Pump Basics Centrifugal Pumps Centrifugal Pumps Centrifugal Pumps Pump Terminology

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Pump Basics Centrifugal Pumps Centrifugal Pumps Centrifugal Pumps Pump Terminology

Orozco, Samuel, Executive Producer;Founder;Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Pump Basics Centrifugal Pumps From the Center of a Circle RADIAL DIRECTION To the Outside of a Circle A machine as long as moving fluid by accelerating the fluid RADIALLY outward. This machine consists of an IMPELLER rotating within a case (diffuser) Liquid directed into the center of the rotating impeller is picked up by the impeller’s vanes in addition to accelerated to a higher velocity by the rotation of the impeller in addition to discharged by centrifugal as long as ce into the case (diffuser). Centrifugal Pumps

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Centrifugal Pumps A collection chamber in the casing converts much of the Kinetic Energy (energy due to velocity) into Head or Pressure. Pump Terminology Head is a term as long as expressing feet of water column Head can also be converted to pressure “Head” 100 feet 43.3 PSI Reservoir of Fluid

Conversion Factors Between Head in addition to Pressure Head (feet of liquid) =Pressure in PSI x 2.31 / Sp. Gr. Pressure in PSI = Head (in feet) x Sp. Gr. / 2.31 PSI is Pounds per Square Inch Sp. Gr. is Specific Gravity which as long as water is equal to 1 For a fluid more dense than water, Sp. Gr. is greater than 1 For a fluid less dense than water, Sp. Gr. is less than 1 Head Head in addition to pressure are interchangeable terms provided that they are expressed in their correct units. The conversion of all pressure terms into units of equivalent head simplifies most pump calculations. Centrifugal Impellers Thicker the Impeller- More Water Larger the DIAMETER – More Pressure Increase the Speed – More Water in addition to Pressure

Two Impellers in Series Direction of Flow Twice the pressure Same amount of water Multiple Impellers in Series Placing impellers in series increases the amount of head produced The head produced = of impellers x head of one impeller Direction of Flow Direction of Flow Pump Per as long as mance Curve A mapping or graphing of the pump’s ability to produce head in addition to flow

Pump Per as long as mance Curve Step 1, Horizontal Axis The pump’s flow rate is plotted on the horizontal axis ( X axis) Usually expressed in Gallons per Minute Pump Flow Rate Pump Per as long as mance Curve Step 2, Vertical Axis Pump Flow Rate The head the pump produces is plotted on the vertical axis (Y axis) Usually express in Feet of Water Head Pump Per as long as mance Curve Step 3, Mapping the Flow in addition to the Head Pump Flow Rate Most pump per as long as mance curves slope from left to right

Pump Per as long as mance Curve Important Points Shut-off Head is the maximum pressure or head the pump can produce No flow is produced Pump Flow Rate Pump Per as long as mance Curve Important Points Pump Flow Rate Maximum Flow is the largest flow the pump can produce No Head is produced System Per as long as mance Curves System Per as long as mance Curve is a mapping of the head required to produce flow in a given system A system includes all the pipe, fittings in addition to devices the fluid must flow through, in addition to represents the friction loss the fluid experiences

System Per as long as mance Curve Step 1, Horizontal Axis System Flow Rate The System’s flow rate in plotted on the horizontal axis ( X axis) Usually expressed in Gallons per Minute System Per as long as mance Curve Step 2, Vertical Axis Pump Flow Rate The head the system requires is plotted on the vertical axis (Y axis) Usually express in Feet of Water Head System Per as long as mance Curve Step 3, Curve Mapping The friction loss is mapped onto the graph The amount of friction loss varies with flow through the system Pump Flow Rate Friction Loss

Pump Flow Rate The point on the system curve that intersects the pump curve is known as the operating point. Pump Flow Rate Circulator 1 Circulator 2 Circulator 3 PUMP SELECTION Controlling Pump Per as long as mance Changing the amount as long as friction loss or “Throttling the Pump” will change the pump’s per as long as mance

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Pump Flow Rate PUMP SELECTION Valve Open Valve Partially Open Valve Barely Open Piping Design Equations Heuristics as long as Pipe Diameter

Energy Loss in Piping Networks Incompressible Fluids Friction Loss Factors as long as Fittings

