Schulte, Mike, Music Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal ISSUES TO ADDRESS Why does corrosion occur 1 What metals are most likely to corrode How do temperature in addition to environment affect corrosion rate How do we suppress corrosion CORROSION AND DEGRADATION 2 Corrosion: -the destructive electrochemical attack of a material. -Al Capone’s ship, Sapona, off the coast of Bimini. Cost: -4 to 5% of the Gross National Product (GNP) -this amounts to just over $400 billion/yr THE COST OF CORROSION 3 Two reactions are necessary: – oxidation reaction: – reduction reaction: Other reduction reactions: – in an acid solution – in a neutral or base solution CORROSION OF ZINC IN ACID

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4 Two outcomes: -Metal sample mass -Metal sample mass -Metal is the anode (-) -Metal is the cathode (+) (relative to Pt) (relative to Pt) St in addition to ard Electrode Potential STANDARD HYDROGEN (EMF) TEST 5 EMF series Metal with smaller V corrodes. Ex: Cd-Ni cell metal o Au Cu Pb Sn Ni Co Cd Fe Cr Zn Al Mg Na K +1.420 V +0.340 – 0.126 – 0.136 – 0.250 – 0.277 – 0.403 – 0.440 – 0.744 – 0.763 – 1.662 – 2.262 – 2.714 – 2.924 metal V metal o DV = 0.153V o STANDARD EMF SERIES 6 CORROSION IN A GRAPEFRUIT

7 Ex: Cd-Ni cell with st in addition to ard 1M solutions Ex: Cd-Ni cell with non-st in addition to ard solutions n = e- per unit oxid/red reaction (=2 here) F = Faraday’s constant =96,500 C/mol. Reduce VNi – VCd by -increasing X -decreasing Y EFFECT OF SOLUTION CONCENTRATION Ranks the reactivity of metals/alloys in seawater Platinum Gold Graphite Titanium Silver 316 Stainless Steel Nickel (passive) Copper Nickel (active) Tin Lead 316 Stainless Steel Iron/Steel Aluminum Alloys Cadmium Zinc Magnesium 8 GALVANIC SERIES 9 Uni as long as m Attack Oxidation & reduction occur uni as long as mly over surface. Selective Leaching Preferred corrosion of one element/constituent (e.g., Zn from brass (Cu-Zn)). Intergranular Corrosion along grain boundaries, often where special phases exist. Stress corrosion Stress & corrosion work together at crack tips. Galvanic Dissimilar metals are physically joined. The more anodic one corrodes.(see Table 17.2) Zn & Mg very anodic. Erosion-corrosion Break down of passivating layer by erosion (pipe elbows). Pitting Downward propagation of small pits & holes. Crevice Between two pieces of the same metal. FORMS OF CORROSION

Stress & Saltwater -causes cracks! Heat treatment: slows crack speed in salt water! 4mm -material: 7150-T651 Al “alloy” (Zn,Cu,Mg,Zr) 10 DETERIORATIVE Uni as long as m Corrosion: Rust! Prevention: Paint Plate Sacrificial anode Galvanic Corrosion Causes: Dissimilar metals Electrolyte Current Path Described by Galvanic Series Solutions: Choose metals close in galvanic series Have large anode/cathode ratios Insulate dissimilar metals Use “Cathodic protection”

Pitting in addition to Creviced Corrosion Prevention: Weld – don’t rivet Use non-absorbing gaskets Polish surfaces Add drains – avoid stagnant water Adjust composition; e.g., add Mo to SS Causes: concentration gradients in electrolyte cause some areas high in ion concentrations that accelerate oxidation Intergranular Corrosion Occurs in specific alloys – precipitation of corrosive specimens along grain boundaries in addition to in particular environments e.g. : Chromium carbide as long as ming in SS, leaving adjacent areas depleted in Cr Solutions: High temp heat treat to redissolve carbides Lower carbon content (in SS) to minimize carbide as long as mation Alloy with a material that has stronger carbide as long as mation (e.g., Ti or Nb) Erosion Corrosion Causes: abrasive fluids impinging on surfaces Commonly found in piping, propellers, turbine blades, valves in addition to pumps Solutions: Change design to minimize or eliminate fluid turbulence in addition to impingement effects. Use other materials that resist erosion Remove particulates from fluids

