Questions? Cross-Cultural Work-Family Interfaces: Work-Family Conflict China in addition to Mexico

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Questions? Cross-Cultural Work-Family Interfaces: Work-Family Conflict China in addition to Mexico

Universit Paul Valry (Montpellier III), FR has reference to this Academic Journal, Cross-Cultural Work-Family Interfaces: Work-Family Conflict China in addition to Mexico Sophorn Cheam Debbie Leung HuiYi Hung Lillian Ramos Catherine Xu Presented by : Cross-Cultural Work-Family Interfaces: – Work-Family Conflict Outline: Definition of Work-Family Conflict Causes of Work Family Conflict Work-Family Policies Approaching Differences Concerns Rise from Differences Work-Family Conflict Defined Work in addition to family demands become imbalanced Differences & conflict of dual breadwinners & traditional family roles Identity Theory Burke, 1996; Thoits, 1991 Women: professional life vs. traditional role Job stressors, job involvement leads so that job distress in addition to depression

 Beitiks, Kathleen Universit Paul Valry (Montpellier III) www.phwiki.com

 

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Countries Comparison Source: The Macro-environment in addition to Work-Family Conflict: Development of a Cross Culture Comparative Framework Mexico Traditional family- ?patriarchal-authoritarian,? meaning that family is important & father has domination over entire family. Females role is at home. When the requirement so that have the woman become a mother in addition to employee increases the stress because it?s not a cultural norm so that have women work. Low per capita GNP, depends on a service related economy, relatively high population growth rate creates largest amount of strain on families. China Chinese tradition is ?utilitarianistic familism,? which is a tendency so that place family interests above those of the individual. Work role is a means so that an end, the end is the family?s financial security Low per capita GNP, country depends on manufacturing related economy, largest population can be an indication of economic strain on families.

Causes of Work-Family Conflict & Family-Work Conflict Time devoted so that one role makes it difficult so that participate in another role WIF: Higher the position, greater the responsibilities This would lead so that more time away from the family FIW: Chores in addition to family commitments would intrude on time needed so that successfully complete tasks on the job The bottom line: STRESS Work Interfering alongside Family (WIF) Driven by the MNE?s need in consideration of the almighty ?buck? in addition to the ever-present threat of being called back prematurely Expatriate would feel pressure so that put the time in at work. Family Interfering alongside Work (FIW) Being away from the familiar scenes of home in addition to friends Family members need more support so that help them through the ?critical part? of adjustment.

Questions? Cross-Cultural Work-Family Interfaces: Work-Family Conflict China in addition to Mexico

Health Concerns Several studies have linked these two types of conflicts with: Increased occurrence of hypertension, alcoholism, depression, psychological illness in addition to A general dissatisfaction alongside life Resulting in high turnover, absenteeism, low morale in addition to poor performance. In the War of Work-Family Balance? Retention strategies used by the best U.S. corporations: Money Unfortunately, there?s something that money cannot buy!! A Better Solution?. Family-friendly benefits: Impact of job stress on family life in addition to health Influence employees? decisions so that stay or leave

Why is Family-Friendly Policy Important? Full-time employees work longer on average than 20 years ago 51% of families alongside children have 2 working parents, which is a 54% increase since 1977 (Abram, 2004). What do the U.S. Firms Do Now? Source: scjohnson Are Working-mothers the Biggest Winner? Not true !! X-generation working dads spend 3.5 hours a day alongside their kids 70% of working men would take pay cut so that spend more time alongside family Almost 50% would turn down a promotion if family time will be less. (Families & Work Institute, 2002)

Work-Family Conflict: – A Business Issue The concept of both work in addition to family have different significance in addition to importance in different countries/cultures Presence of family-supportive governmental policies moderate relationships between: Demands, Resources, in addition to Work-Family Conflicts Companies have been developing family-friendly policies in addition to practices To alleviate tensions between these central life domains. What Leads so that Differences in Approaching Work-Family Conflict? ?Work-Family Conflict is based on a fairly simple theoretical perspective of role theory Where conflicting demands coming from the two central roles in our life lead so that strain.? Job dissatisfaction is associated alongside WFC Work resources: organizational & supervisor support relate so that less WFC Approaching Work-Family Conflict Differently Looking cross-nationally there are large discrepancies in the usefulness of specific practices of policies. Childcare centers appeal so that a large amount of people in the US Whereas, in Mexico childcare centers are less relevant in addition to critical

Explaining the Variance Between Different Cultures China: Life satisfaction of Chinese employees is influenced primarily by Work-Family conflict Chinese people assign priority so that work over family U.S. & Mexico: American in addition to Mexican employees are influenced primarily by Family-Work Conflict Americans in addition to Mexicans prioritize family over work Explaining the Variance Between Different Cultures (cont.) Employees in addition to families in China in addition to Mexico view working long hours differently than American employees in addition to families. Differences are due to: The existence of more family ties in China in addition to Mexico, which allow people in the two countries so that focus more on work. Legal Issues

Concerns Risen From Differences Among Countries Childcare support Concerns Risen From Differences Among Countries Overtime work pattern: Reasons: Technological constraint Show effort of bringing propriety so that family Conclusion Work-Family Conflict: Affect expatriate decision Related so that cultural perception Benefit from organizational in addition to social support

Questions?

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Theoretical Framework Introduction Motorola in addition to Sony: A Comparison in HR Recruitment in addition to Selection

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Theoretical Framework Introduction Motorola in addition to Sony: A Comparison in HR Recruitment in addition to Selection

Universit Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI), FR has reference to this Academic Journal, Motorola in addition to Sony: A Comparison in HR Recruitment in addition to Selection Jack Chung, Sarah Duran, Ka-Yi Leung, Anthony Mai Introduction Theoretical Framework Comparing US in addition to Japan Hiring Practices in the United States Hiring Practices in Japan Recommendations Conclusion Theoretical Framework Recruitment Goals Selection Criteria Technical ability Cross-cultural suitability Family requirements Country-cultural requirements MNE requirements Language Importance Consequences of Failure Rewards of Successful Completion

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Source: Human Resource Management, 1995 Comparing US in addition to Japan Source: CIA World Fact Book 2004 Hiring Practices in consideration of Domestic Workers in the United States Goals High Productivity Recruitment in addition to Selection Experienced Applicants Resume Based Resume Databases Internet Applications

Hiring Practices in consideration of Internationals in the United States Goals Complete assignment alongside success ?Localize? expatriates Recruitment in addition to Selection Experienced Individuals often from inside company Cross-Cultural Competence International Certificate Programs Motorola Headquarters in Schaumburg, IL 97,000 employees (2003) Revenues of $27,068 million (2003) Segments: Personal Communications, Semiconductor, Global Telecom, Commercial, Government, Industrial Solutions, Integrated Electronic Systems, Broadband Communications Subsidiaries in addition to Joint-Ventures in: US, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, in addition to Japan. Hiring Practices in consideration of Domestic Workers in Japan Recruiting in addition to Selection: New recruits are selected from universities (traditionally) Lateral hires, independent contractors in consideration of special tasks, recruiting agencies, in addition to temporary employees (currently) Hires new recruits alongside no specific job clarifying a specific job function

Theoretical Framework Introduction Motorola in addition to Sony: A Comparison in HR Recruitment in addition to Selection

