M in addition to M’s in the wild Your turn! Be the chocolate predator Human Example

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M in addition to M’s in the wild Your turn! Be the chocolate predator Human Example

Stewart, Ben, Automotive Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The Process of Microevolution Selection: Directional, Stabilizing, in addition to Disruptive Selection Microevolution vs. Macroevolution Microevolution: change in allele frequency Macroevolution: as long as mation of new species Microevolution The environment selects the best traits in the as long as m of alleles that are advantageous as long as the given conditions i.e. the ability to digest a new food, or a new skin pigment may allow an organism to blend in with its environment Genotype = genetic make-up, what alleles an organism has Phenotype = appearance, what it looks like

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Examples of Microevolution Case 1: Galapagos Finch Case 2: English Pepper Moth Case 3: Mystery Predator Case 4: Human Blood Types The common denominator in each of these cases is the change in the alleles of a given gene or set of genes If there is a change in the frequency of the allele(s), then there will be a change in the genotype in addition to phenotype of the population Be as long as e industrial revolution After industrial revolution English Peppered Moth

M in addition to M’s in the wild The “M in addition to M” Predator Showing effects of different M & M colors surviving over time

Your turn! Be the chocolate predator Empty M in addition to M bag on table. Place colors on matching dots. Place colors that don’t match (green) wherever you have space. Now, EAT your M in addition to M prey that don’t match (easiest to find) M in addition to M Population- Be as long as e Predation M in addition to M Population- After Predation

Microevolution effects on populations over time Life history patterns = how species reproduce How successful each of the variations in species will be at reproducing Which M in addition to M’s color will likely have a frequency change Summary The environment is the selecting as long as ce that determines the best fit of traits. Positive in addition to negative selecting pressures cause a shift in the % of a trait in a population of a given species The changes result in genetic shuffling Eventually these gene shifts may be great enough to cause species to change Human Example Four Human Blood types- O is original A in addition to B are two blood type changes resulting from dietary shifts in addition to immune responses AB is newest, due to mixed A in addition to B populations

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Currency Wars: Global Money in 2010 Jeffrey Frankel Harpel Professor of Capital Formation & Growth, Harvard University Currency Wars Chronology, Fall 2010

Currency Wars: Global Money in 2010 Jeffrey Frankel Harpel Professor of Capital Formation & Growth, Harvard University Currency Wars Chronology, Fall 2010 www.phwiki.com

Currency Wars: Global Money in 2010 Jeffrey Frankel Harpel Professor of Capital Formation & Growth, Harvard University Currency Wars Chronology, Fall 2010

Cox, Nicole, News Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Currency Wars: Global Money in 2010 Jeffrey Frankel Harpel Professor of Capital Formation & Growth, Harvard University Macquarie Securities Boston, December 8, 2010 Currency Wars Chronology, Fall 2010 September 15 Japan buys $20 b, as long as ¥, after a 6-year absence from FX markets; thereby joining Switzerl in addition to , the other floater to have appreciated in 2008-09 GFC in addition to to have fought it by FX intervention. September 27: warning from Brazil’s Finance Minister Guido Mantega: “We’re in the midst of an international currency war, a general weakening of currency. This threatens us because it takes away our competitiveness.” I.e., countries everywhere are trying to push down the value of their currencies, to gain exports & employment, a goal that is not globally consistent. Currency Wars chronology, continued

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Renewed flows to emerging markets in 2010 have met with $ purchases in FX intervention Brazil, Korea, Thail in addition to , India & others must manage inflows: Appreciation Buying $ to prevent appreciation Capital controls Currency Wars chronology, continued Currency Wars chronology, continued October 15: U.S Treasury postpones semi-annual report to Congress on currency manipulation although there has clearly been little appreciation of the RMB since China announces more flexibility in June. (All a repeat of 2005.) November After inflation rises to 4.4% in October, China raises i & reserve requirements in addition to adopts new price controls. US core inflation falls to 0.6% as long as year, the lowest since 1957. => fears of deflation trap. Currency Wars chronology, continued