Friction Loss Factors as long as Valves Fanning Diagram f =16/Re Energy Loss in Valves Function of valve type in addition to valve position The complex flow path through valves can result in high head loss (of course, one of the purposes of a valve is to create head loss when it is not fully open) Ev are the loss in terms of velocity heads

Orozco, Samuel Executive Producer;Founder;Host

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Tools as long as Teachers Tying Tasks to CCSS Mathematical Practices Defining Justification Through Student Work What qualities would you like to see in a good justification

Tools as long as Teachers Tying Tasks to CCSS Mathematical Practices Defining Justification Through Student Work What qualities would you like to see in a good justification www.phwiki.com

Tools as long as Teachers Tying Tasks to CCSS Mathematical Practices Defining Justification Through Student Work What qualities would you like to see in a good justification

Majumdar, Arun, Energy Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Tools as long as Teachers What’s new How to use tools to improve practice Engaging in student work Trends Tying Tasks to CCSS Mathematical Practices Perseverance Reason abstractly in addition to Quantitatively Construct viable arguments in addition to critique the reasoning of others. Model with mathematics. Use tools strategically. Attend to precision. Look as long as in addition to make use of structure. Look as long as in addition to express regularity in repeated reasoning.

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Students develop their ability to construct viable arguments in addition to to critique the reasoning of others. What makes a good justification What is involved in making it complete What types of quantification can be used to support claims or conjectures What sentence structures help students develop a logical sequence to ideas Defining Justification Through Student Work What qualities would you like to see in a good justification Work individually in addition to then with a partner to list what should go into a justification. Then look at student work. Which explanation did you like the best Why What were the qualities or arguments that made it a good justification

What qualities would you like to see in a good justification A powerful technique from the Formative Assessment Lessons is to use student work in addition to see how it could be improved. Then look at student work again. How could each statement be improved What qualities or arguments are missing that prevent it from being a good justification Attention to Precision- Marathon Runners- 5th Grade Looking at the Data 37% of the students omitted a vertical scale Making the scale was one of the two ramps of the tasks.

Implications as long as Instruction In planning learning trajectories or units around a big idea, like underst in addition to ing scale, there aren’t short cuts. The type of thinking required to add data to a graph has a higher cognitive dem in addition to than just reading in as long as mation from a graph. The ability to think between squares in addition to what the squares represent is challenging. Further, the cognitive dem in addition to s as long as planning a scale in addition to putting equal-size units on a graph is different from using a graph with a scale already provided. Planning what size units will allow all the data to be represented is one part. Underst in addition to ing that the scale is different from just a listing of the different data points is another. Classroom activities in addition to discussions need to help students build these layers of underst in addition to ing. Ideas as long as Action Research How much did Sulian save in July Ideas as long as Action Research How much did Sulian save in July

How would you continue the lesson Looking at your own student work or work from the toolkit, think about how to continue this lesson. How can you use the student work to pose a question Besides graphing, what are some other important issues that you want to address Again find some pieces of student work from the toolkit or from you student work. How can you use it to pose questions as long as the class How does answering the question confront misconceptions How does it deepen the mathematics of the lesson Toolkits Help guide teachers in how to plan a re-engagement lesson Resource as long as interesting student work which will highlight big mathematical ideas in addition to concepts Underst in addition to ing Mathematical Modeling in addition to Deepening Underst in addition to ing of Operations in context Work the task: Sub S in addition to wiches (pg. 1 only) What does a student need to underst in addition to about fractions in addition to rates to make sense of this task What does a student need to underst in addition to about multiplication in addition to division What is important in a model

Re-engagement Lesson Set the hook as long as the lesson: What do you know about multiplication Where are the equal groups How many equal groups Spend time on having students explain in addition to verbalize beginning of task, to build foundation as long as rest of lesson. How many tomatoes does she need “I saw a student make this diagram. Can you help me figure out what the student is doing How do you think the student answered the question “What do you think the student is doing Does this make sense “How is this the same as the drawing How is it different”

“What is the student thinking Does it make sense Why or why not How many s in addition to wiches can Laura make with 5 tomatoes “Someone said there would be 5 s in addition to wiches. I drew buns with salami in addition to 1 half tomato until there 5 tomatoes in all. What is this student doing Does it make sense What qualities make it easier to use