Hiring Practices in consideration of Domestic Workers in Japan Continuous in-house training in addition to on-the-job training Currently more outside training is used In-house unions Job rotation Selection Exams Hiring Practices in consideration of Domestic Workers in Japan Nenko: Merit, age, seniority based promotion ?Ghost? promotions Job security or ?Lifetime Employment? No longer guaranteed Hiring Practices in consideration of Internationals in Japan Goals: Share managerial resources alongside overseas operations Selection Criteria Focus on behavioral in addition to relational ability vs. Technical ability in the U.S. Relational skills Motivational state 3 Areas: Self-orientation Stress reduction skills Reinforcement substitution Technical competence Alienation management

Hiring Practices in consideration of Internationals in Japan Selection Criteria Other-orientation Relationship skills Language skills Understanding Respect Perceptual-orientation Non-judgmental Correct in addition to positive assumptions Sony Corporation Founded May 7, 1946 Headquarters located in Tokyo, Japan Total number of employees: 162,000 (as of March 31, 2004) HR philosophy: Stress communication between employees in addition to top management Value employees? contribution Recommendations To reduce expatriates? failure rate: Not so that underestimate the local executives Special preparatory programs In-house environmental awareness program Off-site environmental awareness program Study-abroad at graduate schools or research institutes Temporary posting abroad, prior so that formal assignment.

Conclusion United States vs. Japan Culture Ultimate Goals Job selection in addition to recruitment Trends

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Background Biogas so that Electricity in addition to Heat (STG)

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Background Biogas so that Electricity in addition to Heat (STG)

Universit Panthon-Assas (Paris II), FR has reference to this Academic Journal, Biogas so that Electricity in addition to Heat (STG) Cheung, Leanne Kam, Stephen Samandari, Jeff Taiby, Awrang Background Methane (CH4): -greenhouse gas (GHG) produced by organic decay -contributes ~9% of the total greenhouse gases [1] -5-10 times the heat-trapping capacity of CO2 [2] (21 times by other estimates) [3] -is increasing in the air at double the rate of CO2 [2] [1] eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/ggccebro/chapter1.html [2] eia.doe.gov/cneaf/alternate/page/environment/chap2.html [3] votenga.ca/Common%20Pages/BackgrounderTextFiles/Animal_Waste_Management.htm [4] eia.doe.gov/cneaf/alternate/page/environment/chap3.html

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Sources of Methane [1,2] largest natural source of methane is the world’s wetlands landfills, coal mines, oil in addition to gas operations Agriculture: Manure Manure Stinks! In California: 33,000,000 tons/year just by dairy cows Contributes so that land in addition to water pollution [5] westbioenergy /reports/55033/55033final.htm Cal Poly Covered Lagoon Project[5] BioResource in addition to Agricultural Engineering Dr. Douglas Williams Partners: CSU-ARI, Capstone Micorturbines Goal: To obtain as much energy as possible from dairy cow waste in consideration of reuse in the dairy Anticipates greenhouse gas credits will be available so that the dairy

Possible Benefits Reduction of solid waste Odor control Reduction in land in addition to water pollution Reduction of methane as greenhouse gas Economic profits Design in addition to Operation plus Amount of resources required in consideration of useable energy production? Estimates of energy production Methane Production Technologies[6] A number of methane-producing technologies have been developed in addition to could be considered in consideration of dairy manure. The choice of the most appropriate technology is dependent upon specific waste characteristics. Packed bed in addition to up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket digesters (used in consideration of soluble organic wastes). Covered lagoons (used at dairies) success rate, 78% Plug flow, success rate, 37%, Complete mix digesters, success rate, 30%. [6] ari.calpoly /images/46740%20pub%201.doc

Background Biogas so that Electricity in addition to Heat (STG)

Covered Lagoon Digester Biogas production from a covered lagoon digester in addition to utilization in a microturbine Covered Lagoon Digester System [7] f3.grp.yahoofs /v1/UKh5Qr0suIfo5fsf5xjXnexmVXkoPwk0JwVRyr8wQLMV4MrChO1ad5aAl8WcRBeuFY4O63nOiS5Td_7AUnEKxmBVfuYeIZWSbCweyi6RZR4Q4DADEA/DWWCPLagoonhandout41505.doc provided by Dr. Douglas Williams, BioResource ang Ag. Dept., Cal Poly California projects recover methane in addition to capture odors by using innovative systems. Resources Required < in California > The total manure produced by dairy cows in the state of California is 33,000,000 tons/year. Energy Production [7] < in California > If the total manure produced by dairy cows in the state of California could be converted so that methane, the theoretical energy production would be 20 trillion BTU which would be enough so that power a 200-megawatt power plant.

Resources Required [6] < at Cal Poly > The storage lagoon has a volume of 19,000 cubic meters, which translates so that 50 so that 90 days of storage, depending upon the water used by the dairy. The methane recovery (new primary) covered lagoon is located next so that the storage lagoon. has a volume of 14,400 cubic meters, has approximate surface dimensions of 80 meters x 65 meters. The depth varies from 5.2 meters so that 3.7 meters alongside 2:1 side slopes. Resources [7] < at Cal Poly > The Cal Poly Dairy is located adjacent so that the Cal Poly campus in San Luis Obispo, California. The dairy presently milks 180 cows alongside a total population of over 350 animals. Most of the herd is housed in freestall barns. About 90 percent of the manure is deposited on concrete, Flushed through a solids separator, in addition to Pumped into a 14,400 cubic meter covered lagoon digester. Energy Production [7] < at Cal Poly > Floating cover is a reinforced polypropylene material alongside Styrofoam floats so that channel the biogas so that the gas manifold. Approximately 300,000 so that 400,000 liters of flushed manure containing « % solids in addition to 4000 mg/l COD are loaded daily into the digester resulting an HRT of 40 days. After exiting the lagoon the COD of the effluent has been reduced so that 1000 mg/l resulting in much less odors.

Energy Production [6] < at Cal Poly > As the manure is anaerobically digested by bacteria located at the bottom of the lagoon, up so that 100 cubic meters of biogas is produced daily in addition to collected beneath a special floating cover. Energy Production < at Cal Poly > Figure 2. Floating Lagoon Cover at the Cal Poly Dairy [6] Microturbine [7] < at Cal Poly > This biogas, containing 70 % methane, is then piped so that the gas handing system where it provides fuel in consideration of a 30 kW microturbine electric generator as shown in Figure The biogas is being continuously flared in addition to is maintaining a self-supporting flame. Figure 1:Microturbine Electric Generator System

Microturbine Performance Summary < at Cal Poly > [7] Methane Production Technologies < at Cal Poly > [6] Energy Production < at Cal Poly > Figure 4: 10 KW Engine-Generator Test [7]

Economic Feasibility Cost of Methane Recovery System Amount of Energy Production Economic benefits Could it be economically viable? Capital Cost < at Cal Poly > [6] Approximately $225,000 in consideration of the costs of this methane recovery system including the lagoon construction flexible cover influent piping gas handling Micro-turbine system associated labor in addition to engineering Estimates of energy production < at Cal Poly > [6] Worth approximately $10,000 based on the measured biogas production in addition to the rated efficiency of the micro-turbine, the completed methane recovery system will produce 52,000 kWh of electricity in addition to 77,000 kJ of heat annually