Nov. 17 As European sovereign debt crisis resurfaces in Irel in addition to , € hits 7-week low (1.3 $/€). Nov.20-21 Fed announces QE2 (signaled since August): will purchase $600b. Short-term market reaction: $ depreciates Immediate attacks on Fed action – Palin & conservatives: “debauching the currency” German & China: $ depreciation is a deliberate salvo in currency wars Currency Wars chronology, continued The reactions of most emerging markets show they learned two lessons from the 1990s currency crises: Advantages of holding as long as ex reserves: Lower frequency & severity of crises. Advantages of floating: Speculators don’t have a target to shoot at; Accommodate shocks; Discourage unhedged $ liabilities. Such currency mismatch leads to bad balance sheet effects when devaluation comes. How did these lessons fare in the global crisis of 2008-09 Reserves Even though many developing & emerging market countries described themselves as floating, most took advantage of the boom of 2003-2008 to build up reserves to unheard of heights, in the aftermath of the crises of 1994-2001. in contrast to past capital booms (1975-81, 1990-97).

When the 2008-09 global financial crisis hit, those countries that had taken advantage of the 2003-08 boom to build up reserves did better. Frankel & Saravelos (2010). Aizenman (2009) in addition to Obstfeld, Shambaugh & Taylor (2009) Vs. Blanchard (2009) in addition to Rose & Spiegel (2009) This had also been the most common finding in the many studies of Early Warning Indicators in past emerging market crises. EWIs: The variables that show up as the strongest predictors of country crises in 83 studies are: (i) reserves in addition to (ii) currency overvaluation Source: Frankel & Saravelos (2010) Best in addition to Worst Per as long as ming Countries – F&S (2010), Appendix 4

F & Saravelos (2010): Bivariate F & Saravelos (2010): Multivariate Floating Most medium-income Emerging Market countries reacted to the currency crises of the 1990s by increasing exchange rate flexibility with the major exception of Eastern Europe. The flexibility has helped.

Pol in addition to , the only continental EU member with a floating exchange rate, was also the only one to escape negative growth in the global recession of 2009 Source: Cezary Wójcik, 2010 (de facto) % change in GDP Depreciation boosted net exports; contribution to GDP growth > 100% Contribution of Net X to GDP: 2009: 2,5 3,4 3,2 3,4 GDP growth rate: 1,7 Source: Cezary Wójcik kroon / $ Estonia Latvia lats / $ zlotys / $ The Polish exchange rate increased by 35%. Capital flows to emerging markets, especially Asia, recovered quickly from the 2009 recession. These countries again show big balance of payments surpluses Goldman Sachs

Although China continues the most salient case, Korea, Singapore & Taiwan are also adding heavily to reserves. GS Global ECS Research Others, such as India & Malaysia, are currently taking the inflows in the as long as m of currency appreciation, more than reserve accumulation. GS Global ECS Research less-managed floating (“more appreciation-friendly”) more-managed floating In Latin America as well, inflows have returned, less-managed floating (“more appreciation-friendly”) more-managed floating GS Global ECS Research but as appreciation in Chile & Colombia. reflected mostly as reserve accumulation in Peru,

Fear of non-cooperative “competitive devaluation” is an argument as long as fixed exchange rates rooted in the 1930s. That is why the architects of the post-war monetary order chose fixed exchange rates at Bretton Woods, NH, in 1944. But it is now used to argue that China should move from fixing to floating. US Congressmen don’t care about regimes; they just want a stronger RMB vs. $. Is the currency war metaphor appropriate Economic historians have decided competitive devaluation under 1930s conditions was not a problem after all. True, countries couldn’t all devalue against each other, But they could in addition to did all devalue against gold which worked to ease global monetary policy, just what was needed. Is the currency war metaphor applicable continued The same is true today: The Fed’s QE2 won’t just raise the money supply in the US; it will also loosen globally, to the extent that as long as eign central banks react by buying $ to prevent their own currencies from appreciating. which is what much of the world needs. For those who don’t need it, because they are already in danger of overheating, they can allow appreciation, in addition to so calibrate however much expansion they want. Multilateral cooperation is not necessary as long as this. Is the currency war metaphor applicable continued

