequency(). wave length(, nm) or frequency(, cm–1). Intensity Spectrum

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Absorption spectra of Fe(III)-salicylic acid complex. UV-visible absorption spectra of cefazolin antibiotics. Plane-polarized electromagnetic radiation showing the electric field, in addition to the direction of propagation. Electric field component of plane-polarized electromagnetic radiation. Properties of light : Electromagnetic radiation ; EM wave ; radiation ; radient ray ; ray ; light Duality ; 1) Wave theory — Huygens = c wavelength (cm/cycle) × frequency (cycles/sec) = velocity (cm/sec) where wavelength, , is the length per unit cycle. Frequency, , is the number of cycles per unit time. C = 2.99792458 × 108 m/s is speed of light 2) Particle (energy packets ; photon) theory — Newton E = h = hc / where E is the energy in joules (J) h is Plancks constant (6.62608 × 10 – 34 J s) 1 erg = 10 –7 J 1 eV = 1.6021 × 10 – 19 J

Wave number, , is the number of cycles per unit length, cm. = 1 / = cm – 1 (reciprocal centimeter ; Kayser) = / c = E / hc Ex. 400 nm x eV E = h = hc / 6.63 10 – 34 J s 3.00 108 m s – 1 = 400 10 – 9 m 1.6 10 – 19 J/eV = 3.1 eV Change in wavelength as radiation passes from air into a dense glass in addition to back to air. Note that the wavelength shortens by nearly 200 nm, or more than 30%, as it passes into glass; a reverse change occurs as the radiation again enters air.

Regions of EM spectrum Designation Wavelength Energy or Transition range wave number Cosmic ray -ray X-ray Vacuum UV near UV Visible Near IR Middle IR Far IR Microwave Radio wave 10 – 12 m 10 – 11 m >2.5 105 eV 10 – 8 m 124 eV 180 10 – 9 m 7 eV 380 10 – 9 m 3.3 eV 780 10 – 9 m 1.6 eV 2500 10 – 9 m 4000 cm – 1 50 10 – 6 m 200 cm – 1 10 – 3 m 10 cm – 1 0.3 m Nuclear K,L shell electron Middle shell Valence electron Molecular electron Molecular vibration Molecular vibration Molecular rotation Molecular rotation Electron, & nuclear spin The visible spectrum Wavelength Color absorbed Color observed (nm) (complement) 380-420 Violet Green-yellow 420-440 Violet-blue Yellow 440-470 Blue Orange 470-500 Blue-green Red 500-520 Green Purple 520-550 Yellow-green Violet 550-580 Yellow Violet-blue 580-620 Orange Blue 620-680 Red Blue-green 680-780 Purple Green ROYG RIV Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet

Types of interaction between radiation in addition to matter 1. Reflection & scattering 2. Refraction & dispersion 3. Absorption & transition 4. Luminescence & emission Emission or chemiluminescence Sample Sample Refraction Reflection A B Sample Scattering in addition to photoluminescence Absorption along radiation beam Transmission C Types of interaction between radiation in addition to matter. Several spectroscopic phenomena 1) depend on transition between energy states of particular chemical species E higher energy (excited state) E applied energy E o lowest energy (ground state) 2) depend on the changes in the optical properties of EM radiation that occur when it interacts with the sample or analyte or on photon-induced changes in chemical as long as m (e.g. ionization or photochemical reactions) Emission or Absorption Photoluminescence chemiluminescence A B C Antistokes Stokes Combination of nonradiative transition transition in addition to radiative deactivation D E F Common types of optical transition. non-radiative process Radiative process non radiative

Absorption methods. Photoluminescence methods. Emission or chemiluminescence processes. Absorption of EM radiation Sun Eye Visual center Source Monochromator Cuvet Detector P0 P b C Incident light P P – dP db b b = 0 b = b Emerging light Molar concentration [C] Absorption of EM radiation

Color of a solution. White light from a lamp or the sun strikes the solution of Fe(SCN)2+. The fairly broad absorption spectrum shows a maximum absorbance in the 460 to 500 nm range. The complementary red color is transmitted. Attenuation of a beam of radiation by an absorbing solution. Reflection in addition to scattering losses with a solution contained in a typical glass cell. Absorption methods. Radiation of incident power 0 can be absorbed by the analyte producing a beam of diminished transmitted power (a) if the frequency of the incident beam, 2 corresponds to energy difference, E1 or E2 (b). The spectrum is shown in (c). Sample Incident radiation 0 Transmitted radiation (a) 2 1 0 E2 = h2 = hc/2 E1 = h1 = hc/1 (b) A 2 1 0 (c)