Profit Calculation [5] Cal Poly electricity bill in consideration of dairy production $3,000/month Annual electrical usage in consideration of dairy production = ($3,000/month)*(12month) =$35,000 Electricity Profit = (52,000kWh/yr)*($0.12/kwh) = $6,240/yr Process Heat Profit = (77,000 kJ/yr)*($0.048/kJ) = $3,760/yr Total Profit = Electricity Profit + Process Heat Profit = $6,240/yr + $3,760/yr =$10,000/yr Calculation continue? Percent Saving on Electricity in consideration of Dairy Product per Year =($10,000/yr)/($35,000/yr) = 28% # of years so that Recover the cost of methane system =($225,000)/($10,000/yr) =22.5yr Comparisons With Other Methane Recovery Biogas Systems

Langerwerf Dairy[8] Uses a plug flow anaerobic digester 40 kilowatt output In operation since 1982 Converted biogas into 5 million kWh Production had dropped by 30% in 1997 Restarted in 1998 alongside new parts [8] rcmdigesters /publications/Langerwerf_digest.htm Langerwerf Dairy Langerwerf Dairy

Sources [1] eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/ggccebro/chapter1.html [2] eia.doe.gov/cneaf/alternate/page/environment/chap2.html [3] votenga.ca/Common%20Pages/BackgrounderTextFiles/Animal_Waste_Management.htm [4] eia.doe.gov/cneaf/alternate/page/environment/chap3.html [5] westbioenergy /reports/55033/55033final.htm [6] ari.calpoly /images/46740%20pub%201.doc [7] f3.grp.yahoofs /v1/UKh5Qr0suIfo5fsf5xjXnexmVXkoPwk0JwVRyr8wQLMV4MrChO1ad5aAl8WcRBeuFY4O63nOiS5Td_7AUnEKxmBVfuYeIZWSbCweyi6RZR4Q4DADEA/DWWCPLagoonhandout41505.doc provided by Dr. Douglas Williams, BioResource ang Ag. Dept., Cal Poly [8] rcmdigesters /publications/Langerwerf_digest.htm [9] biomass.ucdavis /pages/newsletters/BiomassW05124.pdf [10] wurdco /Press/Press%20releases/castelanellidairymethaneopening.htm [11] wurdco /News%20Clips/meadowbrook%20press%20release.htm [12] wurdco /News%20Clips/Modbegallodigester.htm [13] environmental-expert /magazine/biocycle/october/article3.htm

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Profit Calculation [5] Cal Poly electricity bill in consideration of dairy production $3,000/month Annual electrical usage in consideration of dairy production = ($3,000/month)*(12month) =$35,000 Electricity Profit = (52,000kWh/yr)*($0.12/kwh) = $6,240/yr Process Heat Profit = (77,000 kJ/yr)*($0.048/kJ) = $3,760/yr Total Profit = Electricity Profit + Process Heat Profit = $6,240/yr + $3,760/yr =$10,000/yr Calculation continue? Percent Saving on Electricity in consideration of Dairy Product per Year =($10,000/yr)/($35,000/yr) = 28% # of years so that Recover the cost of methane system =($225,000)/($10,000/yr) =22.5yr Comparisons With Other Methane Recovery Biogas Systems and short form of this particular Institution is FR and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.

 

IEEE 802.11 Overview Standardization of Wireless Networks Topic on WLANS

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IEEE 802.11 Overview Standardization of Wireless Networks Topic on WLANS

Universit Panthon-Sorbonne (Paris I), FR has reference to this Academic Journal, Topic on WLANSIEEE-802.11 (Hao Lian)Analysis of campus wireless network(Ao Shen)Comparison between 3G in addition to Wi-Fi(Bichen Wang, Chen Chen)Standardization of Wireless NetworksWireless networks are standardized by IEEEUnder 802 LAN MAN standards committee.IEEE 802.11 OverviewAdopted in 1997.Defines;MAC sublayer MAC management protocols in addition to servicesPhysical (PHY) layersIR FHSSDSSS GoalsTo deliver services in wired networksTo achieve high throughputTo achieve highly reliable data deliveryTo achieve continuous network connection.

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Components StationBSS – Basic Service SetIBSS : Infrastructure BSS : QBSSESS – Extended Service SetA set of infrastrucute BSSs.Connection of APsTracking of mobilityDS ? Distribution SystemAP communicates alongside anotherWLAN 802.11 networkWireless connectionServicesStation services: authentication, de-authentication, privacy, delivery of dataDistribution Services ( A thin layer between MAC in addition to LLC sublayer)associationdisassociationreassociationdistributionIntegrationA station maintain two variables: authentication state (=> 1) association state (<= 1) IEEE 802.11 overviewServices example : RoamingAP1AP2AP311- Authenticate in addition to associate2 ? Laptop roaming3 ? Authenticate (if needed) in addition to (re)associate4 ? Notify the new location of the laptop (disassociation of AP1)34IEEE 802.11 overviewAP1AP2AP3Services example : ?Out of service?Medium Access ControlDeals:Noisy in addition to unreliable mediumFrame exchange protocol - ACKOverhead so that IEEE 802.3 - Hidden Node Problem ? RTS/CTSParticipation of all stationsReaction so that every frame

IEEE 802.11 Overview Standardization of Wireless Networks Topic on WLANS

IEEE 802.11 overviewMAC functionalitiesReliability of data delivery serviceControl of shared WL networkDistributed Coordination Function (DCF)Point Coordination Function (PCF)Frame Types (informational section)ManagementPrivacy service (Wired Equivalent Privacy – WEP)IEEE 802.11 overviewDCF OperationCarrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA), uses binary exponential back off (Same as in IEEE 802.3)IEEE 802.3 use collision detection algorithm.IEEE 802.11 use collision avoidance (CA) algorithmListen Before Talk ? LBT (don?t transmit while others transmit so that avoid collision)Network Allocation Vector (NAV) ? the time till the network will be cleared from any transmitting.The NAV alongside the LBT assist so that avoid collisions (CA)DCF Operation

PCF OperationPoll ? eliminates contentionPC ? Point CoordinatorPolling ListOver DCFPIFSCFP ? Contention Free PeriodAlternate alongside DCFPeriodic Beacon ? contains length of CFPCF-Poll ? Contention Free PollNAV prevents during CFPCF-End ? resets NAVOther MAC OperationsFragmentationSequence control fieldIn burstMedium is reservedNAV is updated by ACKPrivacyWEP bit set when encrypted.Only the frame body.Medium is reservedNAV is updated by ACKSymmetric variable keyWEP DetailsTwo mechanismDefault keysKey mappingWEP header in addition to trailerKEYID in header ICV in trailer dot11UndecryptableCountIndicates an attack.dot11ICVErrorCountAttack so that determine a key is in progress.MAC ManagementInterference by users that have no concept of data communication. Ex: MicrowaveInterference by other WLANsSecurity of dataMobilityPower Management

Analysis of a Campus wide Wireless NetworkIntroductionTrace CollectionResultsIntroductionResearch time: 2001 FallResearch place: Dartmouth(161 buldings, 476 APs)Research Target: Wireless network analysis in Dartmouth.Note: The paper only applied so that Dartmouth 2001.Trace CollectionSyslogSNMPSniffersOther important definitions

SyslogContains: ?AP name ?MAC address of card ?Message time ?Message typeMessage Type of SyslogAssociated A card selects one APRoamed A card changes its current AP so that anotherDeassociated A card disconnects alongside one APSNMPA kind of heart-beat message, poll per 5 minutesContains: ?MAC address of card ?Inbound bytes ?Outbound bytes

SniffersAn application which collects packets in addition to by extracting packets? header, we can analyze more detailed information about users, such as types of packets, application-layer protocol used.SniffersWe assemble ?Sniffers? in four buildings ?Sudikoff(6 APs) ?Brown(2 APs) ?Berry(13 APs) ?Collis/Thayer(9 APs) Other Important DefinitionRoamer CardMobile CardSession

SessionStarts when a card associates alongside an AP. Ends: ?Changes one AP so that another ?Network Problem: Power Off .etcResults & AnalysisTrafficCard SessionAPProtocolTrafficThe busiest card transferred 117GB, while the median card transferred only 350MB. On the busiest day, the traffic has the amount of 240GB, while the median daily traffic is only 53MB. Inbound traffic is greater than outbound traffic.