Selective Leaching Occurs in alloys in which one element is preferentially removed – e.g., in Brass, Zinc is electrically active in addition to is removed, leaving behind porous Copper Occurs in other metals, such as Al, Fe, Co, Cr Solutions: Use protective coating to protect surfaces Use alternative materials Stress Corrosion Aka: stress corrosion cracking Cracks grow along grain boundaries as a result of residual or applied stress or trapped gas or solid corrosion products e.g., brasses are sensitive to ammonia Stress levels may be very low Solutions: Reduce stress levels Heat treatment Atmosphere control Hydrogen Embrittlement Metals loose strength when Hydrogen is absorbed through surface, especially along grain boundaries in addition to dislocations Often occurs as a result of decorative plating High strength steels particularly susceptible Can be removed by “baking” the alloy

11 Self-protecting metals! -Metal ions combine with O to as long as m a thin, adhering oxide layer that slows corrosion. Reduce T (slows kinetics of oxidation in addition to reduction) Add inhibitors -Slow oxidation/reduction reactions by removing reactants (e.g., remove O2 gas by reacting it w/an inhibitor). -Slow oxidation reaction by attaching species to the surface (e.g., paint it!). Cathodic (or sacrificial) protection -Attach a more anodic material to the one to be protected. CONTROLLING CORROSION Corrosion prevention Sacrificial Anode Applied Voltage Surface coatings & Passivation Some materials, such as Aluminum or Stainless Steel, as long as m oxide barrier coatings that prevent oxidation at active surface – this is called “passivation” Surface can be coated with protective layers: painted, anodized, plated (Caution!!! Cracks in plating or paint can lead to crevice corrosion!)

Schematic of the interface of a passivating alloy surface in contact with a biological environment Modular junction taper connection of a total hip arthroplasty showing corrosion of the taper connections. Macrograph of deposits of CrPO4 corrosion particle products on the rim of a modular Co-Cr femoral head.

Schulte, Mike KMOG-AM Music Director

Metal Degradative concerns High release of ionic metallic debris Toxicity: Metal-on-metal bearings are not recommended as long as patients with poorly functioning kidneys because metal ions excreted through the kidneys can build up in the blood. osteolysis in addition to implant loosening in total hip patients with metal-on-metal bearings may be associated with hypersensitivity to metallic debris Surface replacement with metal on metal is a new technology that has gained a great deal of recent interest. Hip surface replacement preserves more bone in the patient than conventional hip replacement. This has the potential of being a first-line treatment of end-stage arthritis in younger, active patients. Metal on Polyethylene Bearings The adverse effects of oxidation during radiation sterilization Polyethylene components, like most medical devices, are sterilized by exposure to gamma radiation. The radiation, while penetrating through the component, has sufficient energy to break the chains that as long as m the molecular backbone of the polymer. If the radiation exposure is per as long as med while the component is exposed to air, the broken ends can react with oxygen, causing harmful changes, including a decrease in molecular weight, a dramatic loss of ductility, in addition to a decrease in strength. The combined effect may make the polyethylene markedly more susceptible to wear. Approaches to minimize degradation of PE Placing polyethylene joint replacement components into sealed packages that contain either a vacuum or an inert gas, such as nitrogen or argon, instead of air. Replacing radiation altogether, instead exposing polyethylene components to ethylene oxide or gas plasma, neither of which imparts sufficient energy to cause oxidation. Increasing dose of radiation to promote crosslinking of polymer chains early results show a dramatic decrease in wear of between 30 in addition to 96 percent in total hip replacements over that seen with conventional polyethylene. Disadvantage: increased crosslinking makes material more brittle

12 Corrosion occurs due to: -the natural tendency of metals to give up electrons. -electrons are given up by an oxidation reaction. -these electrons then are part of a reduction reaction. Metals with a more negative St in addition to ard Electrode Potential are more likely to corrode relative to other metals. The Galvanic Series ranks the reactivity of metals in seawater. Increasing T speeds up oxidation/reduction reactions. Corrosion may be controlled by: – using metals which as long as m a protective oxide layer – reducing T – adding inhibitors – painting -using cathodic protection. SUMMARY

Schulte, Mike Music Director

Schulte, Mike is from United States and they belong to KMOG-AM and they are from  Payson, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Schulte, Mike deal with the subjects like Music; Music Programming

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