Lambert Beer’s law Transmittance T = P / P0 %T = (P / P0) 100 Absorbance (A, O.D., E, As) A = log T = log P/ P0 Lambert’s law Lambert in addition to Bouger found that the intensity of the transmitted energy decrease exponentially as the depth (b ; path length of the beam through the sample) increases. dP = k P db dP/P = k db dP/P = k db ln P/P0 = k b log P/P0 = (k/2.303) b A = log P/P0 = (/2.303) b T A Path length Path length Effect of path length on transmittance in addition to absorbance of light. Beer’s law Beer in 1852 found that concentration (C) is a reciprocal exponential function of transmittance in addition to absorbance is directly proportional to the concentration. dP = P dC dP/P = dC dP/P = dC ln P/P0 = C log P/P0 = (/2.303) C A = log P/P0 = (/2.303) C Lambert – Beer’s law A = bC where is molar absorptivity Effect of concentration of analyte on transmittance in addition to absorbance of light. A [C] [C] log T Limitation Beer’s law 1. Concentration deviation ; A = log T = log P/P0 = bC (Eq 1) (0.434 / T) dT = b dC (Eq 2) Eq 2 ÷ Eq 1 (0.434 / T) dT log T dC / C = ÷ b b = (0.434 / T log T) dT C/C = (0.434 / T log T) T A [C] 4 2 1 C/C Twyman Lothian curve T = 36.8 % A = 0.434 normal working range15%T(0.824A)~80%T(0.097A)

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2. Refractive index deviation A = bC [ n / (n2 + 2)2] where n is refractive index 3. Instrumental deviation ; difficult to select single wavelength beam max The effect of polychromatic radiation on Beer’s law. Choosing wavelength in addition to monochromator b in addition to width.Increasing the monochromator b in addition to width broadens the b in addition to s in addition to decreases the apparent absorbance. Absorbance error introduced by different levels of stray light. Deviation from Beer’s law caused by various levels of stray light.

Chemical deviation from Beer’s law as long as unbuffered solution of the Indicator HIn. 4. Chemical deviation ; dissociation or reaction with solvent ex. Acidic as long as m intermediate as long as m basic as long as m 5. Solvent deviation T = tsolution / tsolvent 6. Temperature ; narrower spectrum b in addition to at below 50C 7. Pressure ; gas phase sample Errors in spectrophotometric measurements due to instrumental electrical noise in addition to cell positioning imprecision. Typical visible absorption spectra of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine in different solvent. Absorption spectra of KMnO4

Q n A Thanks Home page http://mail.swu.ac.kr/~cat Electronic mail dslee@swu.ac.kr

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NEWTON’S PARTICLE THEORY OF LIGHT PARTICLE THEORY OF REFRACTION NEWTON’S EXPLANATION OF SNELL’S LAW OTHER PROPERTIES Decisive Test of Particle Theory

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NEWTON’S PARTICLE THEORY OF LIGHT PARTICLE THEORY OF REFRACTION NEWTON’S EXPLANATION OF SNELL’S LAW OTHER PROPERTIES Decisive Test of Particle Theory

Nathan, Gary, Executive Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal NEWTON’S PARTICLE THEORY OF LIGHT Light is made up of little particles. They obey the same laws of physics as other masses like baseballs in addition to planets. They are tiny so the particles in two intersecting beams do not scatter off each other. PARTICLE THEORY OF REFRACTION A light particle deep within a medium experiences no net as long as ce. Near an interface, e.g. between air in addition to water, light particles experience an attractive as long as ce towards the water. Could this be the cause of refraction air water vair vwater qi qr

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NEWTON’S EXPLANATION OF SNELL’S LAW sin(qi) = vpar/vair sin(qr) = vpar/vwater sin(qi)/sin(qr) = vwater/vair OTHER PROPERTIES Colors Polarization Decisive Test of Particle Theory source rotating mirror fixed mirror air water