Traffic77 days? traffic overviewWeekly patternReduction in ThanksgivingReduction in the endHolesTrafficBased on WeekMonday is busiest, because weekday starts alongside MondayFriday in addition to Saturday are quietest, because students always rest on that two daysFrom Sunday, the traffic is beginning so that grow, because students usually start so that finish homework on SundayGraphTrafficDay PatternAround 10:00 AM, busiestIn the afternoon, very steadyAfter 12:00 AM, is declining Graph

CONCLUSIONWiFifrequent disconnections even in a commercially operated, metro-scale deployment; when connected indeed delivers high throughout even in a mobile scenario.3G network much lower throughputsmuch better coverage in addition to less throughput variability. A hybrid design that exploits the best properties of the two networks opportunistically can be very successful. Better throughput + lower cost in consideration of the provider by moving expensive 3G bits onto WiFi networks.Thanks so much!

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by SessionStarts when a card associates alongside an AP. Ends: ?Changes one AP so that another ?Network Problem: Power Off .etcResults & AnalysisTrafficCard SessionAPProtocolTrafficThe busiest card transferred 117GB, while the median card transferred only 350MB. On the busiest day, the traffic has the amount of 240GB, while the median daily traffic is only 53MB. Inbound traffic is greater than outbound traffic. and short form of this particular Institution is FR and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.

 

BIOMASS ENERGY presented by Neo-Excretory Genesis Million Negassi Allen Tra

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BIOMASS ENERGY presented by Neo-Excretory Genesis Million Negassi Allen Tra

Universit Paris-Dauphine (Paris IX), FR has reference to this Academic Journal, BIOMASS ENERGY presented by Neo-Excretory Genesis Million Negassi Allen Trac Gordon Lai Clement Law Paul Lin Weiming Li Topics Methane generation from cows Methane generation from Human Number of people needed so that generate enough power in consideration of SLO Number of cows needed in consideration of methane generation Biomass related-diseases, odor in addition to pollution Suggestions Overview of Biomass energy Biomass products have been used in consideration of thousands of years so that cook food keep households warm Sources of biomass: Animal waste Life stock-manure (Cows) Human-sludge organic component of municipal industrial wastes Wood in addition to dry crop wastes are classified as biomass derived fuels Firewood is still the most common form of fuel nrel.gov/clean_energy/bioenergy.html

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Overview of Biomass energy It accounts in consideration of 3% of energy production in the U.S. Biomass is still the largest form of energy available in the US It ranks second (to hydropower) in renewable energy nrel.gov/clean_energy/bioenergy.html Effects of Biomass energy Reduces greenhouse gas emissions Generates carbon dioxide as fossil fuels do But CO2 is removed when a tree is grown The net CO2 emission will be zero if plants are grown in consideration of the purposes of biomass energy Planting a tree in consideration of each tree we cut is required nrel.gov/clean_energy/bioenergy.html Biomass Energy Applications Biofuels Converting biomass into liquid fuels in consideration of transportation Biopower Burning biomass directly, or converting it into a gaseous fuel or oil, so that generate electricity Bioproducts Converting biomass into chemicals in consideration of making products that typically are made from petroleum nrel.gov/clean_energy/bioenergy.html

Biogas Production Tech Biogas (Digester gas) Mixture of gases egov.oregon.gov/ENERGY/RENEW/Biomass/biogas.shtml Typical Energy Production egov.oregon.gov/ENERGY/RENEW/Biomass/biogas.shtml

BIOMASS ENERGY presented by Neo-Excretory Genesis Million Negassi Allen Tra

Anaerobic Digesters Covered Lagoon Digester Manure storage lagoon alongside floating cover Liquid manure alongside < 3% solid Complete Mix Digester Heated tank above or below ground Large manure volume alongside solid concentration 3% ~ 10% Plug-Flow Digester Digester alongside mixing pit in consideration of water Ruminant animal manure alongside solid concentration 11% ~ 13 % egov.oregon.gov/ENERGY/RENEW/Biomass/biogas.shtml Mix Above Ground Digester Mix Above Ground Digester Tank Retention time of 20 days Size = daily manure production X 20 More efficient than plug-flow system Less effect from change in climate Stable production Less effective than covered lagoon system More expensive $$$$$ epa.gov/agstar/tech/index.html Components epa.gov/agstar/tech/index.html Components epa.gov/agstar/tech/index.html Benefits Generate electricity Fuel in consideration of boiler, space heater, refrigeration equipment Directly combust as a cooking in addition to lighting fuel Most equipment that use natural gas, propane, or butane fuels can be modified so that operate on biogas. epa.gov/agstar/tech/index.html Benefits Nearby green house could be heated alongside biogas Carbon dioxide from heater exhaust could enhance plant growth Recovered digested solids may be used in consideration of animal bedding Anaerobic digestion does not lower the total amount of nitrogen, phosphorus in addition to potassium in the manure but does increase the amount of ammonia nitrogen The manure effluent will have a higher nutrient availability in addition to plant uptake may be improved alongside digestion epa.gov/agstar/tech/index.html Benefits After digestion, compounds, which usually produce odors, are greatly reduced Digester systems, properly designed in addition to operated, significantly reduce the odors associated alongside manure storage in addition to distribution. Energy Requirements in consideration of SLO County Number of Households = 97,230 Number of People = 237,709 factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable Energy Requirements in consideration of SLO County Number of People per Household 12,133 kilowatt-hours of electricity each year solarenergy /resources/energyfacts.html Methane Production System Considerations Success Rates Covered Lagoons ? 78% Plug Flow ? 37% Mix Digesters ? 30% Choose so that use covered lagoons due so that success rates ari.calpoly /images/46740%20pub%201.doc Covered Lagoon Power Plants How much energy can be produced from each plant? We?ll choose the one from Cal Poly It produces 170,000 kWh / Plant*year How many power plants do we need so that power the county? Is such a system feasible? How many cows are required? Is such a system feasible? We need 3,993,400 cow?s manure so that supply enough methane so that power the county. Does SLO county have that many cows? Number of Cows in California = 1.3 Million Not even California has enough cows so that supply enough manure in consideration of SLO county energy production through methane. I Guess not! cacheeseandbutter /mar98nws.htm Human Excretory System Consideration How much sludge does a cow produce? 1000 lb cow produces 80 lbs of sludge/day nmdairy /faq1.htm How much sludge do we produce? science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2004/18may_wastenot.htm Ratio of Cow Sludge so that Human Sludge How much sludge do we need so that produce? Is this Human System Feasible? The Human population in California is: 33,871,648 We need 54,294,400 humans so that supply enough methane so that SLO county classbrain /artstate/publish/article_1226.shtml Solar Power Powering alongside solar energy tower End

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Human Excretory System Consideration How much sludge does a cow produce? 1000 lb cow produces 80 lbs of sludge/day nmdairy /faq1.htm How much sludge do we produce? science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2004/18may_wastenot.htm and short form of this particular Institution is FR and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.

