Multicultural Therapy Minority Groups Recurring Issue Multicultural Education Models Contemporary White Models

Multicultural Therapy Minority Groups Recurring Issue Multicultural Education Models Contemporary White Models www.phwiki.com

Multicultural Therapy Minority Groups Recurring Issue Multicultural Education Models Contemporary White Models

Penner, James, Executive Producer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Multicultural Therapy Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D. The need as long as cultural competence There is a need as long as cultural competence within therapy. Traditional approaches have failed to meet the needs of minorities. A large percentage of the population of the United States is composed of people whose racial/ethnic background is something other than white. Minority Groups Most minority groups are: Without underrepresented in traditional clinical/counseling populations. There aren’t a lot of faculty members who are minorities. Racial & Gender domination perpetuates these issues. Mostly white, middle-class males who are the teachers & administrators.

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What do we see with minority patients More negative psychiatric diagnoses. Subst in addition to ard treatment. Inferior & differential counseling services as long as differing racial & ethnic patients. Underutilization of mental health services. Why Lack of minority therapists What are the issues with multicultural therapy Lack of attention & emphasis on social injustices & problems encountered by minorities. Sue & Smith: underrepresentation of minority groups in professional counseling training programs rein as long as ces the perception that therapy is generally irrelevant to their needs. Recurring Issue Discom as long as t of White Therapist working with someone different from them. This plays out in: Negative stereotyping. Lack of knowledge about the group of which the patient is a member. Generalized anxiety about working with different populations. Need: major re as long as m in graduate programs.

Multicultural Education Models Are we creating an environment in which we can foster cross-cultural awareness & underst in addition to ing Theories exposed to are monocultural. No research in the area of cross-cultural awareness development. Theoretical models imply that psychosocial development is uni as long as m as long as all members of society, regardless of cultural or racial background. Why aren’t these theories enough Sociopolitical factors such as SES, class, & power are largely ignored. Selected variables of the authors’ culture, such as individualism are emphasized. Many variables have limited applicability in pluralistic societies. What do the contemporary White Western Theories & Models emphasize Tendency to assume that psychosocial development occurs in a similarly orderly & uninterrupted progression as long as all. Ethnic & racial awareness & identity have not been considered noteworthy or integral within psychosocial development process.

Contemporary White Models Cultural biases & taboos of a given author’s society, including those relating to racism, prejudice, in addition to discrimination have been built into the theories. Members of society who do not represent the dominant culture find that the models do not “fit” their life experiences. Theories of deviance, deprivation, disadvantage, in addition to abnormality are based on the experiences of various groups & how they differ from the model. Contemporary White Models The research has incorporated biases inherent in monocultural theoretical models. Multicultural Research High-status & low-status group – how do individuals become aware of this Psychosocial development of minority groups. This new research is beginning to take sociopolitical factors into account. Quest as long as self-identity.

Oppression Oppression is a common approach. Uncom as long as table & “radical framework” as long as some. Dominant as long as ce. Less familiar to therapists, both cognitively & experimentally. Oppression, as a common experience, is the approach that provides a schema to the experiences of Asians, Latinos, African Americans, etc. Cross-cultural Training Models Need to emphasize: Competency: requires that the therapist be culturally aware, in touch with his/her own biases about minority patients, com as long as table with such differences, & sensitive to circumstances that may require the referral to circumstances that may require referral to same-culture therapist. Cross-cultural Training Models Second competency area: comm in addition to of knowledge, such as in as long as mation sets, that the culturally skilled therapist should have. Underst in addition to ing of the effects that the sociopolitical system within the U.S. has an oppressed persons, culture specific knowledge about the particular group being counseled, an underst in addition to ing of the institutional barriers to the use of mental health services by nondominant groups.

