The Clean Water Act in addition to Water Quality Problems today Water Quality the major foci N in addition to P occurrence by l in addition to use Pesticides
Poe, Robert, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The Clean Water Act in addition to Water Quality Problems today Upmanu Lall Earth & Environmental Engineering Water Quality the major foci Chemical, Physical in addition to Biological Attributes of Water Bodies (Rivers, Lakes ) Human Exposure, Endangered Species or other Biota, Fisheries Chemical in addition to Biological Constituents of Drinking Water Human Health /
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Non-Point Source Pollution is now the major concern
National Environmental Policy Act, 1969: Environmental Assessments (EA’s) in addition to Environmental Impact Statements (EIS’s) as long as all federal activities Federal Water Pollution Control Act 1972 : Regulates discharges of pollutants to waters Endangered Species Act, 1973: Conservation of threatened/endangered plants in addition to animals in addition to the habitats in which they are found The Safe Drinking Water Act, 1974, 1996: Protect the quality of all waters actually or potentially designed as long as drinking use, whether from above ground or underground sources. EPA to establish safe st in addition to ards of purity in addition to required all public water systems to comply with primary (health) st in addition to ards. State governments, also encourage attainment of secondary st in addition to ards (nuisance). The Clean Water Act 1977: Focus on toxics. EPA gets authority to set effluent st in addition to ards on an industry basis (technology-based) in addition to water quality st in addition to ards as long as all contaminants in surface waters. The CWA makes it unlawful as long as any person to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters unless a permit (NPDES) is obtained. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, in addition to Liability Act, 1980: Federal Superfund to clean up uncontrolled or ab in addition to oned hazardous-waste sites as well as accidents, spills, in addition to other emergency releases of pollutants in addition to contaminants into the environment The Clean Water Act 1987: authorized citizen suit provisions, in addition to funded sewage treatment plants (POTW’s) under the Construction Grants Program. EPA can delegate many permitting, administrative, in addition to en as long as cement aspects of the law to state governments. Resource Conservation & Recovery Act, 1976, 1986: Underground Storage Tanks, Non-Haz Waste Key Legislation m in addition to ating EPAs role in Water The Clean Water Act of 1977 amends the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, to set a basic structure as long as regulating discharges of pollutants to waters of the United States. The law gave EPA the authority to set effluent st in addition to ards on an industry basis (technology-based) in addition to continued the requirements to set water quality st in addition to ards as long as all contaminants in surface waters. The CWA makes it unlawful as long as any person to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters unless a permit (NPDES) is obtained under the Act. The 1977 amendments focused on toxic pollutants. In 1987, the CWA was reauthorized in addition to again focused on toxic substances, authorized citizen suit provisions, in addition to funded sewage treatment plants (POTW’s) under the Construction Grants Program.
Assessed Rivers, Lakes, in addition to Estuaries Meeting All Designated Uses 1994/1996 Using Latest State In as long as mation Reported – EPA Percent of Impaired Waters – 1998 -EPA Sediments Nutrients Pathogens Dissolved Oxygen Metals Habitat pH Suspended Solids Temperature Flow Alterations Pesticides Noxious Plants Turbidity Fish Contamination Ammonia % of Water Segments 18 0 -EPA
Sediment Runoff Potential – 1990-1995 Pesticide Runoff Potential – 1990 -1995 Nitrogen Runoff Potential – 1990 -1995 Fish Consumption Advisories – 1997 N in addition to P occurrence by l in addition to use USGS The Otter Tail River, Minnesota which supports a healthy growth of wild rice, in addition to Fir Creek, Oregon which contributes to Portl in addition to ‘s drinking-water supply, are examples of streams with low nutrient concentrations
Effluent can make up a substantial part of the streamflow in some areas. For example, wastewater treatment plants annually contribute about 69 percent ( in addition to at times 100 percent) of the flow in the South Platte River downstream from Denver, Colorado. About 1,200 tons of phosphorus enter the South Platte River Basin every year from wastewater treatment plants. Pesticides ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE TRENDS IN SEDIMENT CORES FROM WHITE ROCK LAKE IN DALLAS, TEXAS, 1996
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations
Summary The Clean Water Act has succeeded in regulating point sources of pollution Non-point source pollution is a major challenge since the sources are diffuse in addition to varied (include atmospheric deposition) in addition to chemicals of concern often degrade into a series of byproducts L in addition to use in addition to climate play a large role as sources in addition to also in determining impacts Drinking water treatment technology is largely mature. However, improvements in reverse osmosis in addition to desalination are opening a new chapter
Poe, Robert Contributing Editor
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