The Cybernetics of Stress: Causes, Chemicals, Consequences Richard W. Fardy, M.E

The Cybernetics of Stress: Causes, Chemicals, Consequences Richard W. Fardy, M.E www.phwiki.com

The Cybernetics of Stress: Causes, Chemicals, Consequences Richard W. Fardy, M.E

Donaldson, Michelle, News Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The Cybernetics of Stress: Causes, Chemicals, Consequences Richard W. Fardy, M.Ed. Wilmington High School Wilmington, MA Relevant National St in addition to ards Content St in addition to ard C: As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an underst in addition to ing of: The cell Biological evolution Matter, energy, in addition to organization of living systems Behavior of organisms Relevant St in addition to ards from the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks (Health) St in addition to ard 5: “Students will acquire knowledge about emotions in addition to physical health, in addition to will learn skills to promote self-acceptance, make decisions in addition to cope with stress.”

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Relevant St in addition to ards from the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks (Biology 9-10) Structure in addition to Function of Cells: 2.1: Relate cell parts/organelles to their functions. Human Anatomy in addition to Physiology: 4.2: Describe how the functions of individual systems within humans are integrated to maintain a homeostatic balance . Evolution in addition to Biodiversity: 5.1: Explain how comparative anatomy in addition to other evidence support the theory of evolution. Juggling in addition to Authentic Learning A juggler must simultaneously integrate sensory in addition to muscular circuitry to keep all the objects in the air. Source: http://office.microsoft.com/clipart Juggling in addition to Authentic Learning (cont.) In order as long as learning to be truly authentic, learning experiences need to show connections to real life. Events do not always occur in a series of compartmentalized in addition to disconnected boxes but still maintain connections to one another in some way in addition to manner.

Link to Learn The raison d’etre as long as both interdisciplinary instruction in addition to conceptual linkage within a particular subject area Source: http://office.microsoft.com/clipart Module Objectives To be able to explain what happens in the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS). To be able to identify the parts of a neuron in addition to explain how neurons transmit messages. To be able to define cybernetics in addition to its connection to the nervous in addition to endocrine systems. To be able to define homeostasis, allostasis, in addition to allostatic load, in addition to explain the effects of stress on homeostatic equilibrium. Module Objectives (continued) To be able to describe the essential components of a biological feedback loop in addition to to explain the differences in the effects of negative in addition to positive loops. To describe the psychological, neurological, in addition to endocrine events that occur when anorexia nervosa results from stress. To be able to describe how population density induces stress in animals in addition to the possible implications as long as humans.

Module Objectives (continued) To be able to explain the integration of the nervous in addition to endocrine systems in the stress response. To describe the general anatomy of the brain based on a sheep brain dissection. To be able to explain how conditioning in addition to learning may be accomplished in planaria in addition to how stress may affect this process. Ancient Proverb I hear in addition to I as long as get. I see in addition to I remember. I do in addition to I underst in addition to . Confucius Source: www.ironordeal.com/clipart/persons/Confucius.htm. Hans Selye (1907-1982) Proposed general adaptation syndrome (GAS) GAS theory first published in Nature in 1936 Described as body’s adaptive response to stress

Just What Exactly Is Stress Initially identified by Selye as “noxious agents.” Became known as stress syndrome. Source: www.alnoorhospital.com/uploadedfiles/common/stress/jpg Selye’s Three Stages of Stress Stage 1: The alarm reaction in which the body prepares itself as long as “fight or flight.” Stage 2: Since the first stage cannot long be sustained, there is a general resistance to the stress which is established. Stage 3: If the stress is continued as long as a long period of time, then eventual exhaustion results (the body’s response to prolonged “wear in addition to tear”). Selye’s Final Analysis Stress includes both internal in addition to external factors. Factors involve the “nonspecific response of the body to any dem in addition to .”

The “Fight or Flight” Response Perceive extreme danger or distress Neurons (nerve cells) in brain send entire body into “high gear” Responsively prepare as long as “fight or flight” Source: www.saludparati.com/entres.htm Selye’s Third Stage Challenged by physiological, psychological, in addition to environmental changes (stressors) Failure to accommodate to changes can lead to exhaustion Source: www.bet.com/Health/Archives What Are Neurons Neurons are the specialized cells of which nerve tissue is composed. Neurons have the ability to send “messages” to each other through the release of chemical substances called neurotransmitters. Neurons are also electrical in nature, maintaining polarity through electrical gradients established by ions on the inside in addition to outside of their cell membranes. Neurons send electrical signals (action potentials) by depolarizing.