“Does this make sense How it it like the diagrams What are the equal groups” Can this work We just saw how multiplication Helped to answer the question. So does this Make sense Why or why not Re-engagement Lessons Help to build from concrete to abstract Help to bridge the meaning of operations in addition to connections between multiplication in addition to division Show students strategies or new tools to use Help students underst in addition to how models can be used in addition to improved

Majumdar, Arun International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer Energy Editor www.phwiki.com

What does it mean to know Tool Possession: Is the tool in the toolbox Too Underst in addition to ing:Is the operation of the tool understood Tool Application: Can the tool be used in a real-world context Tool Selection: When given a big problem, what tools does the student use Teaching as long as Transference What does a student need to underst in addition to about variables in addition to how they are used What do students underst in addition to about setting up equations What clues do the equations give them about solving the problem What strategies do students have as long as solving systems of equations algebraically Trends in Data

Declining Grades Geometry – Dropping from 78% in 2009 to 50% in 2011, a 2 year decline 8th Grade – dropped -.39 std units to 19.9% meeting st in addition to ards 7th Grade -dropped – .67 std units to 23.7% from 54% in 2010 Improving Grades 3rd Grade – 70.7% meeting st in addition to ards 4th Grade – 71.5% meeting st in addition to ards 5th Grade – 76.5% meeting st in addition to ards 6th Grade – 43.2% meeting st in addition to ards up from 34.5% in 2010 About the Same 2nd Grade – 78.9% meeting st in addition to ards Algebra – 46% meeting st in addition to ards up from 39% in 2009

Algebra- Underst in addition to ing Graphs Only 26.5% met st in addition to ard.

Majumdar, Arun Energy Editor

Majumdar, Arun is from United States and they belong to International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer and they are from  Berkeley, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Majumdar, Arun deal with the subjects like Scientific Research

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What is LINUX What is a UNIX? Learing outcomes

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What is LINUX What is a UNIX? Learing outcomes

Marinello Schools of Beauty-Layton, UT has reference to this Academic Journal, Learing outcomes Introduction so that Unix system Unix commands What is a UNIX? UNIX is an operating system An operating system is the program that controls all the other parts of a computer system, both the hardware in addition to software.

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What is LINUX LINUX is a free UNIX-type operating system originally created by Linus Torlvads alongside the assistance of developers around the world. The source code in consideration of Linux is freely available so that everyone. The commands of linux are similar so that unix. Features of UNIX UNIX is a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system. Multi-users may have multiple tasks running sumiltaneously. This is different than PC operating system UNIX is a machine independent operating system. Designed from the beginning so that be independent of the computer hardware Introduction unix Developed at Bell Laboratories in the late 1960s by Dennis Ritchie in addition to Ken Thompson Shell is simply a program that reads in the commands you type in addition to converts them into a form that is more readily understandable by the UNIX system

Introduction (continue.) Shell includes some fundamental programming constructs that let you make decisions, loop, in addition to store values in variables ?Bourne? shell was written by Stephen Bourne in Bell laboratories ?Bourne? shell is the ?standard? shell UNIX System The ?UNIX system? is logically divided into two pieces: Kernel Utilities UNIX System (continue.) Kernel is the heart of the UNIX system in addition to resides in the computer?s memory. It allocates time in addition to memory so that programs in addition to handle filestore in addition to comunications Utilities disks UNIX system kernel Memory

What is LINUX What is a UNIX? Learing outcomes

UNIX System (continue.) Utility resides on the computer?s disk in addition to are only brought into memory as requested. Virtually every command under UNIX is a utility Shell is a utility program loaded into memory in consideration of execution whenever you log into the system Logging in a UNIX system Terminal is connected so that a UNIX system through Direct wire Modem LAN After you connect the UNIX system a login: message appears Logging in a UNIX system (continue.)

Logging in a UNIX system (continue.) init is the UNIX system init automatically starts up a getty program on each terminal port whenever the system is allowing users so that log in After getty displays the message login: in addition to some types the usernames followed by RETURN, it starts up a program called login so that finish the process of logging in. Then getty disappears /etc/passwd file has one line per user Logging in a UNIX system (continue.) UNIX SYSTEM KERNEL login getty getty login: Skan password: login: login: Logging in a UNIX system (continue.) After login begins execution, Password: message appears User types the password in addition to hits RETURN The user name in addition to the password will be checked against the corresponding entry in the file /etc/passwd

