The Action Potential Discussion of Term Paper Propagation of the Action Potential

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The Action Potential Discussion of Term Paper Propagation of the Action Potential

Arkansas State University, Newport, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Propagation of the Action Potential Chapter 4, p 80-97 Monday, October 13, 2003 Discussion of Term Paper The goal is so that integrate information about brain in addition to behavior alongside real-world controversies. Be sure so that cover pros in addition to cons, as well as your own opinions. Give credit so that all sources in addition to do not copy from anyone. Language use counts, but any format is OK. The Action Potential Depolarization ? influx of sodium (Na+) or another positive ion makes the membrane potential more positive. When the membrane potential reaches threshold, voltage-gated Na+ ion channels open. After 1 msec, voltage-gated K+ channels open, polarizing the neuron again. Sodium-potassium pump helps restore neuron so that its resting potential. Resting potential is polarized, typically -65 mV

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Voltage-Gated Channels Voltage-gated channels open or close alongside changes in the membrane potential. Voltage-gated sodium (Na) in addition to potassium (K) channels coordinate the rising in addition to falling phases of the action potential. The membrane of an axon contains thousands of sodium channels in addition to the action of all of these is needed in consideration of an action potential. Conduction Down the Axon Rapid depolarization in one spot causes membrane just ahead so that depolarize too. Speed of conduction depends on the size of the axon in addition to the number of ion channels. Myelin permits the action potential so that travel rapidly from node so that node by blocking the membrane between nodes. Ion channels occur at the nodes, permitting an influx of Sodium so that regenerate the action potential.

Node of Ranvier Graded Response If action potentials are all-or-nothing in addition to always have the same amplitude (size), how is a graded response produced? More intense in addition to longer duration stimuli produce more frequent action potentials. More frequent action potentials release more neurotransmitter. More neurotransmitter increases the likelihood the next neuron will have an action potential. Interpretation of the Signals Action potentials are the same in neurons all over the brain. The meaning of an action potential comes from the interconnections among the neurons, not from the action potential itself. It is the flow of information through a network that is important what is connected so that what. Connectionist models try so that simulate this approach using computer software.

WELCOME so that HCOM-100 Intro so that Human Communication Studies ADDS & DROPS COMMUNICATING WITH ME Let?s go over the Syllabus Required Text WRITING REQUIREMENTS Reaction Paper = 15pts Dyad Paper = 10pts Presentation Outline Final Draft = 25pts ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES Oral presentations Written Papers Group Discussions Practice applications of concepts Exams CLASS PARTICIPATION Come so that every class Be on time Don?t interrupt each other ONLINE QUIZZES More on the REACTION PAPER EVIDENCE HUNT PRESENTATION OUTLINE ROUGH DRAFT 15pts DYAD PAPER PRESENTATION OUTLINE FINAL DRAFT 50pts PUBLIC PRESENTATION EXAMS ? 200pts GRADING GENERAL INFO & RULES CHEATING & PLAGIARISM SUBJECT TO CHANGE STUDENT PROFILE & READING ASSIGNMEMT What questions do you have? ? ? ? ? ?

Differences Among Neurons Some local interneurons do not generate action potentials because their axons are short. Some neurons do not have a steady resting potential in addition to are spontaneously active. Neurons differ in the types in addition to combinations of ion channels in their cell membranes. Neurons differ in their neurotransmitters released in addition to their receptors in consideration of transmitters. Two Kinds of Neural Activity Excitatory ? causes another neuron so that be more likely so that fire (have an action potential). Inhibitory ? causes another neuron so that become hyperpolarized (more negatively charged), making it less likely so that fire. Feed forward inhibition suppresses activity of other, opposing pathways. Feed backward inhibition provides self-regulation by dampening the activity of the current pathway. Interpretation of the Signals Action potentials are the same in neurons all over the brain. The meaning of an action potential comes from the interconnections among the neurons, not from the action potential itself. It is the flow of information through a network that is important what is connected so that what. Connectionist models try so that simulate this approach using computer software.

Differences Among Neurons Some local interneurons do not generate action potentials because their axons are short. Some neurons do not have a steady resting potential in addition to are spontaneously active. Neurons differ in the types in addition to combinations of ion channels in their cell membranes. Neurons differ in their neurotransmitters released in addition to their receptors in consideration of transmitters.

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