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Indeed, the currency war critics seem to have as long as gotten the point of a global floating system: In some places (US), unemployment is high & inflation low, calling as long as easy monetary policy; In other places (China, Brazil, India ), economies are overheating, calling as long as tight monetary policy. The point of a floating system is to accommodate such inevitable macro divergences smoothly. No international cooperation is needed. Would this put unfair pressure on China to choose between inflation, if it continues to keep the RMB down, in addition to appreciation No. Perhaps China can continue to sterilize inflows awhile longer, e.g., raising bank reserve requirements. True, eventually it will have to give that up. But there is nothing unfair about making China choose between inflation in addition to appreciation. Monetary expansion by the US is perfectly legitimate especially at a time of deflation danger. If it puts pressure on China, that is far more clearly within the “rules of the game” than threatening tariffs. Other kinds of international cooperation are needed; the 1930s currency war metaphors are not totally misplaced: Currency war could turn into trade war if Congress follows through on legislation to impose (WTO-illegal) tariffs on China as punishment as long as non-appreciation. Until now, the US & G20 have held the line on protectionism compared to the milder recessions of 1991 & 2001, let alone the Smoot Hawley tariff of 1930. Is the currency war metaphor applicable continued

China would take some responsibility to reallocate its economy away from exclusive reliance on exports & manufacturing toward domestic consumption & services, health, education, housing, environment, insurance & other services. How By allowing the RMB to appreciate, but also by increasing domestic dem in addition to . Meanwhile, the US would ideally also take responsibility. Even while prolonging expansionary policy this year, including fiscal expansion designed with high bang- as long as -the-buck, the US should take steps today to lock in a future return to fiscal responsibility, e.g., by putting Social Security on a firm footing. Ideally the US & China would reach agreement on how to address current account imbalances: Will Unsustainable Current Account Deficits Lead to the End of Dollar Hegemony Some argue the US current account deficit is sustainable indefinitely. They believe that the US will continue to enjoy its unique “exorbitant privilege,” able to borrow unlimited amounts in its own currency because it is the dominant international reserve asset. “Bretton Woods II” Dooley, Folkerts-L in addition to au, & Garber (2003) : today’s system is a new Bretton Woods, with Asia playing the role that Europe played in the 1960s—buying up $ to prevent their own currencies from appreciating. More provocatively: China is piling up dollars not because of myopic mercantilism, but as part of an export-led development strategy that is rational given China’s need to import workable systems of finance & corporate governance.

Gold Gold was seen as an anachronism just a few years ago: the world’s central banks were selling off their stocks. Gold re-joined the world monetary system in 2009: The PBoC, RBI, & other Asian central banks bought gold, to diversify their reserves. Even in advanced countries, central banks appear to have stopped selling. Special Drawing Rights The SDR has made a surprising comeback as a potential international money, from near-oblivion. The G20 in 2009 decided to create new SDRs ($250b). Shortly later, PBoC Gov. Zhou proposed replacing the $ as lead international currency with the SDR. The IMF is now borrowing in SDRs. The proposal has been revived as long as an international substitution account at the IMF, to extinguish an unwanted $ overhang in exchange as long as SDRs. The SDR has little chance of st in addition to ing up as a competitor to the € or ¥, let alone to the $. Still, it is back in the world monetary system. http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~jfrankel/index.htm

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?Look? at a star? Overview Coordinate systems in Astronomy

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?Look? at a star? Overview Coordinate systems in Astronomy

Hamline University, MN has reference to this Academic Journal, Coordinate systems in Astronomy Varun Bhalerao Overview Need in consideration of astronomical coordinate systems Local in addition to global coordinate systems Altitude ? azimuth Right ascension ? declination Conversion of coordinates Spherical trigonometry Which star do we choose ? For centuries, people have been gazing at the heavens, in addition to have uncovered numerous facts about them. We choose so that begin our journey in such a way that we can go a rather long way, discovering as many features as we can. We choose ?. ALGOL ?Look? at a star?

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?Look? at a star? Constellation Shapes in addition to Boundaries The shapes come from ancient times, as easy-to-remember patterns in the sky Modern constellations like telescopium etc were not named after patterns they seem so that form, but named after objects Constellation shapes (stick figures) may change from chart so that chart, but two main systems followed ? astronomical in addition to ray?s Constellation boundaries standardized by IAU (International Astronomical Union) Boundary lines parallel so that RA / dec lines (RA in addition to dec are explained later) ?Look? at a star?

