The Cell Cycle Phases Of The Cell Cycle Morphological Changes During Cell Cycle Control Of Cell Cycle Cyclin-Dependent Kinases

The Cell Cycle Phases Of The Cell Cycle Morphological Changes During Cell Cycle Control Of Cell Cycle Cyclin-Dependent Kinases www.phwiki.com

The Cell Cycle Phases Of The Cell Cycle Morphological Changes During Cell Cycle Control Of Cell Cycle Cyclin-Dependent Kinases

Kirkland, Kay, Managing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The Cell Cycle Chromosomes duplicated in addition to segregated into two genetically identical cells Phases Of The Cell Cycle S phase: DNA synthesis M phase: nuclear in addition to cytoplasmic division G1, G2: gaps, monitor internal in addition to external conditions Morphological Changes During Cell Cycle In metaphase replicated chromosomes aligned at equator At anaphase sister chromosomes move to opposite poles

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Control Of Cell Cycle System triggers series of events in correct order Checkpoints: arrest cell cycle if previous events not completed or environment unfavorable Cyclin-Dependent Kinases Cdks active when bound to cyclin Cyclin-Cdk complexes promote passage through particular stages Cyclins undergo cycles of synthesis in addition to degradation Regulation Of Cdk Activity By Phosphorylation Activating phosphorylation- requires activating kinase Inhibitory phosphorylation- inhibitory kinase, removed by phosphatase

Regulation Of Cdk Activity By Cdk Inhibitor Proteins Inhibit activity of cyclin-Cdk complex Prevent association of Cdk with cyclin Proteolysis of Cyclins Cyclin degradation by transfer of ubiquitin Mediated by ubiquitin ligases acting at particular stages APC/C degrades M cyclins Initiation Of DNA Replication S-cyclin-Cdk phosphorylates ORC as long as DNA replication to begin Re-replication prevented by Cdc6 phosphorylation in addition to inhibition by geminin

Early Events Of Mitosis M-cyclin-Cdk phosphorylation of: Nuclear lamins Protein complex that mediates chromosome condensation Proteins that regulate microtubules Anaphase Triggered by APC/C ubiquitin ligase APC/C targets degradation of separase inhibitor, resulting in cleavage of chromatid cohesion complex Exit From Mitosis Chromosomes decondense, spindle disassembles, nuclear envelope re as long as ms Requires degradation of M-cyclin by APC/C-mediated ubiquitylation

Control Of G1 Progression By Retinoblastoma Protein G1-cyclin-Cdk phosphorylates Rb, resulting in release of E2F in addition to transcription of S phase genes Mitogen Stimulation Extracellular signals that stimulate G1- in addition to G1/S-cyclin-Cdks Checkpoint Mechanisms DNA replication checkpoint: blocks G2M DNA damage checkpoint: blocks G2M Mediated by Cdc25 phosphatase DNA damage checkpoint: blocks G1S Mediated by p53

DNA Damage Checkpoint by p53 DNA damage activates p53, which turns on p21 Cdk inhibitor Mechanics Of M Phase Chromosomes condense Mitotic spindle as long as ms Nuclear envelope breaks down Chromosomes attach to spindle microtubules Sister chromatids move to opposite poles Chromosomes aligned at equator

Chromosomes at poles Nuclear envelope re as long as ms Contractile ring of actin in addition to myosin pinches cell in two Classes Of Spindle Microtubules Three classes: kinetochore, overlap, astral Participate in movement of chromosomes Movement At Anaphase Anaphase A: chromosome movement toward poles by kinetochore MT shortening Anaphase B: separation of poles by motor proteins in addition to overlap MT elongation

Forces at Anaphase A Kinetochore microtubule depolymerization Microtubule flux: prior to anaphase, tension generated from balanced tubulin addition (+), removal (-) Motor Proteins In Anaphase B Pushing by plus end directed motors Pulling by minus end directed motors

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Kirkland, Kay Managing Editor

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