THE BILINGUAL MIND Antonella Sorace 7 December 2004 Outline How successful can y
Horton, Paul, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal THE BILINGUAL MIND Antonella Sorace 7 December 2004 Outline How successful can you be if you start learning a second language as an adult What are the differences between early bilingualism in childhood in addition to late bilingualism in adulthood What happens to your first language after you have been speaking a second language as long as many years Is the bilingual brain different from the monolingual brain Do data from second language speakers help to underst in addition to how language in general works An interdisciplinary enterprise RESEARCH ON THE BILINGUAL MIND LINGUISTICS EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
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How successful can you be if you start learning a second language as an adult A critical period as long as language In many animal species, failure to learn various skills be as long as e a certain age makes it difficult or even impossible to learn those skills later. E.g.: In ducklings: ability to identify in addition to follow the mother In kittens: ability to perceive visual images. In sparrows: ability to learn the fathers song. Early exposure to language is necessary Children raised in conditions of extreme isolation in addition to deprivation do not develop normal grammatical abilities. Deaf children of hearing parents who are diagnosed as deaf when they are 2 or 3 are impaired in their development of sign language.
Why a critical period as long as language A biological mechanism innately geared to the acquisition of language in our species. Evolutionary advantages of having the mechanism early in life. But what about SECOND language Does this mean that second language learning is compromised even if first language development was normal Does the fact of already knowing a language help Near-native speakers Speakers who started learning a second language as adults in addition to reached an exceptional level of ability in it. They would be off the scale in the IELTS b in addition to of English proficiency.
Subject pronouns in Italian Subject pronouns can be omitted when they refer to an entity that is clear in context: Maria non cè, è in addition to ata a casa Maria isnt here, she went home They cannot be omitted in other cases, as long as example when two entities are contrasted to one another: Maria e Yuri non si capiscono: lei parla litaliano, lui no. Maria in addition to Yuri dont underst in addition to each other: she speaks Italian, he doesnt. Two kinds of knowledge Near-native speakers errors Near-native speakers of Italian in addition to Spanish may say: Maria non cè, LEI è in addition to ata a casa. Maria isnt here, she went home. Is this due to interference from English
Cant be (only) interference from English English in addition to Spanish non-native speakers of Italian make the same mistake. They know that in Italian subject pronouns can be omitted; they know what the contextual conditions are. In most cases, they use subject pronouns correctly. It could be a coordination problem Another interface problem in near-native speakers The difference between the sounds /i/ in addition to /I/: SHEEP – SHIP CHEAP – CHIP SEEK – SICK BEAT – BIT DEEP – DIP Etc.
The near-native speakers dilemma The snickers vs. sneakers problem THIS OR THIS More on interfaces: auxiliary verbs in Italian ESSERE be in addition to AVERE have. Maria ha lavorato. Maria has worked Maria è partita. Maria has left Same distinction as ETRE vs AVOIR in French: Marie a travaillé. Marie est partie. In early modern English: Christ is risen. The Lord is come.
In Italian as a second language Auxiliary ESSERE with verbs such as arrivare arrive, venire come, partire leave –> ACQUIRED EARLY. Auxiliary ESSERE with verbs such as rimanere stay, bastare suffice, piacere like–> ACQUIRED MUCH LATER OR NOT ACQUIRED AT ALL, NOT EVEN AT THE NEAR-NATIVE LEVEL. Native speakers have gradient intuitions Native speakers of Italian, French, German in addition to Dutch STRONGLY AGREE on the fact that (the equivalents of) verbs such as arrive, leave, come select (the equivalents of) BE. They DISAGREE, or are UNCERTAIN, on like, stay, exist: sometimes they like them with BE, sometimes with HAVE. The Auxiliary Selection Hierarchy The choice of auxiliaries is conditioned not only by the grammar, but also by the semantic type of verb. CHANGE OF LOCATION BE’ (arrive, come leave, etc.) EXISTENCE OF STATE (like, stay, be sufficient, etc.) HUMAN ACTIVITY ‘HAVE’ (work, talk, play, etc.)
Another problematic interface A methodological spin-off: how to detect gradience If developmental data are gradient, we need a method that can detect gradience. Magnitude estimation, a method borrowed from psychophysics, allows researchers to capture fine shades of gray in judgments of linguistic acceptability. See http://www.webexp.info as long as a web-based application of Magnitude Estimation developed by Frank Kellet in addition to Martin Corley. The story so far Many properties of grammar can be successfully acquired in a second language, but properties that involve interfaces between different aspects of language may remain non-native even at the highest level of attainment.
What happens to your first language after you have been speaking a second language as long as a long time Effects of the second language on the first language
Ex-native speakers Speakers experiencing attrition in their native language at Stage 1 have problems with constructions that require the integration of different types of knowledge, just like near-native speakers. They also say: Maria non cè, LEI è in addition to ata a casa Ex-native speakers of Spanish often leave out the preposition a with animate direct objects: Maria vio a mi abuela Maria saw my gr in addition to mother Maria vio la película. Maria saw the film. This property is also applied inconsistently by advanced non-native speakers of Spanish. Interface aspects: last in, first out
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Horton, Paul Meteorologist
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