WAVE MOTION A wave is a pattern, or shape, or disturbance, traveling through a medium. Examples: Sound is a pressure wave in air. Sideways vibration of stretched string. Football stadium “wave”. TORSIONAL WAVES Waves reflect from ends in this example also. FASTER TORSIONAL WAVES

SUPERPOSITION When two wave amplitudes occur at the same point, they simply add. They do not scatter from each other. Example: Torsion waves passing through each other. PERIODIC WAVES PERIODIC WAVE SPEED T = period of rope motion. f = frequency = 1/T v = wave speed Wavelength = l = distance between wave crests Basic relation: v = distance moved/time = l/T = fl Example: WTJU frequency = 91 MHz. l = c/f = 3108/0.9108 = 3.3m

REFRACTION OF WAVES li i sin(i)/sin(r) = li/lr = fli/flr = vi/vr REFRACTION fast slow fast INTERFERENCE Constructive Interference: Destructive Interference

YOUNG TWO-SLIT INTERFERENCE PATTERN l path difference Bright Dim Bright Dim YOUNG TWO-SLIT INTERFERENCE PATTERN l path difference Bright Dim Bright Dim SOAP FILMS film thickness = t path difference ~ 2t in addition to varies as film drains in addition to thins. Colored horizontal fringes can be seen.

COLOR AND WAVELENGTH Color Wavelength (nm) Red 650 Yellow 580 Green 540 Blue 470 Violet 440

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Radiation Dr. Rasha Salama PhD Community Medicine Suez Canal University Egypt De

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Radiation Dr. Rasha Salama PhD Community Medicine Suez Canal University Egypt De

Proctor, Christine, Editorial Assistant has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Radiation Dr. Rasha Salama PhD Community Medicine Suez Canal University Egypt Definition of Radiation “Radiation is an energy in the as long as m of electro-magnetic waves or particulate matter, traveling in the air.” Forces: There are many interactions among nuclei. It turns out that there are as long as ces other than the electromagnetic as long as ce in addition to the gravitational as long as ce which govern the interactions among nuclei. Einstein in 1905m showed 2 more laws: energy/mass, in addition to binding energy

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Radioactivity: Elements & Atoms Atoms are composed of smaller particles referred to as: Protons Neutrons Electrons Basic Model of a Neutral Atom. Electrons (-) orbiting nucleus of protons (+) in addition to neutrons. Same number of electrons as protons; net charge = 0. Atomic number (number of protons) determines element. Mass number (protons + neutrons)

Radioactivity If a nucleus is unstable as long as any reason, it will emit in addition to absorb particles. There are many types of radiation in addition to they are all pertinent to everyday life in addition to health as well as nuclear physical applications. Ionization Ionizing radiation is produced by unstable atoms. Unstable atoms differ from stable atoms because they have an excess of energy or mass or both. Unstable atoms are said to be radioactive. In order to reach stability, these atoms give off, or emit, the excess energy or mass. These emissions are called radiation.

Types or Products of Ionizing Radiation or X-ray neutron Radioactive Atom X-ray gamma ray The electro-magnetic waves vary in their length in addition to frequency along a very wide spectrum.

Types of Radiation Radiation is classified into: Ionizing radiation Non-ionizing radiation Ionizing Versus Non-ionizing Radiation Ionizing Radiation Higher energy electromagnetic waves (gamma) or heavy particles (beta in addition to alpha). High enough energy to pull electron from orbit. Non-ionizing Radiation Lower energy electromagnetic waves. Not enough energy to pull electron from orbit, but can excite the electron. Ionizing Radiation Definition: “ It is a type of radiation that is able to disrupt atoms in addition to molecules on which they pass through, giving rise to ions in addition to free radicals”.

Another Definition Ionizing radiation A radiation is said to be ionizing when it has enough energy to eject one or more electrons from the atoms or molecules in the irradiated medium. This is the case of a in addition to b radiations, as well as of electromagnetic radiations such as gamma radiations, X-rays in addition to some ultra-violet rays. Visible or infrared light are not, nor are microwaves or radio waves. Primary Types of Ionizing Radiation Alpha particles Beta particles Gamma rays (or photons) X-Rays (or photons) Neutrons Alpha Particles: 2 neutrons in addition to 2 protons They travel short distances, have large mass Only a hazard when inhaled Types in addition to Characteristics of Ionizing Radiation Alpha Particles