Future Clinicians Gain knowledge of specific minority groups. Focus on concerns such as value changes, acculturation, generational differences, parental pressures, dating, & religious issues. Supervision on these issues. Third Competency Therapeutic skills: should have a wide repertoire of verbal & nonverbal responses, the ability to send messages accurately & appropriately, in addition to the ability to use appropriate institution intervention. Assume a universalist approach or a culture-specific approach This is a controversy that has not yet been settled. The distinction between cultural & individual differences. A person should be seen as an individual & as a member of his/her own cultural group. Locke: you need to take into account the differences within a person’s culture in the context of the dominant culture. Each culture is both dynamic & subjective, & his training stresses “learning to work in different cultures rather than merely learning about cultures”.

Therapists trained from the Euro-North American cultural belief system Value self-disclosure, highly verbal, & goal-oriented patients. Issues of self-disclosure How we interpret self-disclosure or lack there of . Need to take background into account. Does the patient feel safe to share If the therapist doesn’t see self-disclosure, consider it resistant & nonproductive Other Issues Lack of role models in terms of therapists, faculty, & administrators, the traditional white majority student population attending programs will continue. Traditionally: therapy has been willing to accept culturally different people if they are willing to become acculturated in addition to reject their cultural distinctiveness. Some of the negative programs based on the melting pot philosophy. A strong conceptual framework Sociopolitical ramifications of therapy: Oppression Discrimination Racism Programs have to help trainees become aware of themselves as cultural beings. The culturally different patient becomes the object to be analyzed & studied. Focus on the stereotypes of the therapist.

Barriers to effective multicultural counseling instruction Melting pot myth Incongruent student expectations about therapy Overemphasis on verbal disclosure Overemphasis on abstract & non-problem-solving strategies. Ethnocentric worldview Ignorance of self-racism & cultural identity of others Monolingual orientation Overemphasis on long-range goals & the future. Lack of underst in addition to ing of the whole person Lack of underst in addition to ing of social focus Lack of appreciation as long as nonverbal communication Emphasize Culture Race Ethnicity Dominant culture Bi-culturalism Melting pot myth Pluarlism Oppression Cultural invasion Issues relating to power & internalized racism Marginality Lived experiences & contradictions Becoming Culturally Competent Ethnocentricity: a major obstacle to becoming culturally competent. Relatively few US scholars cite international journals. Only 60% US Scientists feel that being connected to international scholars is important.

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Becoming Culturally Competent Xenophobia: unreasonable fear, distrust, hatred of strangers or as long as eigners or anything perceived as different. Difficulty accepting others’ worldviews. Accepting differences across cultures as simply differences. Universality assumptions. Becoming Culturally Competent Personality styles. Reality is defined according to one’s cultural assumptions. People become insensitive to cultural variations among individuals & assume that their own view is the only right one. So How do we increase global competence & collaboration Enhance Cross-Cultural Awareness & Knowledge Increase our awareness & knowledge on a number of cross-cultural issues. Encourage study-abroad programs. Cultural immersion program. Require coursework. Require competency in a second language. Integrate cross-cultural issues & knowledge in our therapy curriculum.

Enhance Competency Promote cross-cultural research & supervision & consultation. Addressing Racism: Derald Wing Sue Why do we hold prejudices or stereotypes Need to underst in addition to our world Too much in as long as mation – need to categorize Makes us feel better about ourselves John Duckitt – History of Psychology & Prejudice Prior to the 1920s – notion of race inferiority & white superiority. Race theories dominated psychological thinking. Black inferiority was thought of as due to evolution or genetics. Seen as intellectually inferior. Prejudice was seen as a natural response to “inferior” races.

Therapy Issues Conflicts over family Family responsibility & obligations Emphasis on autonomy, overt masculinity, & self-reliance (American values) Gender issues Homosexual & transgender Asians How view mental health problems

Penner, James Executive Producer

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THE EVOLUTION AND APPLICATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRESS-INTENSITY FACTORS J. C

THE EVOLUTION AND APPLICATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRESS-INTENSITY FACTORS J. C www.phwiki.com

