PCS 2010 Nagoya PCS 2010 General Chair: Masayuki Tanimoto (Nagoya University) Location: Nagoya, Japan

PCS 2010 Nagoya PCS 2010 General Chair: Masayuki Tanimoto (Nagoya University) Location: Nagoya, Japan www.phwiki.com

PCS 2010 Nagoya PCS 2010 General Chair: Masayuki Tanimoto (Nagoya University) Location: Nagoya, Japan

Fletcher, Lisa, Contributor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal PCS 2010 Nagoya PCS 2010 General Chair: Masayuki Tanimoto (Nagoya University) Location: Nagoya, Japan Venue: Aichi Industry in addition to Labor Center (open in October 2009) Date: December 8(Wed)-10(Fri), 2010 General Chair Prof. Masayuki Tanimoto Nagoya University General Vice Chair Prof. Yoshiyuki Yashima Chiba Institute of Technology The PCS 2010 Organizing Committee

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Organizing Committee Members Prof. T. Saito Dr. K. Asai Prof. K. Aizawa Prof. T. Yoshida Prof. K. Sugiyama Prof. J. Katto Prof. T. Fujii Dr. S. Takamura Dr. S. Sakaida Prof. K. Kodama Dr. K. Kamikura Prof. M. P. Tehrani Tokyo Osaka Nagoya Nagoya is located at the center of Japan Central Japan International Airport 28 minutes by Airport Express Nagoya Station

Br in addition to -new Venue Aichi Industry in addition to Labor Center 3 minutes walk from Nagoya Station Venue Nagoya Station Main Hall as long as Oral Presentation Introduction of Nagoya Nagoya is modern 2.2 million inhabitants, the third largest city in Japan High-tech city, home of TOYOTA, the largest automobile company in the world Nagoya is traditional 1,900-year-old Atsuta Shrine Nagoya Castle, Culture of Samurai

Nagoya Station Area Downtown (Sakae Area) TOYOTA was established originally as a textile company. This museum exhibits the challenging history of TOYOTA from textile to automobile. Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry in addition to Technology

Atsuta Shrine Atsuta Shrine is the second most important shrine in Japan in addition to preserves one of the Three Sacred Treasures symbolizing the Imperial Throne since 113. Nagoya Castle -The Symbol of Nagoya- The Tokugawa Art Museum Nagoya was governed by the Tokugawa Shogun family in the Middle Ages. The culture of Samurai is exhibited in the Tokugawa Art Museum.

Tokugawa-en Enjoy a walk in the garden adjacent to the Tokugawa Art Museum. These are not all of Nagoya. It has many other attractive places. See you at PCS 2010 in Nagoya, December 2010. PV 2010 will take place the week after PCS in Hongkong

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Fletcher, Lisa Contributor

Fletcher, Lisa is from United States and they belong to ABC News Now Network (Broadband) – ABC News Network and they are from  Los Angeles, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Fletcher, Lisa deal with the subjects like City/Metropolitan News; Federal Government and Politics; International News; Local Government and Politics; Local News; National News; Regional News

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Statistics- methodology in consideration of collecting, analyzing, interpre

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Statistics- methodology in consideration of collecting, analyzing, interpre

Orangeburg Calhoun Technical College, SC has reference to this Academic Journal, Statistics- methodology in consideration of collecting, analyzing, interpreting in addition to drawing conclusions from collected dataAnastasia KadinaGM presentation 6/15/2015Design: Planning in addition to carrying out research studies;Description: Summarizing in addition to exploring data;Inference: Making predictions in addition to generalizing about phenomena represented by the data.Homer Simpson: Aw, you can come up alongside statistics so that prove anything, Kent. 14 percent of all people know that.Population – the collection of all individuals or items under consideration in a statistical study Sample – that part of the population from which information is collected Parameter ? statistical description of the populationPopulationSampleStatistical Data AnalysisVariable ? characteristic that varies from one item so that anotherQuantitative(numerical)Qualitative(categorical)DiscreteContinuous