What Do Neurons Look Like Nerve smear containing neuron, axon, dendrite, cell body, nucleus, in addition to nucleolus Source: http://facstaff.bloomu.edu/jhranitz/teaching/APHNT/Laboratory%20Pictures.htm Neurons labeled with fluorescent proteins Source: Joshua Sanes, Harvard University. Lecture:”Neurons: how they look in addition to what they do.7/11/2005 What Are the Principal Parts of a Neuron A typical neuron consists of a soma or cell body where the nucleus is located, an axon which carries an impulse (action potential) away from the soma, in addition to dendrites which carry in as long as mation to the soma. Neurons interconnect by synapses (spaces over which neurotransmitters relay a message from one neuron to another). Source: http://psych.hanover.edu/Krantz/neurotut.html

How an Action Potential Moves over the Neural Membrane As the previously polarized nerve cell membrane becomes depolarized, the action potential coming from the dendrites to the cell body moves toward the synaptic junction. Source: http://www.miracosta.cc.ca.us/home/sfoster/neurons/action.htm How Do Neurons Communicate Neurons do not physically touch each other. Neurons communicate with one another through various neurotransmitters released from synaptic vesicles at the synaptic cleft The synaptic cleft separates one neuron from another. Source:http://www.miracosta.cc.ca.us/home/sfoster/neurons/animation.gif. Perception of Pain Perception of pain by nociceptors Two types of nerve fibers involved: “A” fibers (rapidly activated) “C” fibers (activated more slowly) Source: www.acay.com.au/~mkause/fear%20helplessness/JPG

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“Good” in addition to “Bad” Pain “A” Fibers: Signal “good pain” Serve as injury warning Release glutamate “C” Fibers: Signal more diffuse, chronic pain Pain sources include tissue damage in addition to cancer Release “substance P” Source: http://office.microsoft.com/clipart A Computer-Brain Analogy Remember when the older computers didn’t have enough memory (RAM) to support more complex programs Continual bombardment of the brain by stress signals results in the inability to process in addition to respond adequately to such signals. Source: http://office.microsoft.com/clipart What Is Cybernetics Cybernetics sounds like either robot or computer jargon but actually refers to the study of communications in addition to control systems in biological, mechanical in addition to electronic systems. Here, of course, we are only concerned with its biological applications (primarily in the nervous in addition to endocrine systems).

Homeostasis State of internal constancy or equilibrium necessary to maintain physiological health Disrupted by stress Source: http://spwb.com/articles/anti-aging/stress.gif Disturbance of Homeostasis Our bodies react to environmental changes (stressful or otherwise) by producing hormones in addition to neurotransmitters. These chemical substances are the messengers in addition to mediators of the nervous system in addition to endocrine system. Stressful events cause the release of adrenalin in addition to hormones (e.g., cortisol) from the adrenal medulla in addition to cortex, respectively. Then What Are Allostasis in addition to Allostatic Load Since environmental conditions constantly fluctuate, allostasis refers to maintaining homeostasis despite these changes. Likewise, allostatic load refers to Selye’s notion of “wear in addition to tear” that results from the inefficiency of those messenger in addition to mediator processes over time.

Module Assessment Questions 1. Describe how the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) may have evolved as an adaptation as long as survival. 2. What kinds of environmental changes induce stress in animals In people 3. What are the main parts of a neuron, in addition to how do neurons work 4. What are synapses, in addition to how do they operate How would neurons be different if they were directly connected (like soldered electrical wires) Module Assessment Questions (II) How is pain perceived, in addition to what makes it a stressor Distinguish between the perception of “good” in addition to “bad” pain. What evidence exists to show that high population density can induce stress What changes are induced in the brain in addition to hormonal system as a result of stress What are the components of a feedback loop Distinguish between the effects of negative in addition to positive feedback loops. Module Assessment Questions (III) Distinguish between allostasis in addition to allostatic load. What similarities in addition to differences exist between humans in addition to animals in how they respond to stress How would you account as long as both the similarities in addition to differences What is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, in addition to how does it operate What kinds of chemical substances are involved in the perception of stress in addition to stress responses How do they work

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