 

Background – Internet/Data Access? Papers considered Cellular Network Performance Measurement

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Background – Internet/Data Access? Papers considered Cellular Network Performance Measurement

Universit Paris Nanterre (Paris X), FR has reference to this Academic Journal, Cellular Network Performance MeasurementClass Presentation in consideration of CS 234 – Advanced Networksby Pramit Choudary, Balaji Raao & Ravindra Bhanot (Group 18)Instructor: Professor Nalini Venkatasubramanian05/10/2012Papers consideredPaper 1: Understanding Traffic Dynamics in Cellular Data Networks by U. Paul, A. Subramanian, M. Buddhikot, S. Das, IEEE INFOCOM 2011, Shanghai, ChinaPaper 2: An Untold Story of Middleboxes in Cellular Networks, SIGCOMM 2011, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (NOTE: Please refer so that the relevant papers listed above in place of ?paper 1? or ?paper 2? found in the presentation slides.)2Each claim so that cater different data rates, ranges in operation, needs of end user/application, energy savings, etc using different protocol designs, business strategies, network deployments in addition to many more.Background – Internet/Data Access?Dial-up connectionBroadband (DSL, Cable Internet, Fiber Optics)Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11 standard) & WiMAX (IEEE 802.16 standard)Mobile Broadband using 2.5G, 3G, 4G technologies3

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Background – Cellular Networks in addition to interconnecting subsystems44G: Fourth generation of cell phone mobile communications standard3G: Third generation of cell phone mobile communications standardFemtocell: Small cellular base station designed in consideration of use in a home or small businessIMS: IP Multimedia Subsystem, used so that provide mobile in addition to fixed multimedia servicesImage courtesy: radisys Background – Broadband Cellular NetworksE.g. HSPA – Mobile telephony protocols used in 3G cellular networks in consideration of mobile data access.Broadband cellular access becoming most common in addition to pervasive world-wide.Fueled by introduction of user-friendly smart phones, notebooks, tablets, eBook readers.5Background – A look at smartphone technology6Courtesy: Technology Review, Published by MIT, May 9th 2012

Background – Broadband Cellular NetworksHas led so that innovative & flashy mobile applications like gaming, video streaming, social networking, etc.Use of several in addition to various types of middleboxes so that manage the scarce resources (because same resources are shared mostly) in the network in addition to so that protect them e.g. Network Address Translation (NAT) boxes, firewalls, etc.7Background – On usage of middleboxes8 Many times, cellular network middleboxes (deployed by carriers like AT&T, T-Mobile) in addition to mobile applications (application developers) ? managed independently. Knowledge mismatch -> End-to-end performance degradation, Increase in energy consumption, Introduce security vulnerabilities. E.g. Carrier setting aggressive timeout in consideration of inactive TCP connections in the firewall in addition to disrupting long lived in addition to occasionally idle connections maintained by applications like instant messaging, push-based email, etc. Need in consideration of understanding the effects of middleboxes in cellular network. Paper 2 specifically focuses on NAT boxes, their policies & firewall in addition to its policies.Background – Broadband Cellular Networks (Contd.)Expectations in increase in the volume of data seen exponentially.Supporting such an increase requires good understanding of traffic dynamics in addition to its impact on resource allocation on the service provider?s network.Leading so that better resource planning, network designs, spectrum allocation in addition to energy savings.9

Background – Internet/Data Access? Papers considered Cellular Network Performance Measurement

Background – Broadband Cellular Networks (Contd.)For some exciting numbers, refer so that a white paper by Cisco on global mobile data traffic forecast in consideration of 2011-2016: cisco /en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11-520862.html 10Paper 1 – Short SummaryDiscuss traffic dynamics specific so that 3G cellular networks.End user perspective: Study subscriber traffic patterns, number of distinct base stations visited by subscribers, relate mobility in addition to traffic, subscriber temporal activity & relate subscriber activity in addition to traffic.Network component perspective: Study aggregated load at base stations, base station load distributions, spatial characteristics, temporal characteristics in addition to spatio-temporal characteristics of network load at base stations.11Paper 1 – Short Summary (Contd.)Provide implications on the measurements in addition to observations made.Test conducted in 2007 in consideration of a week over a US nation-wide network alongside thousands of base stations in addition to alongside entire subscriber base (order of hundreds of thousands i.e. close so that a million).Performed measurements on all generated data packet headers (not including payloads) in addition to on signaling & accounting packets.12

Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsSubscriber Traffic Distribution:13KEY OBSERVATIONS Heavy users: Users who generate as high as 10GB of traffic per day (10^5 times median). Light users: Users who generate less than 1KB per day. CDF shifts left over weekends.INFERENCE Less traffic on weekends relative so that traffic on working days.Fig. CDF of total traffic volume per subscriber per day.Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsSubscriber Traffic Distribution (Contd.):14KEY OBSERVATIONS 1% of the subscribers create more than 60% of the daily network traffic. 10% of subscribers create 90% of the daily network traffic.INFERENCE Imbalance in network usage alongside few subscribers (10%) using much of the network resources.Fig. CDF of normalized traffic volume over the percentage of subscribers per day.Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsImplications of Subscriber Traffic Distribution:An unlimited data plan alongside flat rate pricing is not efficient both from the carrier?s perspective in addition to subscriber?s perspective.CDF graphs shown in previous two slides can be used so that create a ?tiered? rate plan in consideration of data.Tiered rate plan deals alongside providing different pricing options based on data usage.15

Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsImplications of Subscriber Traffic Distribution (Contd.):4) To alleviate the problem of high volume subscribers creating poor experience in consideration of other subscribers, high volume subscribers can be provided alongside some incentives.5) Paper doesn?t consider optimal pricing schemes based on subscriber usage in addition to network capacity. It only provides heuristic implications in consideration of subscriber traffic distribution.16Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsSubscriber Mobility (i.e. Base Stations Visited):17KEY OBSERVATIONS Distribution similar on weekdays in addition to different on weekends. 60% of users are stationary (i.e. constrained within a cell) in addition to over 95% of users travel across less than 10 base stations in a day. Highly mobile users (who visit more than 50 distinct base stations in a day) are about 0.01%.Fig. CDF of number of distinct base stations visited by a subscriber each day.Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsSubscriber Mobility (i.e. Base Stations Visited):18INFERENCE Tendency of lesser degree of mobility on weekends. In terms of the number of distinct base stations visited, the overall mobility is low.Fig. CDF of number of distinct base stations visited by a subscriber each day.

Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsSubscriber Mobility (Radius of Gyration):19Fig. CDF of radius of gyration. Radius of Gyration is the linear size occupied by a subscriber?s trajectory. Requires certain duration of time (t) in consideration of computation from subscriber?s trajectory. It is basically a root mean square value. Calculated alongside respect so that the center of mass point of the user?s trajectory.Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsSubscriber Mobility (Radius of Gyration):20Fig. CDF of radius of gyration.INFERENCE: Shows the low level of mobility of majority of subscribers (half of them).KEY OBSERVATIONS: 53% of subscribers are practically static in addition to almost 98% of the subscribers have radius of gyration less than 100 miles.Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsSubscriber Mobility (Radius of Gyration):21Fig. Radius of gyration versus duration of computation in consideration of subscribers categorized into 4 groups according so that their final rg at the end of seven-day period.KEY OBSERVATIONS: Radius of gyration on an average comes so that a saturation point in just few days (based on no. of hours).Saturation indicates that some sort of boundary in the movement area has been reached. Quick saturation measured in terms of ?return probability? in next slide. Users alongside larger radius of gyration need longer time so that saturate.

Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsSubscriber Mobility (Radius of Gyration):22Fig. Probability distribution of time so that returning so that the same location.KEY OBSERVATIONS: Distribution has peaks at 24th, 48th in addition to 72nd hours.INFERENCE: Periodic nature of human mobility alongside a 24 hour period (like coming back home) in addition to tendency so that return so that the same location periodically. This infers the saturation of radius of gyration.Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsSubscriber Mobility (Radius of Gyration):23Fig. Probability of finding a subscriber at different locations that are ranked on the basis of their frequency of visits. Shows four categories of subscribers who visit 5, 10, 30 in addition to 50 distinct base stations.KEY OBSERVATIONS: Location alongside rank, L = 1 indicates the most visited base station in consideration of a subscriber. Subscribers spend 30% of their time in the top two preferred locations.INFERENCE: Subscribers are found at their favorite location alongside high probability even there is high mobility among them.Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsInferences on Subscriber Mobility so farLarge fraction of subscribers have limited mobility (roughly half of them are static moving within just 1 mile).Subscriber mobility also exhibits periodic behavior alongside high probability of returning so that same base station at same time of the day.Overall mobility is predictable.More mobile users tend so that generate more traffic.24

Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsImplications on Subscriber MobilityIdea of caching content in addition to delivering it so that subscribers who exhibit a predictable mobility behavior – Innovative cloud-based content delivery applications.Optimizing the location based services in addition to targeted ad-services through predictable mobility pattern.25Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsRelating subscriber mobility in addition to traffic they generate:26Fig. CDF of traffic generated per day by subscribers based on number of locations (base stations) visited in a day.Fig. CDF of traffic generated per day by subscribers based on radius of gyration.Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsRelating subscriber mobility in addition to traffic they generate:27KEY OBSERVATIONS FROM PREVIOUS SLIDE: Though the plot lines appear similar, they differ in traffic volume in consideration of different number of base stations visited in addition to traffic volume in consideration of different radii of gyration.INFERENCE: More traffic is generated by more subscribers. Median traffic generated by subscribers in the highest mobility category is roughly twice that of the subscribers in the lowest mobility category.

Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsImplications relating so that subscriber mobility in addition to traffic they generate:1) Planning resources dynamically based on traffic generated by subscribers specific so that subscriber timings of movements.2) Spectrum management based on timings of traffic generated in addition to in different cells.28Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsSubscriber Temporal Activity:29KEY OBSERVATIONS About 28% of the subscribers generate traffic only in single hour during the peak hours. A typical subscriber (i.e. median) is active in the 4 different hours during the peak hours. (Consider a straight line -50% line- across the graph)Fig. CDF of number of hours among peak hours (8 AM so that 8 PM) subscribers generate traffic.It is the number of days (or hours) in a week (or in a day), subscribers generate traffic.Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsSubscriber Temporal Activity:30INFERENCE: Large fraction of subscribers generate traffic only in few hours within a day. That is, more of number of subscribers generating traffic is in consideration of a lesser duration of time (for the week / in consideration of a day).Fig. CDF of number of hours among peak hours (8 AM so that 8 PM) subscribers generate traffic.

58 Firewall Policies ? Effect on Download time 59 Firewall Policies ? Effect on Energy Consumption 60 Summary of Firewall Policies 4 out of 60 cellular networks allow IP spoofing making the user vulnerable Nearly 15 % of carriers set TCP timeout less than 10 minutes increasing energy consumption. SDK suggested so that be used by developers so that maintain uniformity. TCP out of order buffering causes degraded performance in addition to energy waste in some cases. So a tradeoff has so that be decided between performance in addition to security.

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsImplications on Subscriber MobilityIdea of caching content in addition to delivering it so that subscribers who exhibit a predictable mobility behavior – Innovative cloud-based content delivery applications.Optimizing the location based services in addition to targeted ad-services through predictable mobility pattern.25Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsRelating subscriber mobility in addition to traffic they generate:26Fig. CDF of traffic generated per day by subscribers based on number of locations (base stations) visited in a day.Fig. CDF of traffic generated per day by subscribers based on radius of gyration.Paper 1 – Subscriber Traffic DynamicsRelating subscriber mobility in addition to traffic they generate:27KEY OBSERVATIONS FROM PREVIOUS SLIDE: Though the plot lines appear similar, they differ in traffic volume in consideration of different number of base stations visited in addition to traffic volume in consideration of different radii of gyration.INFERENCE: More traffic is generated by more subscribers. Median traffic generated by subscribers in the highest mobility category is roughly twice that of the subscribers in the lowest mobility category. and short form of this particular Institution is FR and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.

 

Motivation Design Drivers The Barn Owls

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Motivation Design Drivers The Barn Owls

Universit Paris Nord (Paris XIII), FR has reference to this Academic Journal, The Barn Owls Chris ?Mo? Baughman Kate Brennan Christine Izuo Dan Masse Joe ?Sal? Salerno Paul Slaboch Michelle Smith Design Drivers High Rate of climb Max. cruise speed Motivation To build an aircraft which will take off (multiple times without crashing) Accurately predict the performance of the designed aircraft Maximize the speed in addition to rate of climb

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Guidelines in addition to Limitations 400 ? 800 sq. in. planform area Given Astro-Cobalt 615G motor Must be statically stable Takeoff run < 300 ft. No rockets!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!? Schedule in addition to Deadlines February 5th ? Present Conceptual Design February 26th ? Present Detailed Design March 4th ? Complete Parts List April 6th-9th ? Ground Tests Weights Powerplant Thrust VS Speed Airfoil ? GO 769

Motivation Design Drivers The Barn Owls

Design Factors in Choosing Airfoil Appropriate Reynolds Number Data (low speed) Minimize Drag t/c ~ 14% wide drag bucket Shallow increase in drag outside of drag bucket Maximize Lift High CL max Wing Design Decisions No sweep Maximize lift Ease of manufacture Taper ratio of 0.25 Minimize drag Create large enough root chord length in order so that provide clearance in consideration of payload Slight dihedral in consideration of roll stability Winglets enhance in-flight performance Fuselage Airfoil-shaped fuselage serves as lifting surface Also serves as a wing box which carries electronics Conventional fuselage has been replaced by booms on order so that minimize weight in addition to drag

Horizontal Tail NACA 0009 Airfoil Low drag, symmetric Can Produce both Lift in addition to Reverse Lift Swept so that maintain straight trailing edge so that maximize control surface while minimizing planform area Take-off/Landing Estimations Take-off Distance = 176 ft. Landing Distance = 370 ft. (does not take into consideration climbing over an obstacle) Flaps Slotted, 15% of total wing area Used as flaperons Enhanced lift in consideration of take-off Control during flight Speed brakes during landing

