The AMS experiment The purpose of the AMS experiment is to per as long as m accurate, hig

The AMS experiment The purpose of the AMS experiment is to per as long as m accurate, hig

The AMS experiment The purpose of the AMS experiment is to per as long as m accurate, hig

Gwennap, Linley, Founder, President and Principal Analyst has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The AMS experiment The purpose of the AMS experiment is to per as long as m accurate, high statistics, long duration measurements in space of energetic (0.1 GV – few TV) charged CR including particle identification – energetic gamma rays. Nobel Prizes, Pulsar, Microwave, Microwave Binary Pulsars, Solar neutrino X Ray sources

Paul Mitchell the School-Fort Myers FL

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International commitments to AMS Particle identification = the name of the game For every antiproton at some energy there are 10,000-100,000 protons For every positron at some energy there are ~10,000 protons which have same charge sign Secondary particles (long in addition to short lived) are locally produced Single scatters change apparent particle charge sign in simple trackers 3x3x3m, 7 t

Contraints as long as a Space Experiment Thermal Environment (day/night: T~100oC) Vibration (6.8 g RMS) in addition to G-Forces (17g) Limitation : Weight (14 809 lb) in addition to Power (2000 W) Vacuum: < 10-10 Torr Reliable as long as more than 3 years – Redundancy Radiation: Ionizing Flux ~1000 cm-2s-1 Orbital Debris in addition to Micrometeorites Must operate without services in addition to human Intervention Superconducting Magnet Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer - AMS-01 First flight, STS-91, 2 June 1998 (10 days) AMS Flux Return Coils Dipole Coils He Vessel B B 2500 Liters superfluid He Superconducting Magnet Analyzing power BL2 = 0.8 Tm2 The coils completed Now inside the cryostat : 3 –300GeV e+/p rejection 102 –103 in 1.5 – 300 GeV with ECAL e+/p rejection >106 TRD detector to separate e+ from protons

TRD detector 20 layers,328 chambers,5248 tubes Mechanical accuracy <100m Assembly ready CERN beamtest with TRD prototype: proton rejection > 100 up to 250 GeV at electron efficiency 90% reached Single tube spectra as long as p+/e separation. Silicon Tracker Rigidity (DR/R 2% as long as 1 GeV Protons) with Magnet Signed Charge (dE/dx) 8 Planes, ~6m2 Pitch (Bending): 110 mm (coord. res. 10 mm ) Pitch (Non-Bending): 208mm (coord. res. 30 mm ) Charge measurent up Z ~ 26 Aerogel Radiator(n=1.03, 3cm) NaF radiator (n=1.33, 0.5cm) Mirror Cerenkov Cone Photomultipliers Ring Imaging Cerenkov Counter Accurate Velocity / = (0.670.01)10-3% (test beam) Isotopic Separation. Q measurements up Z~ 30 8.5 x 8.5 mm2 spatial pixel granularity

due to limitations in weight, space experiments have an ECAL section, normally with limited thickness St in addition to ard measurement as long as “thickness” is the radiation length (X0) which is related to the development of the energy deposition a detector with high X0 has a good energy in addition to angular resolution in addition to it is capable of measuring particles in the energy range 10GeV-1TeV with good accuracy (<5%) AGILE : 1.5X0 GLAST 10X0 AMS-02 : 16.1 X0 Calorimetry in space AMS: 3D sampling calorimeter: measure energy (few % resolution) in addition to angle (1° - 0.5° angular resolution) 10-3 p rejection at 95% e efficiency via shower profile 1 GeV - 1 TeV Lead foil (1mm) Fibers (1mm) y x z particle direction 1.73mm p e FIBER LEAD Sampling calorimeter with lead foils in addition to scintillating fibers Basic block is superlayer: 11 lead in addition to 10 fiber layers 9 superlayers with alternating x in addition to y readout Total thickness is 166mm, corresponding to 16.2 X0 Total weight 634 kg Electromagnetic calorimeter 2007 2008 Thermal vacuum test at ESA, Holl in addition to Final integration in 2007 at CERN Final testing in ESA vacuum chamber (NL) Charge measurements He C N Charge measurement: TOF, Tracker in addition to RICH Verified by heavy ion beam tests at CERN & GSI. Nuclei separation 10Be (t1/2=1.5Myr) / 9Be will allow to estimate the propagation time in addition to size of the ISM B is secondary produced in nuclear interaction, C is primary produced in stars. B/C is sensitive to the diffusion constant 3He/4He ratio is sensitive to the density of the ISM AMS-02 capabilities Beryllium Boron Helium 6 months 1 year 1 day One propagation model of our Galaxy it is shown that Galactic cosmic rays can be effectively confined through magnetic reflection by molecular clouds, Another propagation model including static magnetic fields in addition to gas clouds Integral excess of positrons in bulge because positrons are trapped in magnetic mirrors between gas clouds Magnetic fields observed in spiral galaxies A few uG perpendicular to disc: Strong convection to disc A few µG in the disc: can lead to slow radial diffusion Isotropic diffusion assumes r in addition to omly oriented magnetic turbulences. Preferred magnetic field directions -> anisotropic diffusion disk fieldline

Gwennap, Linley Linley Group, The Founder, President and Principal Analyst

Antiprotons B/C ratio Preliminary results from GALPROP with isotropic in addition to anisotropic propagation Summary: with anisotropic propagation you can send charged particles whereever you want in addition to still be consistent with B/C in addition to 10Be/9Be AMS is a High Energy Physics detector in space as long as eseen to operate on the ISS as long as 3 years Asked by NASA to be Ready For Flight end 2008 The cosmic rays, including gamma rays, will be measured with a high accuracy from the GeV to the TeV range Unique opportunity to study properties of our Galaxy in addition to its dark matter, including how particles propagate Summary

Gwennap, Linley Founder, President and Principal Analyst

Gwennap, Linley is from United States and they belong to Linley Group, The and they are from  Mountain View, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Gwennap, Linley deal with the subjects like Electronic Components and Semiconductors

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