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The Battle of Agincourt 1415 AD Physics of the Bow in addition to Arrow
Carnegie Mellon University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Physics of the Bow in addition to Arrow Physics 101 Fall Semester 2008 A simple long bow There are many variations
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Several Factors can effect how powerful a bow is Its size: Simple longbows are much more powerful than simple short bows. Its shape: The first bows were simple curves of wood. Recurve bows, used today in Olympic archery events, curve away from the user at the end of each limb. These curves shorten the bracing height, the distance between the string in addition to the bow at rest. This means that the string travels farther before coming so that a stop in addition to releasing the arrow, which can give the arrow a little extra momentum. The shape of the bow also causes it so that apply additional spring force so that the string. Its composition: A bow’s density in addition to tensile strength determine how much energy it can hold in addition to how well it can return so that its original shape when shot. English longbows were often made from yew wood because it was strong in addition to elastic. Many modern bows are composite bows, which use different materials in different parts of the bow, making some parts more flexible in addition to others more rigid. Sport bows today are made from many composite woods. However, Native Americans claimed the best bows in consideration of the plains Indian were made from Osage Orange. Ironically the osage tree was not found on the midwestern in addition to western plains. Indians probably traded in consideration of the wood found originally in Texas, Oklahoma in addition to Arkansas.- Jamie Easter shooting an osage bow. osageorange / Visit Jamie?s website if you every have the desire so that make an osage orange bow. Jamie sells materials in addition to a DVD An osage orange tree The Battle of Agincourt 1415 AD In 1415 AD King Henry V took a small army so that France so that enforce England?s claim so that the French Throne (part of the 100 years war) 50,000 French soldiers faced 6000 English soldiers The English army consisted of 80% bowmen; The French had virtually none The massive French army was met by a storm of English arrows The French army was routed
What English Bowyers used Medieval bowyers had no choice of material but wood The best wood (England) was the yew tree which has a maximum elastic energy of 700 J kg-1 about as good as spring steel Few bows from this era have survived but some arrows have ‘archer’s paradox’ demands that a particular bow needs an arrow of suitable spine (stiffness) then by measuring the properties of a medieval arrow we can estimate the strength of the bow in consideration of which it was designed By measuring the properties of medieval arrows we can estimate the strength of the English bows so that be almost unbelievable The force needed so that draw a medieval longbow could have been in the range 110 ? 180 lbs. Some bows were eventually discovered in the wreck of Henry VIII?s ship Mary Rose (sand in 1545) confirmed this evidence Henry had about 5000 archers in addition to a stock of 400,000 arrows. Each archer could shoot 10 arrows a minute so the English army had eight minutes of firepower. 50,000 arrows a minute (800 a second) rained down on the French killing hundreds of men a minute. Shot from an extremely powerful bow the 60 gram arrow would have a v0 of 60 m/s. Aimed high in the air this arrow would have a 240 m range in addition to arrive alongside a speed between 40 in addition to 45 m/s. Most French soldiers wore armour (a suit of 30 ? 45 kg) made of wrought iron (soft). The thickness of the suit varied according so that the part of the body being protected. The thickest armour was 4 mm while the thinnest was 1 mm. The arrow could easily penetrate the latter.
Intro so that Copyright: Originality, Expression, in addition to More Intro so that IP ? Prof Merges 2.9.09 Comparison alongside Patent Section 102 Section 101: create Patent vs. copyright WRAP UP: FEIST (1991) [CB p. 112] Limiting Doctrines Feist Originality: Impact on Databases Feist ?Facts? in Feist Facts as Discoveries Authors ?discover? facts, do not create or ?originate? them Where else have we seen this distinction? Single facts Originality in addition to the Constitution Feist: What is Copyrightable in a Compilation? Essence of Copyright Difficult problems of preemption Copyright in Case Reports CCC Information Services v. Maclean Hunter (2d Cir. 1994)
Start alongside a simple assumption that all PE is converted so that KE «mv2 = « eFx or solving v = (eFx/m)-2 where e is an efficiency term (medieval bows 0.9) But this is an overestimate. Why? When the arrow leaves the bow parts of the bow are moving which means that they have KE. Let us modify our original model. « mv2 + k « Mv2 = « eFx M is the mass of the bow in addition to k is a factor which represents the sum of the KE?s of the moving parts of the bow. (k in consideration of medieval bows range from 0.03 in addition to 0.07 Thus v = sqrt( eFx / (m + kM)) Solution using Mathematica 4.0 We have not taken into account the air drag on the arrow
Compound Bows The more work you have so that do so that draw a bow, the more energy it can transfer so that an arrow. Compound bows use pulleys so that help people do more work on the bow alongside less physical effort. In addition, when fully drawn, a compound bow’s pulleys often hold part or even most of the draw weight. This is known as let-off, in addition to it allows a person so that hold in addition to aim a drawn bow without as much strain or fatigue. FROM Cabela?s catalog of hunting equipment: pictured compound bow about $450 Data take from: physics.mercer /petepag/combow.html References Used stortford-archers /medieval.htm The Physics of Medieval Archery osageorange / Jamie Easter?s web page physics.mercer /petepag/combow.html Data on a compound bow from a published paper
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