Weight Distribution Static Stability Static Margin: 0.029753 (stable) CM,?= -0.78423 (stable) CN,? = 0.015653 (stable) CL? = -0.015653 (stable) Conclusions

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Lens setup in consideration of Rydberg spatial distribution Outline Spatial

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Lens setup in consideration of Rydberg spatial distribution Outline Spatial

Universit Paris-Sorbonne (Paris IV), FR has reference to this Academic Journal, Lens setup in consideration of Rydberg spatial distribution Outline Spatial distribution experiment Translation stage Lens design Rydberg cloud distribution 5s2 1S0 5s5p 1P1 5sns 1S0 V Low density High density Rydberg blockade should alter density profile

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Ground state distribution Measure ground state distribution from MOT floursecence Rydberg state scatters too few photons Autoionization Allows independent Rydberg excitation in addition to investigation Ion detection is very sensitive 5s2 5s5p 5sns(d) 5pns(d) 5s1/2+ Experiment plan Need so that scan across MOT

Lens setup Spot size ? 10?m Lenses outside chamber Limit decentration/tilt error Vibrationally insensitive Constraints Translation stage 25mm travel Micron accuracy stepper motor Newport miniature linear translation stage MFA-PP Michelson interferometer LabVIEW knife-edge program Test translation stage LabVIEW drivers Need so that check waist size in addition to focal position Stage steps ? averages photodiode signal ? Extracts std. dev. Fits data using error function 2 % error on waist measurement

Lens setup in consideration of Rydberg spatial distribution Outline Spatial

Chromatic focal position shift Alignment extremely challenging on autoionization transition – use 461 fluorescence Chromatic shift important Gaussian propagation fit 408 Rayleigh range ? size of MOT Viewport aberrations Large increase in waist size Focal position shift is achromatic Large increase in aberrations Not caused by tilt Outlook Lens system fully calibrated Translation stage calibrated To do: Translation stage control in main Labview sequence Rebuild optical setup EIT lock

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Growth of Russia Muscovite – Catherinian European vs. Eastern Russia

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Growth of Russia Muscovite – Catherinian European vs. Eastern Russia

Universit Paris Sud (Paris XI), FR has reference to this Academic Journal, Growth of Russia Muscovite – Catherinian European vs. Eastern Russia

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Tsar Ivan I d. Tsar Ivan IV ?The Terrible? 1533-1584 Ivan IV inherits throne as a child, kept prisoner by Boyar Duma throughout most of his childhood. (psychological effects) Marries Anastasia Romanov, ?good? period. Connections alongside the West: British Muscovy Company. She dies, he goes into a fit of depression in addition to rage against nobility. Oprichnina Comes back so that ?normal? but then kills his son, Ivan

Ilya Repin?s Ivan the Terrible in addition to His Son Ivan on November 16, 1581. 1885. Time of Troubles follows until 1613, when the Boyar Duma elect Mikhail Romanov. Stability in addition to expansion follows. 1618: Russian explorers in addition to trappers reached upper Yenisei valley in central Siberia. 1633-43 Olearius visits Russia 1649: Reach Pacific Ocean on East Coast of Russian Empire. End of the 17th century, crisis of succession leaves Sophia as regent in consideration of her brothers, Ivan V in addition to Peter I. She attempts so that hold on so that power, but is thwarted. Ivan not competent, leaving Peter (the Great) Quest in consideration of a warm-water port Northern Wars in consideration of the Baltics Expansion so that the South (Azov) against Turks. Problem alongside the Black Sea region?

Growth of Russia Muscovite – Catherinian European vs. Eastern Russia

Ilya Repin?s portrait of Sophia in Novodevichi Convent after her rebellion against Peter

Peter?s attempts so that modernize: Nobility must conform so that western European dress in addition to mannerisms Education abroad Modernization of military Building a navy (hence the need in consideration of warm water port St. Petersburg (western style) Changes calendar Dies 1725. Catherine?s reign (1772-96) Usurps the throne from her husband, Peter III She is a German Princess, Sophia of Anholt-Swerbst Learns Russian, converts so that Orthodoxy, gains support of Streltsy guard Modernization, freedom from service Considers liberation of serfs, but doesn?t do it Correspondent alongside Voltaire, Enlightened Despot Part of the Philosophe movement, a liberal ruler?until 1789.

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* Final Notes on Growth in addition to Saving * Agenda in consideration of

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* Final Notes on Growth in addition to Saving * Agenda in consideration of

Universit Paul Sabatier (Toulouse III), FR has reference to this Academic Journal, * Final Notes on Growth in addition to Saving * Agenda in consideration of this week Paper assignment Simulation of increased saving experiment Advanced macro on ?optimal economic growth? An example from economics of global warming Alternative schools: Real Business Cycles Debt, deficits, in addition to growth * Paper Assignment The paper should be 3 so that 5 pages (double-spaced, printed, plus tables, figures, in addition to references). It will count as 10 percent of the course grade. The paper must left in the box outside Ms. King?s office at 28 Hillhouse Avenue before noon on Thursday, December 10. ÿ Guidelines are that the paper must: (a) be a topic in macroeconomics, (b) consider economic history or policy, (c) present evidence in addition to data, in addition to (d) be an application of macroeconomic analysis. ÿ Some examples of topics would be the following:ÿ – Administration X?s theories in addition to policies, in addition to their successes and/or failures – The demise of the gold standard or Bretton Woods – The role of the housing price decline in the current recession – The legacy of Alan Greenspan, Paul Volcker, or Ronald Reagan – The macroeconomic effects of protectionism in the Great Depression. ÿ You should consult alongside your Teaching Fellow about your topic so that make sure that it makes sense in addition to so that get ideas in consideration of sources. ÿ Consult rules on intellectual honesty in addition to attribution, in addition to don?t procrastinate. ÿ See notes on web site in consideration of further information. *

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* Numerical Example of Budget Surplus in Neoclassical Growth Model Assumptions: Production is by Cobb-Douglas alongside CRTS Labor plus labor-augmenting TC: n = 1.5 % p.a.; h = 1.5 % p.a. Full employment; constant labor force participation rate. Savings assumption: a. Private savings rate = 18 % of GDP b. Initial govt. savings rate = minus 2 % of GDP c. In 1992, govt. changes fiscal policy in addition to runs a surplus of 2 % of GDP d. All of higher govt. S goes into national S (i.e., constant private savings rate) ?Calibrate? so that U.S. economy of 1997 * Impact of Increased Government Saving on Major Variables – Note that takes 10 years so that increase C Political implications Must C increase? * Results on Growth Rates: Modest impact on growth in short run Consumption down then up No impact on growth in long run GDP v NNP (gross v. net; national v. domestic)

Return so that question of whether can have too high a savings rate Recall question from last time of whether C has so that increase when S increases. This involves the question of whether K is above the ?Golden Rule? K. Golden Rule = maximum sustainable level of per capita consumption Simple algebra (consider only net output): Max f(k) ? nk ? f?(k) ? n = 0 ? r = n or real interest rate = growth rate * * k y y = f(k) (n+?)k c** = (1-s**)f(k**) k** i = sf(k) Find k** where net interest rate equals n. At that point c is maximized. This is the golden rule savings rate. f?(k**) = (n+?)k Yale? More general approach: Ramsey-Koopmans model *