Logging in a UNIX system (continue.) Every line has seven fields separated by ?:?. The fields are : Login name Password (encrypted form). User ID Group ID User information which could be First in addition to Last name, etc? Home directory Program so that start up when user logs in. Usually a ?shell? program Logging in a UNIX system (continue.) Example $ cat /etc/passwd root:x:0:1:Super-User:/:/sbin/sh daemon:x:1:1::/: bin:x:2:2::/usr/bin: sys:x:3:3::/: adm:x:4:4:Admin:/var/adm: lp:x:71:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp: uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp: nuucp:x:9:9:uucp Admin:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico listen:x:37:4:Network Admin:/usr/net/nls: nobody:x:60001:60001:Nobody:/: noaccess:x:60002:60002:No Access User:/: nobody4:x:65534:65534:SunOS 4.x Nobody:/: oracle:*:101:67:DBA Account:/export/home/oracle:/bin/csh webuser:*:102:102:Web User:/export/home/webuser:/bin/csh abuzneid:x:103:100:Abdelshakour Abuzneid:/home/abuzneid:/sbin/csh $ Logging in a UNIX system (continue.) UNIX SYSTEM KERNEL /bin/sh /usr/lbin/ksh /usr/data/bin /dat_entry login: Skan password: $ login: login: login: Med password: $ login: slim password: $

After Shell starts When shell starts up, it displays a command prompt: $ in Bourne shell in addition to Korn shell % in C shell Shell goes so that sleep after every command or program followed by RETUN until the program has finished This copied program is called a process init init init Login cycle init getty login init sh Login cycle (continue.)

Responsibilities of Shell Program Execution Variable in addition to File Name Substitution I/O Redirection Pipeline Hookup Environment Control Interpreted Programming Language Program Execution Format: program-name arguments The shell scans the command line in addition to determines the name of the program so that be executed in addition to what argument so that pass so that the program Multiple occurrences of white spaces characters are simple learned Program Execution (continue.) $ mv oldfile newfile $ echo Smile, you are in Bridgeport City Smile, you are in Bridgeport City $ oldfile newfile mv arguments Smile, you are in Bridgeport City echo arguments

Program Execution (continue.) Shell has some built_in commands which execute them directly without searching the disk cd, pwd in addition to echo are built_in commands Variables in addition to File Name Substitution assign values so that variables $ list=ls $ ls Carthage Damas $ $list Carthage Damas file name substitution on the command line * ? [] Variables in addition to File Name Substitution (continue.) Examples $ ls Documents Memos mail personal $

Documents Memos mail personal echo arguments Variables in addition to File Name Substitution (continue.) $ echo * Documents Memos mail personal $ Variables in addition to File Name Substitution (continue.) $ ls Documents mail Documents: a.doc c.doc p1 p11 mail: p1 p2 $ Input/Output Redirection Examples $ wc -l list 2 list $ wc -l < list 2 $ Unix commands vs DoS Who, When, Why, What in addition to Where? man cp Display on-line manual in consideration of the ?cp? command man -k keyword Display manual help file related so that the keyword passwd Change your login password pwd Display the path name of where you are uptime Tell you how long the machine has been up in addition to running users Tell you who is logging in who Tell you who is logging-in in detail w Tell you who is logging in in addition to doing what! whoami Show you the owner of this account finger user Find out the personal information of a user finger name Try so that find the person?s info. by his/her name finger email-address Try so that find the person?s info across the network write user Write a message on somebody?s screen talk user Talk so that the person logging in the same system alongside you talk email-address Talk so that somebody logging in the network date Display today?s time in addition to date cal year Display the calendar of the specified year (e.g. 1997) References info.ee.surrey /Teaching/Unix/ UNIX SHELLS BY EXAMPLE BY ELLIE QUIGLEY UNIX FOR PROGRAMMERS AND USERS BY G. GLASS AND K ABLES UNIX SHELL PROGRAMMING BY S. KOCHAN AND P. WOOD

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Program Execution (continue.) Shell has some built_in commands which execute them directly without searching the disk cd, pwd in addition to echo are built_in commands Variables in addition to File Name Substitution assign values so that variables $ list=ls $ ls Carthage Damas $ $list Carthage Damas file name substitution on the command line * ? [] Variables in addition to File Name Substitution (continue.) Examples $ ls Documents Memos mail personal $ and short form of this particular Institution is UT and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.