?Look? at a star? Coordinate systems Rising in addition to setting Local coordinates ? basic reference so that a star in the sky Layman?s representation like above the building ? about halfway so that overhead etc is not good enough More standard representation required System used is the Alt-Az system Coordinate systems – local Basic elements of the celestial sphere

Lecture 15 Ireland: 1957-1972 Ireland in the 1950s Economic planning The volume of GNP in 1958 was 2.5% below the level of 1955 in addition to only 6.5% above the level in 1951. From 1960 so that 1967 the economy expanded at a rate of 4% per annum Consequences of economic change Consequences of economic change Irish family on holiday in the 1960s In 1960 female workers received 53% of the male rate, which was so that rise only so that 54% in 1969 in addition to 59% in 1971. IWLM tactics Charles Haughey (centre) alongside his solicitor in addition to a friend

Coordinate systems – local Altitude Coordinate systems – local Azimuth Coordinate systems – global The celestial sphere

Coordinate systems – global Diurnal circles (Path followed by the star in the sky during one rotation of earth) Coordinate systems – global Hour circles ? Equal right ascension Coordinate systems – global Declination

Coordinate systems – global Right ascension, declination Coordinate systems – global Right ascension & hour angle Right Ascension Hour angle Right Ascension at the meridian =hour angle of vernal equinox = sidereal time vernal equinox North Celestial Pole star Horizon Celestial Equator Spherical trigonometry A great circle is made by a plane passing through the center of a sphere. Equator, lines of RA are great circles. Other than equator, other lines of declination are not great circles.

Spherical Triangles Triangles made by intersecting great circles are spherical triangles. The sides of these triangles are the arcs on the surface of the sphere The angles are the angles as measured at the vertex, or angle between the planes which make those great circles Angle of triangle ? represented by A, B, C Side of triangle ? represented by a, b, c The sides of spherical triangle The length of the side is related so that the angle it subtends at the center by s = r * theta Angles subtended at center can hence be used so that represent sides Esp. in astronomy, we can measure angles in sky but they don?t necessarily relate so that distances between the objects theta side s Spherical Triangles We can imagine that the angles of a spherical triangle need not add so that 180o For example, consider an octant cut out of a sphere? the sum of angles is 270o ! In fact, the sum must be greater than 180o in addition to the sum of angles ? 180o is called the spherical excess 90o 90o 90o

Formulae Corresponding so that formulae in plane trigonometry, there are more generalized formulae in spherical trigonometry Sine rule : sin a = sin b = sin c sin A sin B sin C Cosine rule : cos A = -cos B cos C + sin B sin C cos a cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A Coordinate Conversions Given a star, so that convert from equatorial so that alt-az (or any one system so that another): First draw the celestial sphere showing the lines in consideration of both coordinate systems Consider the spherical triangle alongside the star in addition to poles of the two systems as vertices Apply the spherical trigonometry formulae. Coordinate Conversions vernal equinox North Celestial Pole star Horizon Celestial Equator Zenith Sides : 90o ? latitude 90o ? altitude 90o – declination Angles : 360o ? azimuth Hour angle Unknown (not required) 2 1 3

Other systems Ecliptic Reference circle : ecliptic plane Reference point : vernal equinox Galactic Reference circle : galactic plane Reference point : direction of centre of galaxy Inter-conversions so that be done by spherical trigonometry formulae Review Coordinate systems : Local : Altitude ? azimuth Semi-local : Hour angle ? declination Global : Right Ascension ? declination Ecliptic Galactic Review Spherical triangles : Sides are great circles, represented by angles Sum of angles > 180o Formulae : Sine rule : sin a = sin b = sin c sin A sin B sin C Cosine rule : cos A = -cos B cos C + sin B sin C cos a cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Other systems Ecliptic Reference circle : ecliptic plane Reference point : vernal equinox Galactic Reference circle : galactic plane Reference point : direction of centre of galaxy Inter-conversions so that be done by spherical trigonometry formulae Review Coordinate systems : Local : Altitude ? azimuth Semi-local : Hour angle ? declination Global : Right Ascension ? declination Ecliptic Galactic Review Spherical triangles : Sides are great circles, represented by angles Sum of angles > 180o Formulae : Sine rule : sin a = sin b = sin c sin A sin B sin C Cosine rule : cos A = -cos B cos C + sin B sin C cos a cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A and short form of this particular Institution is MN and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.

