Eelectric Energy Harvesting Through Piezoelectric Polymers Formal Design Review Presentation Overview Objective PVDF- Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Piezoelectric PVDF

Eelectric Energy Harvesting Through Piezoelectric Polymers Formal Design Review Presentation Overview Objective PVDF- Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Piezoelectric PVDF www.phwiki.com

Eelectric Energy Harvesting Through Piezoelectric Polymers Formal Design Review Presentation Overview Objective PVDF- Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Piezoelectric PVDF

Pramuk, Bill, Freelance Columnist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Eelectric Energy Harvesting Through Piezoelectric Polymers Formal Design Review Don Jenket, II Kathy Li Peter Stone Presentation Overview Project Goals Choice of Materials Choice of Processing Techniques Device Architecture Future Tests Revised Timeline Objective DARPA Objective: Convert mechanical energy from a fluid medium into electrical energy. Fluid flow creates oscillations in an eel body Creates strain energy that is converted to AC electrical output by piezoelectric polymers AC output is stored in addition to /or utilized 3.082 Objective: Harness enough power from air flow to operate a L.E.D.

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PVDF- Poly(vinylidene fluoride) C C H H F F n Properties Chemically Inert Flexible High Mechanical Strength Production React HF in addition to methylchloro as long as m in a refrigerant gas Polymerization from emulsion or suspension by free radical vinyl polymerization References: , Accessed on: 3-9-04; Piezoelectric SOLEF PVDF Films. K-Tech Corp., 1993. Piezoelectric PVDF Molecular Origin Fluorine atoms draw electronic density away from carbon in addition to towards themselves Leads to strong dipoles in C-F bonds Piezoelectric Model of PVDF (Davis 1978) Piezoelectric activity based upon dipole orientation within crystalline phase of polymer Need a polar crystal as long as m as long as permanent polarization Reference: Davis, G.T., Mckinney, J.E., Broadhurst, M.G., Roth, S.C. Electric-filed-induced phase changes in poly(vinylidene fluoride). Journal of Applied Physics 49(10), October, 1978. b-phase (piezoelectric) a-phase (anti-parallel dipoles) Piezoelectric PVDF Poled by the Bauer Process Biaxially stretch film: Orients some crystallites with their polar axis normal to the film Application of a strong electric field across the thickness of the film coordinates polarity Produces high volume fractions of b-phase crystallites uni as long as mly throughout the poled material Selected Properties of 40 mm thick bioriented PVDF Table courtesy of K-Tech Corporation Reference: Piezoelectric SOLEF PVDF Films. K-Tech Corp., 1993.

Tensile Testing of PVDF Cross-sectional Area of the Film Tested: 1 cm X 40 microns = 4 X 10-7 m2 Measured strain: .063 Force at .063 strain: 3.95 lbs. Elastic Modulus Calculated: 2.56 GPa E = s e-1 Clamp Rubber PVDF Electrodes in addition to Wires Desired Properties Electrodes High Conductivity Flexibility Won’t oxidize Wires Ease of Attachment Flexibility The Process Attach Electrodes using RF Magnetron Sputtering Sputter 40 nm thick Gold electrodes on sample Attach 3 mil copper wire with silver paste Schematic of Sputtering Vacuum Pump Vacuum Pump Main Chamber Load-Lock Chamber Sample Holder; Sample faces down Sample Holder Rotates Sputter Guns Load-Lock Arm Adapted From: Twisselmann, Douglas J. The Origins of Substrate-Topography-Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Sputered Cobalt Alloy Films. MIT Doctoral Thesis, February, 2001

Sputtering Apparatus Load-Lock Chamber Vacuum Pump Main Chamber Sample Holder Sputtering Target “Eel Tail” Schematic Top View Side View Front View Cu Wire 6-10 cm 2 cm 6-10 cm 2 cm 0.04 mm Cu Wire Silver paste Gold Electrode

Air Flow Testing of Eel Tail For cost purposes, used unpoled PVDF Thickness of PVDF film: 74 mm. Can visually inspect eel oscillations Wave as long as ms Estimate flexure in addition to strain Tested 2 cm by {5,6,7,8,9,10} cm tails Fan PVDF Copper “Fin” Length= 5-10 cm 2 cm Air Flow Testing of Eel Tail 2cm x 6cm PVDF Air Flow Testing of Eel Tail 2cm x 10cm PVDF