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Alpha Particles (or Alpha Radiation): Helium nucleus (2 neutrons in addition to 2 protons); +2 charge; heavy (4 AMU). Typical Energy = 4-8 MeV; Limited range (<10cm in air; 60µm in tissue); High LET (QF=20) causing heavy damage (4K-9K ion pairs/µm in tissue). Easily shielded (e.g., paper, skin) so an internal radiation hazard. Eventually lose too much energy to ionize; become He. Beta Particles Beta Particles: Electrons or positrons having small mass in addition to variable energy. Electrons as long as m when a neutron trans as long as ms into a proton in addition to an electron or: Beta Particles: High speed electron ejected from nucleus; -1 charge, light 0.00055 AMU; Typical Energy = several KeV to 5 MeV; Range approx. 12'/MeV in air, a few mm in tissue; Low LET (QF=1) causing light damage (6-8 ion pairs/µm in tissue). Primarily an internal hazard, but high beta can be an external hazard to skin. In addition, the high speed electrons may lose energy in the as long as m of X-rays when they quickly decelerate upon striking a heavy material. This is called Bremsstralung (or Breaking) Radiation. Aluminum in addition to other light (<14) materials are used as long as shielding. Gamma Rays Gamma Rays (or photons): Result when the nucleus releases energy, usually after an alpha, beta or positron transition X-Rays X-Rays: Occur whenever an inner shell orbital electron is removed in addition to rearrangement of the atomic electrons results with the release of the elements characteristic X-Ray energy Thank You

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GEM2505M Frederick H. Willeboordse frederik@chaos.nus .sg Taming Chaos I

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GEM2505M Frederick H. Willeboordse frederik@chaos.nus .sg Taming Chaos I

Dade Medical College-West Palm Beach, FL has reference to this Academic Journal, GEM2505M Frederick H. Willeboordse frederik@chaos.nus .sg Taming Chaos In Class Tutorial 1 Questions? Homoclinic Points Received by E-mail Btw. this picture is based on an invertible period 1 map. Invertible implies that there is a unique forward in addition to backward iterate. An (un)-stable manifold cannot intersect itself One homoclinic point -> infinitely many homoclinic points Both based on the fact that a point can have one (and only one) forward/backward iterate.

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Now that we have seen stretch in addition to fold at work, we can get a bit a better understanding of why the homoclinic points lead so that chaotic orbits. Homoclinic Points Let us see what happens so that a small area near the stable manifold After a few steps it will be near the fixed point. From Lecture 11 Homoclinic Points After arriving at the fixed point the rectangle will be stretched in addition to pushed away along the unstable manifold. Eventually, it will be near the starting point again in addition to overlap the original area. original square From Lecture 11 Questions? Cantor Set ? Endpoints in triadic Received by E-mail 0 1 0 1 2 00 01 02 10 11 12 20 21 22 0.002 0.02 0.202 0.22 So we see: Endpoints either end in 2 or 2

Questions? Cantor Set Received by E-mail Again: Endpoints either end in 2 or 2 in triadic But: In order in consideration of a point so that be a member of the Cantor set, the requirement is only that is can be written alongside 0 in addition to 2. Therefore: Combinations of 0 in addition to 2 not ending in a 2 or 2 are members of the Cantor set but not endpoints! Questions? z0 Mandelbrot & Julia Sets Received by E-mail Julia Set Mandelbrot Set Change c Fix z0 = 0 Change z0 Fix c z0 c Questions If you have any questions about the first few lectures, please ask them now! Ask them now! ?

GEM2505M Frederick H. Willeboordse frederik@chaos.nus .sg Taming Chaos I

The Chaos Game Make a triangle in addition to label the corners A,B,C Choose any point inside the triangle, make a dot Roll a dice, if it?s 1 or 2 move halfway so that A, if it?s 3 or 4, move halfway so that B in addition to if it?s 5 or 6 move half way so that C. Make a dot at the new position Repeat 3 until dots cover the entire triangle! Roll your dice! A B C 1,2 3,4 5,6 The Chaos Game Example A B C 1,2 3,4 5,6 1st throw: 4 A B C 1,2 3,4 5,6 A B C 1,2 3,4 5,6 A B C 1,2 3,4 5,6 2nd throw: 2 3rd throw: 3 4th throw: 6

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