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## The Analysis The Issue Policy Issues in US Corrections: The California Template

Chestnut Hill College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Policy Issues in US Corrections: The California Template Llad Phillips University of California Santa Barbara To be presented at Oxford Round Table March 27, 2006 The Issue The high rate of imprisonment in the United States Why did it not fall when the crime rate came down? The Analysis California exhibits the same pattern: crime rates falling but imprisonment rates staying high California accounts in consideration of about one eighth of all prisoners under state jurisdiction in the US California has extensive historical data that describes the operation of the correctional system over time

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The Story Prison system staffing responded so that a higher inflow of new felons committed so that prison from court. Parole staffing lagged behind. The higher caseload in consideration of parole officers motivated them so that return a higher fraction of parolees so that prison The Phenomenon, P. 2 Another View

National Crime Victimization Survey, 2004 Conceptual Framework, p. 4 Model of CJS, Perfect Efficiency No Revolving Door California Population Felon New Admissions from Court Per Capita Prison Population; Time in Prison Before First Release Parole Population; Time on Parole Before Discharge Discharges; 1/Total Time

Developing Higher Level Thinking in addition to Mathematical Reasoning Mathematical Reasoning Mathematical Reasoning Multiplication John has 4 bags of cookies. In each bag, he has 2 cookies. How many cookies does he have? There are 5 rows in a class. Each row has 3 desks. How many desks are in the class? Multiplication What does 3 x 2 mean? Repeated addition 2 + 2 + 2 Skip Counting by 2?s ? 2, 4, 6 3 groups of 2 Multiplication 3 rows of 2 Advantages of Arrays as a Model Advantages of Arrays as a Model Advantages of Arrays Advantages of Arrays Advantages of Arrays Advantages of Arrays as a Model Teaching Multiplication Facts Group 1 Multiplication 1 2 3 4 5 6 Multiplication 2 4 6 Multiplication 2 + 2 + 2 Multiplying by 2 Multiplying by 4 Multiplying by 3 Teaching Multiplication Facts Group 2 Breaking Apart 4 7 Teaching Multiplication Facts Group 3 Teaching Multiplication Facts Group 4 Distributive Property Reasoning about Multiplication in addition to Division Multiplying Larger Numbers 23 x 4 Using Arrays so that Multiply 23 x 4 80 12 92 Using Arrays so that Multiply 23 x 4 12 80 92 Multiplying Larger Numbers 34 x 5 Multiplying Larger Numbers 73 x 8 Multiplying Larger Numbers 257 x 6 Using Arrays so that Multiply 21 13 Multiplying in addition to Arrays 31 x 14 = Partial Products 31 x 14 300 10 120 4 434 Partial Products 31 x 14 4 120 10 300 434 Pictorial Representation 84 x 57 80 + 4 50 + 7 Pictorial Representation 30 + 7 90 + 4 37 x 94 Pictorial Representation 347 x 68 300 + 40 + 7 60 + 8 Multiplying Fractions Multiplying Fractions Multiplying Fractions 0 1 2 0 1 2 Multiplying Fractions Division Using Groups Using Groups Difference in counting? Multiplication Division Fair Share Division What does 6 ? 2 mean? 6 split evenly into 2 groups Measurement Division What does 6 ? 2 mean? 6 split into groups of 2 Division What does 6 ? 2 mean? 3 groups Using Arrays 15 24 Division 95 ? 4 Division 9 5 ? 4 Division 435 ? 3 Division 435 ? 3 Division 435 ? 3 47 ö 6 6 ) 47 47 ö 6 6 ) 47 3 ?18 29 18 47 ö 6 6 ) 47 3 3 ?18 29 ?18 11 18 47 ö 6 6 ) 47 3 3 1 ?18 29 ?18 11 ? 6 5 6 47 ö 6 6 ) 47 3 3 1 ?18 29 ?18 11 ? 6 5 7 R5 5 7 Expanded Multiplication Table 338 ö 7 7 ) 338 338 ö 7 ) 338 ö 7 ) 338 ö 7 ) 338 ö 7 ) 338 ö 7 ) 48 2 48 R2 932 ö 8 8 ) 9 3 2 1 8 1 3 1 8 5 2 6 4 8 4 R4 879 ö 32 32 ) 879 879 ö 32 32 ) 879 2 0 ? 640 239 5 ? 160 7 9 ? 6 4 2 15 27 R15 Try a couple! 9 58 ö 4 5,293 ö 47 So, what about dividing fractions on a number line?