Piezoelectric Response in Air Flow 2cm x 6cm Piezoelectric PVDF Estimation of Piezoelectric Response V = 3/8 (t/L)2 h31 dz, t= thickness; L = Length; dz = bending radius in addition to h31 = g31(c11 + c12)+ g33c13 g31 = 610-12/11eo [Vm/N] c11 = 3.7 GNm-2 L = 6 cm g33 = -0.14 [Vm/N] c12 = 1.47 GNm-2 t = 40 mm dz = 3 cm c13 = 1.23 GNm-2 Equation taken from: Herbert, J.M., Moulson, A.J. Electroceramics: Materials, Properties, Applications. Chapman in addition to Hall: London, 1990. Piezoelectric Constants taken from: Roh, Y. et al. Characterization of All the Electic, Dielectric in addition to Piezoelectric Constants of uniaxially oriented poled PVDF films. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectics in addition to Frequency Control. 49(6) June 2002. If we model the tail as a cantilever: Estimation of Piezoelectric Response Estimated voltage: 0.7322 V Voltage Measured in Air Field: 0.207 V Voltage required to bias Ge-doped diode: 0.2 V Sources of Error in Estimation Cantilever does not account as long as oscillation Wave as long as m of eel is not a cantilever; looks more like a sinusoid.

Rectifier Design ACin Reference: as long as mer.com/i-notes.html Proposed Integrated Design Fan Rectifier Storage Circuit Electronics Housing Future Research Dynamic Mechanical Testing (DMA) – Oscilloscope Quantified wave as long as ms (peak amplitude) Frequency Continued Air Stream Testing Possible water system (time permitting) Environmental Protection stiffens the eel Underst in addition to ing vortex shedding

Project Timeline

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Cosmic Rays Discovery of Cosmic Rays Cosmic rays Cosmic ray spectrum Confinement

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Cosmic Rays Discovery of Cosmic Rays Cosmic rays Cosmic ray spectrum Confinement

Murray, Sydney, Executive Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Cosmic Rays Discovery of cosmic rays Local measurements Gamma-ray sky ( in addition to radio sky) Origin of cosmic rays Discovery of Cosmic Rays Problem that electroscopes would always lose their charge. In 1912 Hess flew electroscopes in balloons (up to 17,500 feet) in addition to showed that the rate of loss increased with altitude, thus showing that the particles causing the loss of charge were produced external to the Earth. He called them cosmic radiation. g = 2.7 g 3.1 g 2.7 Cosmic rays Isotropic CR: 2% electrons, 98% hadrons. Hadrons: 89% H, 10% He, 1% heavier elements. Energy density CR ~ 1 eV/cm3 Starlight ~ 0.3 eV/cm3 B-field ~ 0.2 eV/cm3 CMB ~ 0.3 eV/cm3 “Knee” at 31015 eV

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Cosmic ray spectrum Confinement Milky Way B ~ 3 G. Lamour radius rg = p/qB, as long as protons, rg = 1012 cm (E/GeV). Scale height of Galactic disk is ~51020 cm, thus, protons with energies up to about 1017 eV can be confined. At low energies, heliosphere affects trajectories. Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin Cutoff Cosmic rays will interact with cosmic microwave background: p+ p+ Only occurs when proton has enough energy to produce pion, E ~ 51019 eV Detection of particles above this energy requires “local” sources (or new physics).

Cosmic ray abundances Rare elements in addition to radioactive isotopes are over abundant due to spallation. Spallation Cosmic rays collide with nuclei in ISM, changing the composition. For example: Observed CR composition depends on: Initial CR composition CR path length/life time CR energy Measurement of CR composition, including isotopes, allows one to constrain these quantities. Find path length traversed by CR by comparing abundant elements to those produced by spallation (i.e. B vs C, Cr vs Fe). Path length ~ 50 kg m-2 (with some energy dependence). Cosmic Ray Life Time 10Be is about 10% of all Be produced by spallation, has lifetime of 3.9106 years. Cosmic rays are confined in the Galaxy as long as about 107 years be as long as e escaping.