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Observing the values of the variables yield dataObservation ? individual piece of dataData set/Data matrix ? collection of observations in consideration of variableData matrixk variables measured in sample alongside the size of nPresenting dataRelative frequency = Frequency / total # of observationsSample in addition to population distributions:Measures of center (averages)The mode: the value that occurs alongside the highest frequencyExample: 4, 2, 5, 2, 6, 1, 2: 2 occurs alongside a greatest frequencyIf greatest freq == 1: no modeCan be more than 1 mode2. The median: Arrange the observed values of variable in a data in increasing order.a. # of observations is odd: the value in the middle.b. # of observations is even: the number halfway between the two middle valuesExample: 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11: Median = 7.5 (len = 6)3. Sample mean: the sum of observed values in a data divided by the number of observations

Measures of variabilityRange: Range = max ? minStandard deviation: For a variable x, the sample standard deviation, denoted by sx or ?x (for sample), or ? (for population), is:SamplePopulationZ-Score (Standard score)How many standard deviations a value lies above or below the mean of the set of data;For normal distribution probability of the event (area under the curve) can be found in the tables by z.SamplePopulationEmpirical rule in consideration of symmetrical normal distribution:68% of the values lie within x ñ sx,95% of the values lie within x ñ 2sx,99.7% of the values lie within x ñ 3sx.Z-Score (Standard score)Z?: value of Z in consideration of which the area under the standard normal curve so that its right is equal so that ?.If we want so that take both ends of the distribution into account, we consider Z?/2

Neural Networks?. ?.The Undiscovered Country ? Jonathan Y. Clark Department of Computing University of Surrey j.y.clark@surrey.ac.uk Conventional Programs Neural Networks Natural Neural Networks A Biological Neuron Perceptron Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks Self-Organising Map (SOM) Lithops (Living Stones) Conclusions in addition to Summary That?s All Folks! (Bugs Bunny Copyright Warner Bros.)

Sampling of the populationRandom sample – a sample from a finite population random of it is chosen in such a way that each of the possible samples has the same probability of being selected.For random sample of size n of population N:Sampling distribution mean = population mean? = ?xStandard deviation (standard error of the mean):Infinite populationFinite populationStandard deviation correction factorCentral Limit TheoremFor large samples the sample distribution of the mean can be approximated closely alongside a normal distribution.Large: sample size n >= 30? = ?xZ? denotes the value of z in consideration of which the area under the standard normal curve so that its right is equal so that ?Z?/2 is such value that area under the standard normal curve between -Z?/2 in addition to +Z?/2 is equal so that 1 – ?? = ?xWhen we use ?x as an estimate of ?, the probability is 1 – ? that this estimate will be ?off? either way by at mostE = Z?/2 * (? / ?n) (standard error)Probability in addition to Confidence of StatementsIn general, we make probability statements about future values of random variables (e.g. potential error of an estimate) in addition to confidence statements once the data has been obtained.

Confidence intervalsFor large samples (n >= 30) in addition to ? is knownStudent?s t-testAlso good in consideration of small samples (< ? < X + t?/2* s / ?nt?/2 can be found in corresponding tables by df in addition to ?t-scoreError Bars- graphical representation of the variability of data in addition to are used on graphs so that indicate the error, or uncertainty in a reported measurementCommon Error Bars Test of HypothesesA statistical hypothesis is an assertion about the parameter(s) of a population.Null hypothesis (H0) ? any hypothesis set up primarily so that see whether it can be rejected (is directly tested);Alternative hypothesis (HA) ? the hypothesis that we accept when the null hypothesis can be rejected.A significance test is a way of statistically testing a hypothesis by comparing the data so that values predicted by the hypothesis. Data that fall far from the predicted values provide evidence against the hypothesis.If the difference between what we expect in addition to what we observe is so small that it may well be attributed so that chance, the results are not statistically significant.The test statistics is a statistic calculated from the sample data so that test the null hypothesis. This statistic typically involves a point estimate of the parameter so that which the hypotheses refer.p-value- the probability, when H0 is true, of a test statistic value at least as contradictory so that H0 as the value actually observed. The smaller the p-value, the more strongly the data contradict H0. The primarily reported result of a significance test.The p-value summarizes the evidence in the data about the null hypothesis. A moderate so that large p-value means that the data are consistent alongside H0.Most studies require very small p-value, such as p 0.05, before concluding that the data sufficiently contradict H0 so that reject it. In such cases, results are said so that be significant at the 0.05 level. This means that if the null hypothesis were true, the chance of getting such extreme results as in the sample data would be no greater than 5%.

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