Classical Physics Chapter One Physical Quantities

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Classical Physics Chapter One Physical Quantities

Morgan, Miriam, Food Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Classical Physics Introduction to Physics Textbook: Physics as long as Computer Science Students, by N. Garcia, A. Damask, in addition to S. Schwarz, 2nd, 1998. Chapter One Physical Quantities Physical Quantities In physics two fundamental processes are involved: 1. the description of natural phenomena based on experiments, which control variables; 2. mathematical manipulation or theorizing, which is a predictive process.

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Quantities in addition to Units In classical physics the fundamental parameters in the measurement system are length, mass, in addition to time. There are two versions of the metric system in use, the cgs (centimeter, gram, second) in addition to the mks (meter, kilogram, second). Conversion of units In square or cubic units, all measurements must be in the same units. Powers of 10 Accuracy of Numbers Suppose we wish to find the area of a rectangular surface. See Figure 1-1. Our measurement of widths is as in addition to The largest area is in addition to the smallest is

We can write the answer as The accuracy of the product cannot exceed the accuracy of any of the components in the product. No matter how accurately a given parameter is measured, when is combined arithmetically with another measurement the result is only as accurate as the least-accurate measurement.

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Preparing as long as Physics St in addition to ard Units of Measure Scientific Notation Examples Significant Figures

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Preparing as long as Physics St in addition to ard Units of Measure Scientific Notation Examples Significant Figures

DiMartino, Dave, Executive Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Preparing as long as PhysicsDo you know all the things you need to knowSt in addition to ard Units of MeasureScientific Notation

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ExamplesSignificant FiguresAccuracy in addition to PrecisionInstruments are said to be accurate if they truly reflect the quantity being measured. For example, if a tape measure is correctly manufactured it can be used to measure lengths accurately to the nearest centimetre.

DataYou can expect to find questions in your examinations specifically designed to test your underst in addition to ing of data in addition to skill in analysing experimental data.This is often called the table of values, but is also called a chart or table or a tally.The first column (time) is always meant to be the independent variable, which goes along the x-axis.The second column (speed) is always meant to be the dependant variable, which goes along the y-axis.GraphingAlways label the axis with the independent in addition to dependant variables with the appropriate unitsAlways set a consistent scale that starts at 0, 0Ensure that the shape of the graph is consistent with the plotted pointsLabel any key point on the graph if they are necessary to noteAlways put a title on the graph which explains what the graph is discussingInterpolation – The process of finding other values between measured values.Extrapolation – The process of extending a graph beyond the range of measurements.Scientific MethodQuestion What you want to find out, written as a question. Purpose Why you want to answer the question.Hypothesis An educated guess, written as an “If then .” StatementVariables Independent (the set conditions you’re testing against) in addition to dependant variables (the results that will be measured) in addition to your controls (what you will test against to compare your results). Safety a list of precautions that need to be taken (risk assessment), in addition to any equipment that requires special h in addition to ling instructions (MSDS)Materials A list written one under the next, in dot points or dashes Procedure A step-by-step list of instructions on how to do the lab, written as a numbered listObservations Always in a chart/table, listing what was observed across 3 trialsAnalysis An explanation of patterns, trends, or repeats. Were your results reliable Also to explain any mistakes that were made in addition to how they were fixed/adjusted, or how to fix it as long as the next lab they do.Conclusion First sentence is to link to your hypothesis, simply stating whether it was right or wrong. Second sentence is to explain why is was right or wrong. Last sentences are to explain what you learned in addition to how it connect to the real world.