Leaky Box “Leaky box” model – CRs diffuse inside a containment volume (volume of Milky Way disk) in addition to are reflected at boundaries with some probability of escape. Typical path length ~ 50 kg m-2 in addition to typical lifetime ~ 107 years. Confinement is assumed to be done by Galactic magnetic field. Note that highest energy CR are not confined by magnetic fields of Milky Way. Implies roughly uni as long as m distribution of cosmic rays through out the Galaxy. Photon production by cosmic rays Pion production: p + N 0 + X 0 has total charge = 0, baryon number = 0 so 0 can decay via 0 Neutron pion mass = 135 MeV, Decay produces two photons of ~70 MeV Electron bremsstrahlung – cosmic ray electrons on ISM Inverse Compton – cosmic ray electrons on star light Gamma-Ray Sky

Gamma-ray spectrum Modeling of spatial distribution in addition to spectrum requires 3-d models of cosmic ray, matter, in addition to star light distributions in Milky Way. Need to multiply by cross sections in addition to convolve along lines of sight. Suggestion that CR spectrum is harder towards Galactic center. Photon production by cosmic rays Electron cosmic rays produce radio emission via synchrotron radiation in the Galactic magnetic field Radiated spectrum peaks at a frequency As as long as gamma-rays, need to convolve the electron CR spectrum with the Galactic magnetic field distribution along each line of sight. Milky Way at 408 MHz

Total Power in Cosmic Rays Volume of Galactic disk V ~ R2d. For R ~ 15 kpc, d ~ 200 pc, find V ~ 41066 cm3. Power in cosmic rays L ~ V/. = energy density ~ 1 eV/cm3 = lifetime of CR ~ 107 years. Find L ~ 1041 erg/s in high energy particles. Power Source: Supernovae Supernovae – E = Mechanical energy ~ 1051 erg R = rate 1/100 years = efficiency as long as conversion of mechanical energy into relativistic particles ~ 10% () LSN ~ ER ~ 21041 erg/s Need mechanism as long as acceleration, need to know if acceleration is really 10% efficient. Power Source: Massive Star Winds O in addition to B star winds – Mechanical power ~ 1037 erg/s, integrated over 3 million year life time gives total energy ~ 1031 erg Winds have speeds of 2000-4000 km/s Expect multiple stars within OB associations OB associations are bright in gamma-rays

Cosmic Ray Map Power Source: X-Ray Binaries Jets from X-ray binaries known to contain relativistic particles – Only SS 433 is know to accelerate hadrons, in addition to that jet is not ultrarelativistic Integrated output of X-ray binaries appears to be too low to power full CR population, but may contribute a few percent

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CHAPTER 16 16.1 Introduction 16.8 Constrained Plane Motion

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CHAPTER 16 16.1 Introduction 16.8 Constrained Plane Motion

Pietro, Sandra, Editorial Assistant has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal CHAPTER 16 Plane Motion of Rigid Bodies: Forces in addition to Accelerations 16.1 Introduction In this chapter in addition to in Chapters 17 in addition to 18, we will be concerned with the kinetics of rigid bodies, i.e., relations between the as long as ces acting on a rigid body, the shape in addition to mass of the body, in addition to the motion produced. Results of this chapter will be restricted to: plane motion of rigid bodies, in addition to rigid bodies consisting of plane slabs or bodies which are symmetrical with respect to the reference plane. 16.2 Equations of Motion as long as a Rigid Body Consider a rigid body acted upon by several external as long as ces. Assume that the body is made of a large number of particles.

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16.3 Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body in Plane Motion Results are also valid as long as plane motion of bodies which are symmetrical with respect to the reference plane. (See footnote p. 1028 of text. Results are not valid as long as asymmetrical bodies or three-dimensional motion. 16.4 Plane Motion of a Rigid Body: D’Alembert’s Principle The external as long as ces in addition to the collective effective as long as ces of the slab particles are equipollent (reduce to the same resultant in addition to moment resultant) in addition to equivalent (have the same effect on the body). d’Alembert’s Principle: The external as long as ces acting on a rigid body are equivalent to the effective as long as ces of the various particles as long as ming the body. 16.5 A Remark on the Axioms of the Mechanics of Rigid Bodies The as long as ces produce the same moment about any point in addition to are there as long as e, equipollent external as long as ces. This proves the principle of transmissibility whereas it was previously stated as an axiom.

16.6 Solution of Problems Involving the Motion of a Rigid Body The fundamental relation between the as long as ces acting on a rigid body in plane motion in addition to the acceleration of its mass center in addition to the angular acceleration of the body is illustrated in a free-body-diagram equation. The techniques as long as solving problems of static equilibrium may be applied to solve problems of plane motion by utilizing d’Alembert’s principle, or principle of dynamic equilibrium Not in Downing’s Class 16.7 Systems of Rigid Bodies These techniques may also be applied to problems involving plane motion of connected rigid bodies by drawing a free-body-diagram equation as long as each body in addition to solving the corresponding equations of motion simultaneously. 16.8 Constrained Plane Motion Most engineering applications involve rigid bodies which are moving under given constraints, e.g., cranks, connecting rods, in addition to non-slipping wheels. Constrained plane motion: motions with definite relations between the components of acceleration of the mass center in addition to the angular acceleration of the body. Solution of a problem involving constrained plane motion begins with a kinematic analysis.