 

Euphemisms in addition to Dysphemisms Words or phrases that are substituted

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Euphemisms in addition to Dysphemisms Words or phrases that are substituted

Hamline University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Persuasion Through Rhetoric Words, Phrases, in addition to Simple Assertions A psychological point about rhetoric in addition to suggestion. It?s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable influence on behavior. A psychological point about rhetoric in addition to suggestion. It?s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable influence on behavior. The operation of such influences may occur below the threshold of consciousness.

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A psychological point about rhetoric in addition to suggestion. It?s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable influence on behavior. The operation of such influences may occur below the threshold of consciousness. The positive in addition to negative impressions made by use of rhetorical devices, while they may sometimes seem trivial, can have powerful in addition to long-lasting effects. A psychological point about rhetoric in addition to suggestion. It?s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable influence on behavior. The operation of such influences may occur below the threshold of consciousness. The positive in addition to negative impressions made by use of rhetorical devices, while they may sometimes seem trivial, can have powerful in addition to long-lasting effects. Critical thinking addresses influence of rhetoric in two ways: (1) helps identify attempts at non-argumentative persuasion (2) helps check ?spontaneous? beliefs in addition to impulses Euphemisms in addition to Dysphemisms Words or phrases that are substituted in consideration of other words or phrases so that put what is being discussed in a more positive or negative light

Euphemisms in addition to Dysphemisms Words or phrases that are substituted in consideration of other words or phrases so that put what is being discussed in a more positive or negative light Euphemism: ?Used cars? become ?pre-owned vehicles?. Dysphemism: ?Music? becomes ?noise?. Euphemisms in addition to Dysphemisms Words or phrases that are substituted in consideration of other words or phrases so that put what is being discussed in a more positive or negative light Euphemism: ?Used cars? become ?pre-owned vehicles?. Dysphemism: ?Music? becomes ?noise?. Note: Reports in addition to descriptions may convey pleasant or unpleasant information without being euphemistic or dysphemistic. It?s the quality of the language that matters. Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, in addition to Explanations Ways of speaking that depart positively or negatively from a fair or neutral position Problems of content, not of form

2014 Purdue Crop Cost in addition to Return Guide (August 2013) Outline of Presentation Ten-Year Averages (2005 so that 2014) Market Revenue per Acre ( Average Productivity Soil) Variable Cost per Acre ( Average Productivity Soil) Variable Cost per Acre (Average Productivity Soil) Variable Cost per Acre (Average Productivity Soil) Contribution Margin per Acre ( Average Productivity Soil) 2014 Contribution Margin per Acre by Soil Productivity Level Land Rent in Dollars per Bushel of Corn Yield Rotations 2013 in addition to 2014 Earnings per Acre (Average Productivity Soil) 2013 in addition to 2014 Total Costs Per Bushel (Corn/Soybean Rotation; 3000 acres) Ten-Year Earnings per Acre (Average Productivity Soil) Questions, Comments

Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, in addition to Explanations Ways of speaking that depart positively or negatively from a fair or neutral position Problems of content, not of form Comparison: The American revolutionaries used tactics similar so that those employed by the Viet Cong. Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, in addition to Explanations Ways of speaking that depart positively or negatively from a fair or neutral position Problems of content, not of form Comparison: The American revolutionaries used tactics similar so that those employed by the Viet Cong. Definition: religion – the opiate of the people Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, in addition to Explanations Ways of speaking that depart positively or negatively from a fair or neutral position Problems of content, not of form Comparison: The American revolutionaries used tactics similar so that those employed by the Viet Cong. Definition: religion – the opiate of the people Explanation: Franklin stayed in France throughout the revolution because he was a celebrity there.