Useful Data

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Primordialism vs. Instrumentalism Lecture Outline PO377 ETHNIC CONFLICT AND POLITICAL VIOLENCE

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Primordialism vs. Instrumentalism Lecture Outline PO377 ETHNIC CONFLICT AND POLITICAL VIOLENCE

Strayer University-Louisville Campus, KY has reference to this Academic Journal, PO377 ETHNIC CONFLICT AND POLITICAL VIOLENCE Week 7: Ethnicity, Nations in addition to Nationalisms Lecture Outline Conceptual Approaches so that Ethnicity: Primordialism vs. Instrumentalism Ethnicity as primordial in addition to ethnicity as instrumental Critique of primordialism Critique of instrumentalism History in addition to Nature of Nationalism(s) Primordialism vs. modernism Civic nationalism in addition to ethnic or ethno-nationalism The nation-state Summary Primordialism vs. Instrumentalism Ethnicity as primordial Ethnicity is ?deeply ingrained in human history in addition to experience? (Wolff 2006, p. 33). Ethnic bonds are primordial in addition to unlike other bonds: have an over-powering non-rational, emotional quality; are largely inexplicable; are ancient, enduring in addition to recurrent; given, natural in addition to immutable. Ethnicity as instrumental Ethnicity is socially in addition to politically constructed over time. Ethnicity is ?foremost a resource in the hands of leaders so that mobilize followers in the pursuit of other interests? (Wolff 2006, p. 33). Ethnic bonds are related so that political in addition to social projects; instrumentally mobilized as a means so that gain material goals.

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Primordialism vs. Instrumentalism (2) Early modernization theory predicted that modernization would break down people?s localised ethnic identities in addition to replace them alongside loyalties so that larger communities. The resurgence/persistence of ethnic conflict seems so that challenge this. Explanations in consideration of the persistence of ethnic conflict in a modernizing world can often be divided into primordialist in addition to instrumentalist schools; Harff in addition to Gurr see constructivism as a third position (2004 chpt. 5, week 9 reading list). Primordialism vs. Instrumentalism (3) Scholars we might categorise as primordialists (to some degree): Edward Shils, Clifford Geertz, Harold Isaacs, Walker Connor. Scholars we might categorise as constructivists (more or less): Michael Hechter, Charles Tilly, Ernest Gellner, Donald Horowitz, most feminist scholars of ethnicity. Anthony Smith as an ethno-symbolist. Primordialism vs. Instrumentalism (4) Critique of primordialism James McKay (1982) challenges implication that ethnic identities are static in addition to rejects ?sense of primacy about ethnicity?. Primordialists also don?t account in consideration of why ethnic relations are peaceful in some instances but conflictual in others. Horowitz (2002): primordialists ignore how ethnicity is formed in addition to causes, varieties of in addition to solutions so that conflict. Primordialists focus on the nature of ethnic identification in addition to don?t produce detailed theories of ethnic conflict. Primordialists don?t sufficiently distinguish between maintenance of ingroup solidarity in addition to cultivation of outgroup hostility; between affirming identity in addition to pursuing conflict (Horowitz 2002).

Primordialism vs. Instrumentalism (4) Critique of instrumentalism McKay (1982): approach has explanatory power in consideration of some groups in some situations, but not in consideration of all. McKay (1982): Humans struggle over ideals in addition to values as well as economic in addition to political interests ? cannot reduce all ethnic disputes so that economic disparities. (See Douglass 1988 too.) Instrumentalism fails so that understand the non-rational, ?emotional depth of national identity: the passions at either extreme end of the hate-love continuum which the nation often inspires, in addition to the countless fanatical sacrifices which have been made in its name? (Connor 1994, see chpt. 8). Ethnicity is not primordial but members experience it primordially (Horowitz 2002). Primordialism vs. Instrumentalism (6) ?[E]thnic identity should perhaps rather be seen as something that has roots in a group?s culture, in addition to historical experiences in addition to traditions, but that is also dependent upon contemporary opportunities that can be a useful instrument in consideration of mobilizing people in consideration of social, political, or economic purposes that may or may not be related directly so that their ethnic origins? (Wolff 2006, pp. 36-37). History in addition to Nature of Nationalism(s) Primordialism vs. modernism Primordialists focus on ancient in addition to inherited social practices as the source of authentic national community; nations are seen so that have ancient roots. Modernists (e.g. Benedict Anderson, Ernest Gellner, Eric Hobsbawm) view nations as specifically modern, the result of political in addition to economic developments in European history, traced so that last quarter of 18th century (Enlightenment). First conceptions of nationalism were primarily civic in addition to territorial; ethnic nationalism rose in importance in 19th century (see Anthony Smith 2000 or 1998).