Stocks in addition to Flows, p. 5 Prisoners Plus Parolees Outflow from CJS(t) = kCJS*[Prisoners+ Parolees](t-1) Total Time in CJS = (1/kCJS)* = [Pris. + Par.]/Discharges Equilibrium: Outflow of Discharges = Inflow of New Admissions Total Time in CJS = (1/kCJS)* =[Pris. + Par.]/New Admits Stocks in addition to Flows, p. 5 Prisoners Outflow from Prison(t) = kPRIS *Prisoners(t-1) Time in Prison = 1/kPRIS = Outflow/Prisoners Equilibrium: outflow = inflow Time in Prison = 1/kPRIS = Inflow/Prisoners Model of CJS, Inefficiency California Population Felon New Admissions from Court Per Capita Prison Population; Time in Prison Before First Release Parole Population; Time on Parole Before Discharge Discharges; 1/Total Time Probability of Moving from CA Pop. To CJS = Felon New Admissions Per Capita Probability of Moving from CJS so that CA Pop. = 1/Total Time

Time in Prison, p. 9 Creation of the Revolving Door, p. 11 Deteriorating Performance of the California Parole System, p.12 Parole Violators Returned so that Custody, PVRTC Parolees Absconding from Supervision Parolees At Large, PAL Shorter Time on Parole

Time On Parole What Caused the Deteriorating Performance of the Parole System?

Caseloads: Prison Vs. Parole, p.13 What Caused Such High Prison in addition to Parole Populations?, p. 15 The Minimal (Prison + Parole) Population Perfect efficiency: no revolving door (Prison + Parole) Pop. = (tPRIS + tPAR ) * New Admits ? (2004) = (1.67 + 1.39) * 46,812 Prisoners in addition to Parolees (est. 2004) = 143, 245 Prisoners & Parolees (obs. ?04) = 162,352 + 110,130 = 272,482 Ratio of Actual/Minimal = 1.90 Another View: Estimated Time Spent in California Corrections Turning the stock/flow relation around Estimated total time = (Prisoners + Parolees)/New Admits Total time includes spins inside the revolving door Estimated total time = (Prisoners + Parolees)/(Discharges From Parole + Deaths)

Where Does the Increase in the Stocks Come From? Inflow or System Inefficiency? [Prisoners + Parolees = New Admits*Total Time] Policy? Source: California Department of Corrections, Historical Trends ?.1978-1998, corr.ca.gov

Prisoners + Parolees = New Admits*Total Time Summary The increase in prison populations is only partly due so that increases in new admissions from court, in addition to hence the crime rate. The total time spent cycling back in addition to forth between prison in addition to parole before discharge has increased by 70% between 1980 in addition to 2004. The ?war on drugs? has inflated new admissions so that prison in 2004 by 25% compared so that the policy on imprisoning drug offenders in 1980

What Caused Such High Populations of Prisoners in addition to Parolees? New Admissions per capita = new admissions per offense * offenses per capita The per capita California Crime Index fell from ~0.04 in 1980 so that ~0.02 in 2004 It Was Not the Inflow from Court

## Paullin, Terry Investigative Reporter

Paullin, Terry is from United States and they belong to Investigative Reporter and work for News 13 at 6 PM – KOLD-TV in the AZ state United States got related to this Particular Article.

## Journal Ratings by Chestnut Hill College

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Prisoners + Parolees = New Admits*Total Time Summary The increase in prison populations is only partly due so that increases in new admissions from court, in addition to hence the crime rate. The total time spent cycling back in addition to forth between prison in addition to parole before discharge has increased by 70% between 1980 in addition to 2004. The ?war on drugs? has inflated new admissions so that prison in 2004 by 25% compared so that the policy on imprisoning drug offenders in 1980 and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.