Stereotype May function as an unexamined assumption behind a premise (easily results in fallacy of begging the question) or explanatory claim (especially, as failure so that consider alternatives) Stereotype May function as an unexamined assumption behind a premise (easily results in fallacy of begging the question) or explanatory claim (especially, as failure so that consider alternatives) When directly expressed, takes the form of a generalization Stereotype May function as an unexamined assumption behind a premise (easily results in fallacy of begging the question) or explanatory claim (especially, as failure so that consider alternatives) When directly expressed, takes the form of a generalization As expectation, may cause an observer so that ignore conflicting phenomena or supply consistent details that never occurred

Innuendo A suggestion that is made indirectly Creates a negative impression (using indirect language so that create a positive impression is usually better classed as understatement) May be constructed by association alongside something negative or by faint praise Example: Prof. X? Is he the one who admitted that his emotions influence his grading? (When speaker knows Prof. X didn?t.) Example: Student Y? Yes, I remember her. She satisfied the minimum requirements of the course. Loaded Question Often a yes-no question or a false dilemma, but could occur alongside any question form Answering directly requires accepting or presuming a questionable, hostile, or unjustified assumption May function similarly so that innuendo Loaded Question Often a yes-no question or a false dilemma, but could occur alongside any question form Answering directly requires accepting or presuming a questionable, hostile, or unjustified assumption May function similarly so that innuendo Example: Are you still abusing illegal drugs? Example: Should we vote in consideration of the Democrat or the Repulican in this election? Example: What were you thinking when you attempted so that steal that CD?

Weaseler A word or phrase that deceptively weakens a claim Weaseler A word or phrase that deceptively weakens a claim Not so that be confused alongside careful qualification Weaseler A word or phrase that deceptively weakens a claim Not so that be confused alongside careful qualification Example: Save up so that 40% (when typical savings will be less) Example: It?s easy so that go all the way.on the phone. (real ad!)

Downplayer A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim May overlap alongside weaseler Downplayer A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim May overlap alongside weaseler Example: Today?s ?patriots? are just looking in consideration of a way so that make a quick buck in Iraq. Downplayer A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim May overlap alongside weaseler Example: Today?s ?patriots? are just looking in consideration of a way so that make a quick buck in Iraq. Example: I understand your grade is low, but it?s normal in consideration of some students so that fail this course. (Notice how the individual?s particular situation is effectively submerged.)

Downplayer A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim May overlap alongside weaseler Example: Today?s ?patriots? are just looking in consideration of a way so that make a quick buck in Iraq. Example: I understand your grade is low, but it?s normal in consideration of some students so that fail this course. (Notice how the individual?s particular situation is effectively submerged.) Example: Interest rates are at their the lowest point in years, though only customers alongside excellent credit will qualify. Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm An attempt so that weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person appear ridiculous Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm An attempt so that weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person appear ridiculous May make use of other devices, e.g., hyperbole, slippery slope

Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm An attempt so that weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person appear ridiculous May make use of other devices, e.g., hyperbole, slippery slope Example: One thing I can say in consideration of Schwarzenegger, I bet he?s not a complainer. So now we won?t have so that listen so that a lot of complaining from the governor?s office while Bush?s friends are looting California. Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm An attempt so that weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person appear ridiculous May make use of other devices, e.g., hyperbole, slippery slope Example: One thing I can say in consideration of Schwarzenegger, I bet he?s not a complainer. So now we won?t have so that listen so that a lot of complaining from the governor?s office while Bush?s friends are looting California. Example: You don?t like how the PATRIOT Act expands police powers? How about the next time you need help, try calling a hippie. Hyperbole Use of exaggeration so that make an impression of greater importance or deviation from expectations

Proof Surrogate An assertion or strong suggestion that good evidence exists somewhere out of reach so that support a claim Proof Surrogate An assertion or strong suggestion that good evidence exists somewhere out of reach so that support a claim May make use of listed, but unchecked or unverifiable references Proof Surrogate An assertion or strong suggestion that good evidence exists somewhere out of reach so that support a claim May make use of listed, but unchecked or unverifiable references Example: Unnamed sources report that. Example: Experts agree that. Example: I read on the Internet that. (if used as evidence)

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Downplayer A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim May overlap alongside weaseler Example: Today?s ?patriots? are just looking in consideration of a way so that make a quick buck in Iraq. Example: I understand your grade is low, but it?s normal in consideration of some students so that fail this course. (Notice how the individual?s particular situation is effectively submerged.) Example: Interest rates are at their the lowest point in years, though only customers alongside excellent credit will qualify. Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm An attempt so that weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person appear ridiculous Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm An attempt so that weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person appear ridiculous May make use of other devices, e.g., hyperbole, slippery slope and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.