THE EVOLUTION AND APPLICATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRESS-INTENSITY FACTORS J. C

Evans, Robert, Editor-in-Chief has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal THE EVOLUTION AND APPLICATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRESS-INTENSITY FACTORS J. C. Newman, Jr. Mississippi State University Starkville, MS I. S. Raju NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA S. A. Fawaz U. S. Air Force Academy Colorado Springs, CO Workshop on Life Prediction Methodology in addition to Validation as long as Surface Cracks 23 May 2007 Norfolk, VA OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION Embedded Elliptical Crack Methods of Solution as long as Finite-Body Problems The Surface-Crack Problem The Boundary-Layer Effect Surface in addition to Corner Crack(s) at a Hole Application to Fatigue-Crack Growth Application to Fracture Concluding Remarks EMBEDDED ELLIPTICAL CRACK TO AN APPROXIMATE SURFACE CRACK SOLUTION ff Green & Sneddon (1950) Irwin (1962)

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METHODS OF SOLUTION FOR FINITE-BODY PROBLEMS Engineering Estimates Alternating Methods Line-Spring Model Boundary-Element Methods Finite-Element Methods COD methods J-Integral or energy methods Nodal- as long as ce method THE SURFACE-CRACK PROBLEM 2w SEMI-CIRCULAR SURFACE CRACK UNDER REMOTE TENSION Newman (1979)

SEMI-ELLIPTICAL SURFACE CRACK UNDER REMOTE TENSION Newman (1979) THE BOUNDARY-LAYER EFFECT Lose of square-root singularity Free surface Hartranft & Sih (1970) Benthem & Koiter (1973) Crack EFFECT OF FE MESH REFINEMENT ON NORMALIZED STRESS-INTENSITY FACTORS Raju & Newman (1979)

CRACK CONFIGURATIONS ANALYZED WITH FEA UNDER REMOTE TENSION OR BENDING LOADS Raju & Newman (1979-1986) 2r 2r w 2w 2w 2w 2w SURFACE CRACK AT A HOLE UNDER TENSION Newman & Raju (1981) ILL-SHAPED ELEMENT MESH PROBLEM CORNER CRACK AT A HOLE UNDER TENSION Tan et al (1988)

STRESS-INTENSITY FACTORS FOR QUARTER-ELLIPTIC CORNER CRACKS Bakuckas (1999) CORNER CRACK(S) AT AN OPEN-HOLE UNDER REMOTE TENSION AND BENDING LOADS Raju in addition to Newman (1979-86) FEA (h-version) ~10,000 dof (0.5 < r / t < 2) Fawaz in addition to Andersson (2000-04) FEA (p-version) 100,000+ dof (0.1 < r / t < 10) 2w Corner Crack at Hole under Tension: a/c = 1 in addition to f = 0 & 90o Major discovery w = 6 r w = 400 r } } Corner Crack at Hole under Bending: a/c = 1 in addition to f = 0 & 90o Major discovery w = 6 r w = 400 r } } Corner Crack at Hole under Tension: a/c = 1.0 in addition to a/t = 0.5 Corner Crack at Hole under Tension: a/c = 1.0 in addition to a/t = 0.95 APPLICATION TO FATIGUE-CRACK GROWTH Plane-stress behavior Free surface Jolles & Tortoriello (1983) Newman & Raju (1984) Plane-strain behavior Crack DKfs = bR DK PLANE-STRESS-TO-PLANE-STRAIN CONVERSION OFFSET ANGLES TO AVOID BOUNDARY LAYER PREDICTION OF SURFACE-CRACK-AT-HOLE SHAPE AND CRACK-GROWTH BEHAVIOR 2r 2w APPLICATION TO FRACTURE (Surface crack in D6ac steel under bending loads) FRACTURE OF SURFACE AND THROUGH CRACKS Evans, Robert Sierra Heritage Editor-in-Chief www.phwiki.com

CONCLUDING REMARKS Advancements in computers in addition to highly-refined finite-element models have been used to develop more accurate stress-intensity factors as long as three-dimensional crack configurations – but more analyses in addition to improved equations are needed over a wide range of loading in addition to crack configuration parameters (such as very shallow in addition to very deep cracks). The Newman-Raju equations have been found to be fairly accurate over a wide range in crack configurations, but the new Fawaz-Andersson finite-element solutions as long as a corner-crack-at-a-hole under remote tension or bending loads have resulted in more accurate equations. Three-dimensional stress-intensity factor solutions have improved the fatigue-crack growth predictions as long as complex crack configurations. Three-dimensional stress-intensity factor solutions in addition to local crack-front constraint variations have allowed the correlation of fracture as long as surface in addition to through cracks under both tension in addition to bending loads.