Constrained Motion: Noncentroidal Rotation Constrained Plane Motion: Rolling Motion

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Tau Beta Pi Integrity in addition to Excellence in Engineering TBP Californ

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Tau Beta Pi Integrity in addition to Excellence in Engineering TBP Californ

Lacy Cosmetology School-West Ashley, SC has reference to this Academic Journal, Tau Beta Pi Integrity in addition to Excellence in Engineering TBP California Theta Chapter Est. 1952 Presenter: Laura Karoly, President Who We Are Tau Beta Pi is the only engineering society representing the entire engineering profession. TBP was founded in 1885 so that recognize engineering students of distinguished scholarship in addition to exemplary character. There are now collegiate chapters at 237 US colleges in addition to universities, active alumnus chapters in 16 districts across the country, in addition to a total initiated membership of 522,067 as of Spring 2011. Distinguished TBP Alumni include: Nobel Prize winners John Bardeen & William B. Shockley: Inventors of the electronic transistor Dr. Wernher Von Braun: One of the world?s first Rocket Engineers Astronauts Buzz Aldrin in addition to Judith Resnick Lee Iacocca: Former president in addition to CEO of Chrysler Andrew Grove: Chairman in addition to former CEO of Intel Corp. Yahoo! co-founders Jerry Yang in addition to David Filo Larry E. Page: Co-Founder of Google TBP California Theta Chapter Est. 1952 Executive Board President: Laura Karoly Vice-President: Ellen Skow Treasurer: Bryson Borzini Secretaries: Corresponding: James VanWagoner Recording: Anna Albano Luzardo Activities Chair: Edgar Macias Webmaster: Kyle Hagan Faculty Advisor: Professor Jalal Torabzadeh TBP California Theta Chapter Est. 1952

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Membership Requirements Undergraduate students must be in the TOP 1/8th of their junior class or TOP 1/5th of their senior class. Each class consists of all of the engineering students in that class. Graduate students must be in the TOP 1/5th of their class or obtain a letter of recommendation from their primary academic advisor. Alumni must have graduated in the TOP 1/5th of their class. This applies even if their school did not have a chapter at the time they graduated. Practicing engineers must have achieved eminence in engineering as determined by the Tau Beta Pi, Inc. Headquarters. Candidates are usually recommended by members who know them. TBP California Theta Chapter Est. 1952 The California Theta Chapter (CSULB) accepts the following majors: Aerospace Engineering Biomedical in addition to Clinical Engineering Chemical Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Engineering Computer Science Electrical Engineering Mechanical Engineering TBP California Theta Chapter Est. 1952 Membership Requirements What We Do Engineering Futures: The Tau Beta Pi Engineering Futures Program was established so that provide interpersonal skills in consideration of engineering students. This is accomplished through the presentation of sessions on campus by alumnus Tau Bates who are trained in the materials. Sessions are offered in: People Skills Team Chartering Analytical Problem Solving Group Process Scholarships Chapter Projects: These include outreach projects in consideration of the community as well as on-campus events in consideration of the College of Engineering community. District Retreats: Each semester our designated district (16) holds a retreat whose purpose is so that promote inter-district communication in addition to networking between local Tau Beta Pi chapters. These organized retreats are funded by the national headquarters, in addition to any driving or lodging expenses are reimbursed. Fall: October 23rd at Cal Poly Pomona Spring: April 30th at UC Santa Barbara TBP California Theta Chapter Est. 1952

Requirements Activities in consideration of Sign-Off Sheet (on website): Bent Polish (Individual in addition to Big Bent) b. Assist at TBP activities in addition to volunteer on campus (4 hours) c. Join one other CoE student organization (IEEE, SWE, AIAA.) d. Submit your Resume (tbpcaq@gmail , Subject: ResumeS11) in addition to attend an interview during an officer?s office hours BE INVOLVED!!! TBP California Theta Chapter Est. 1952 $$ Money $$ $80 one-time membership fee Individual bent Subscription so that TBP publication ?The Bent? Covers National initiation fee Chapter expenses Etc? Scholarships are available from National if you are unable so that cover cost of membership. Let us know! TBP California Theta Chapter Est. 1952 Thank You. Questions? TBP California Theta Chapter Est. 1952 Visit us in addition to find out more at TBP or aesb /org/tbp

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