Primordialism vs. Instrumentalism Lecture Outline PO377 ETHNIC CONFLICT AND POLITICAL VIOLENCE

History in addition to Nature of Nationalism(s) (2) Civic nationalism Civic/territorial conceptions of the nation ?regard it as a community of shared culture, common laws, in addition to territorial citizenship?. With civic nationalism ?residence in addition to political participation in a public culture tend[s] so that determine citizenship in addition to membership of the nation? (Smith 1993). Ethnic or ethno-nationalism Ethnic conceptions of the nation ?focus on the genealogy of its members, however fictive; on popular mobilization of ?the folk?; on native history in addition to customs; in addition to on the vernacular culture? (Smith 1993). Therefore, ethno-nationalism involves the politicisation of ethnicity in addition to usually territorial as well as political claims. History in addition to Nature of Nationalism(s) (3) Anderson (1991): the nation as ?an imagined political community ? in addition to imagined as both inherently limited in addition to sovereign.? Smith: agrees nationalism is a modern phenomenon yet stresses ?ethnic origins? of modern nations. Yuval-Davis (1997): a sense of ?common destiny? is as important in constructing nations as the myth of common origins. Nationalism is ?Janus-faced? (week 8 reading list). Many different forms of nationalism: dominant/state; settler-state (or settler-colonial); anti-colonial; post-colonial; indigenous; linguistic (integrally connected so that ethno-nationalism); revolutionary socialist or communist nationalisms; etc. History in addition to Nature of Nationalism(s) (4) The nation-state Proposition that a nation should have self-government within the same state; ?assumes a complete correspondence between the boundaries of the nation in addition to the boundaries of those who live in a specific state? (Yuval-Davis 1997, p. 11). BUT in most societies are people who aren?t members of the hegemonic nation (in ethnic or civic terms); some members of national collectivities live in other states; some nations have never had a state. Ethnic nation-states: Pierre van den Berghe (1990): less than 15% of contemporary states are nation-states in addition to most are micro-states. David Welsh (1993): less than 20 of approx. 180 contemporary states are ethnically homogeneous.

History in addition to Nature of Nationalism(s) (5) The nation-state Civic nation-states: requires difficult nation-building project. Can have ethnic undertones that make minorities feel excluded. Talk of the ?nation-state? is usually uncritical. Effect of the nation-state fiction has been ?to naturalize the hegemony of one collectivity in addition to its access so that the ideological apparatuses of both state in addition to civil society? (Yuval-Davis 1997, p. 11). So there are problems alongside both ethnic in addition to civic conceptualizations of the nation-state. Summary Different conceptual approaches so that the study of ethnicity: Primordialism: given in addition to more or less immutable conception of ethnicity; ethnicity (and nationalism) as a real in addition to deeply felt emotional bond; pushes it towards ideas of inevitable ethnic in addition to ethno-national conflict. Instrumentalism: social constructionist, recognises potential in consideration of change in conceptions of ethnicity; ethnic conflict stems from competition in consideration of material resources in addition to perceived or real deprivation; leaders stir up ethnic mobilization. Arguably neither school of thought accurately captures the entirety of processes of ethnic identification or fully explains the varied elements of ethnic mobilization towards conflict alongside the ?other?. Summary (2) Modernist theorists of nationalism view nations as being a result of specific 18th century political, economic in addition to ideological developments in Europe. Primordialist sympathisers argue that even if the ideology of nationalism is modern, nations as communities in addition to identities have existed in consideration of far longer in addition to are largely based on ethnicity. Numerous different forms of nationalism in addition to specific variants in particular places in addition to time periods, but a significant overarching typology divides nationalism into ?civic? in addition to ?ethnic? forms (though this is not unproblematic).

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