Evans, Robert Editor-in-Chief

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Fluid Structure Interactions Research Group FSI Away Day 2012 Damage Assess

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Fluid Structure Interactions Research Group FSI Away Day 2012 Damage Assess

Utah College of Massage Therapy-Houston, TX has reference to this Academic Journal, Fluid Structure Interactions Research Group FSI Away Day 2012 Damage Assessment Tool in consideration of Marine Structures Adam Sobey ? ajs502@soton ? Faculty of Engineering in addition to the Environment MoDLloyd?s Register Centre of Excellence in Marine Structures Fluid Structure Interactions Research Group Motivation Damage Assessment Tool Framework Collaboration Methodology Aims in addition to Objectives Each year ships sustain damage through collisions, groundings in addition to other reasons but relatively few are lost. During emergencies where the vessel remains afloat the safety of the crew in addition to cargo are put into danger. It is therefore key that advice is based on accurate modelling. Current assessment tools have ensured safety but are conservative. The ability so that rapidly model the damage in an emergency scenario will lead so that savings in cost in addition to reduce the environmental impact of these occurrences. The aim of the project is so that develop an improved methodology in consideration of damaged ship assessment in addition to design. This aim will be completed through a number of objectives: Develop methodologies so that aid each stage of the damage scenario Determine the applicability of each framework Investigate the use of FEA within damage scenarios Investigate the use of CFD in addition to potential flow within damage scenarios Validate the modelling of these tools Investigate the use of faster tools against experiments or more computationally expensive techniques Model damage situations Conclusions The project is developing research in the area of damaged structural analysis. This research has been split into four main stages of a vessels life: 1. Design? Vessels are analysed in consideration of damage tolerance which is then optimised. 2. First 48 hrs Emergency Response ? At this stage little is known about the damage that has occurred. Information is scarce in addition to crews in addition to emergency response must react quickly so that secure the safety of the crew in addition to cargo. There is limited time in consideration of modelling but advice must be accurate. 3. Recovery of the Vessel ? This stage can last in consideration of a period of a couple of weeks. More knowledge is known about the vessel in addition to decisions are being made about whether so that tug the boat so that safety, the cheapest in addition to most environmentally friendly option, so that ferry it home or so that scrap it, the least desirable option. Rapid modelling techniques will allow the investigation of a number of ?what if? scenarios. 4. Partial damage of the structure ? It is possible that the damage that occurs may not penetrate the structure but may lead so that total failure through use. This is common in composite materials. These areas all rely on the use of response surfaces as metamodels so that represent more complex modelling. This allows a rapid yet accurate analysis of the damaged structure. The tool relies on a hydrodynamic response surface that will feed into a structural response surface determining the probability of a total failure. The project is split between the University of Southampton in addition to University College London. In total 7 PhDs have worked or are working on the project covering areas of hydrodynamics, both experimentally in addition to through modelling, structural analysis of steel in addition to damage tolerance of composite materials. Diagram Key: Modelling currently under way Modelling Completed in addition to validated Input Data Potential areas of work Outputs Damage so that ship hulls represents a threat so that the safety of crews in addition to cargo in addition to can lead so that environmental in addition to economic impacts. Current levels of structural modelling represent methods that have ensured safety but are conservative in how they assess the collapse of damaged structures. This research combines a number of specialist areas so that develop models that are rapid enough so that be used in emergency response but are more accurate than those currently in use.

 Jurkonis, Mary Utah College of Massage Therapy-Houston www.phwiki.com

 

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Fluid Structure Interactions Research Group FSI Away Day 2012 Damage Assess

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