* Final Notes on Growth in addition to Saving * Agenda in consideration of

Ramsey-Koopmans model (cont.) * Policy importance: Say you are worried about the damages from global warming in 2000 yrs. Say damages are 50 % of output of $50 trillion plus growth – With conventional discounting, .5*50*exp(200*.02)exp(-.05*200) = $.061 – With Stern discounting, .5*50*exp(200*.013)exp(-.014*200) = $20.5 Example of modeling: Yale RICE model Regional Integrated model of Climate in addition to the Economy Integrates economic growth, CO2 emissions, climate change, damages, in addition to economic policy Relies upon: – Solow growth model – Ramsey-Koopmans optimal growth theory – Samuelson theory of public goods – wide variety of geophysical theories – Pigovian theory of externality taxes * Results of Solow-Ramsey-Koopmans model *

Integration alongside Climate model in addition to alternative policies * * Growth Accounting (not covered in class) Growth accounting is a widely used technique used so that separate out the sources of growth in a country relies on the neoclassical growth model Derivation Start alongside production function in addition to competitive assumptions. For simplicity, assume a Cobb-Douglas production function alongside labor-augmenting technological change: (1) Yt = At Kt ? Lt 1-? Take logarithms in addition to time derivatives: (2) ?ln(Yt)/?t= gY = gA + ? gK + (1 – ?) gL In the C-D, ? is the competitive share of K = sh(K); (1 – ?) = sh(L). (3) gY = gA + sh(K) gK + sh(L) gL From this, we estimate the rate of TC as: (4) TFP growth = T.C. = gA = gY – sh(K) gK – sh(L) gL Note that this is a very practical formula. All terms except h are observable. Can be used so that understand the sources of growth in different times in addition to places. * Some applications (not so that be covered) 1. Clinton?s growth policy (see above) 2. U.S. growth since 1948 3. China in central planning in addition to reform period 4. Soviet Union growth, 1929 – 1965 The very rapid (measured) growth in the Soviet economy came primarily from growth in inputs, not from TFP growth. 5. Japanese growth, 1950-75 Japan had very large TFP growth after WWII. Wide variety of sources, including adoption of foreign [These are contained in the slides in consideration of growth theory.]

* Classical themes in macroeconomics: Real Business Cycle Theory Short run or long run? (full adjustment of capital, expectations, etc. Classical or non-classical? (sticky wages in addition to prices, rational expectations, etc. Classical or non-classical? (sticky wages in addition to prices, rational expectations, etc. long- run short- run Neo-classical growth model Marxist theories? Behavior growth theories? Malthusian trap models? yes yes no no Real business cycle (RBC); supply-side economics; structural models; misperceptions models Keynesian model (sloping AS, expectations- augmented PC, IS-LM, etc.) Schools of Macroeconomics Real Business Cycles Basic idea: cycles are caused by productivity shocks; these are propagated by changes in prices in addition to then so that labor supply. Model Details Start alongside neoclassical growth model. Remember decomposition of output growth from growth accounting: gY = ? gK + (1-?) gL + ?, where ? = T.C. Changes in output come from two sources: Technological shocks: ? random. Changes in labor force participation: assumes very high elasticity of labor supply alongside respect so that wages. This then generates random output fluctuations, which RBC school calls business cycles.

Real output (Q) Price (P) AD AS Q* P* RBC recession AS? AS2001:Q1 AS2004:Q4 Policy implications of RBC models Output shocks are exogenous phenomena (earthquakes, Internet revolution, terrorist strikes, wars, etc.). No role in consideration of monetary or fiscal policies in cycle: Economy in addition to unemployment are efficient; no need in consideration of policies Cycles are supply-driven, cannot use AD policies so that stabilize output. Money is ?neutral? (M policy cannot affect real output), so cannot use M policy

1. Cyclical properties of classical models of the business cycle Hard so that explain deep recessions in addition to depressions (1930s, 2007-09) as technological regress. 2. Money in addition to output: is money neutral? RBC predicts money neutral F/S in addition to Keynesians: much evidence that M is non-neutral 3. Labor market features (such as quits in addition to Beveridge curve) Verdict: Economists deeply divided. Personal view: Keynesian approach has not developed a complete microeconomic justification, but it is most promising approach so that understanding sources in addition to policies in consideration of business cycles. Problems in RBC models * Growth in addition to savings in an open economy? For small open economy What happens if savings rate increases? In this case the marginal investment is abroad! * Open economy growth alongside mobile financial capital ( r = world r = rw) NX = S – I I(r) r = rw r = real interest rate I, S, NX 0 Original NX deficit S0

* Open economy growth I(r) r = rw S1 I, S, NX 0 Final NX surplus Original NX deficit S0 Higher saving: No change I No change GDP Higher foreign saving Increase GNP, NNP r = real interest rate * * k y = f(kd)+rkf yd = f(kd) (n+?)k kd sy y = f(kd)+rkf= f(kd)+rw(k-kd) k * What if savings in an open economy? For small open economy What happens if savings rate increases? In this case the marginal investment is abroad! Therefore, same result, but impact is upon net foreign assets, investment earnings, in addition to not on domestic capital stock in addition to domestic income. No diminishing returns so that investment (fixed r=rw) Will show up in NNP not in GDP! (Most macro models get this wrong.) Large open economy like US: Somewhere in between small open in addition to closed. I.e., some increase in domestic I in addition to some in increase net foreign assets

* 1. Do Deficits Matter? The Ricardian Theory of the Debt Robert Barro (Chicago/Harvard) introduced a theory in which deficits do not affect national saving or output. Chicago view of households: They are “clans” or “dynasties” in which parents have children?s welfare in utility function: Ui = ui (ci, Ui+1) where Ui is utility of generation i in addition to ci is consumption of generation i 3. This implies by substitution: Ui = ui (ci, ui+1(ci+1, Ui+2)) = vi(ci, ci+1, ci+2, .) which is just like an infinitely lived person! 4. Important result: Barro consumers are like a life-cycle model alongside infinitely lived agents alongside perfect foresight: there will be no impact of anticipated taxes (or deficits) on consumption or on aggregate demand. 5. Controversial, but empirically questionable. Reasons are myopia, singles, liquidity constraints, non-altruistic parents.

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Journal Ratings by Universit Paul Sabatier (Toulouse III)

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by * Open economy growth I(r) r = rw S1 I, S, NX 0 Final NX surplus Original NX deficit S0 Higher saving: No change I No change GDP Higher foreign saving Increase GNP, NNP r = real interest rate * * k y = f(kd)+rkf yd = f(kd) (n+?)k kd sy y = f(kd)+rkf= f(kd)+rw(k-kd) k * What if savings in an open economy? For small open economy What happens if savings rate increases? In this case the marginal investment is abroad! Therefore, same result, but impact is upon net foreign assets, investment earnings, in addition to not on domestic capital stock in addition to domestic income. No diminishing returns so that investment (fixed r=rw) Will show up in NNP not in GDP! (Most macro models get this wrong.) Large open economy like US: Somewhere in between small open in addition to closed. I.e., some increase in domestic I in addition to some in increase net foreign assets and short form of this particular Institution is FR and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.