The Development of Nuclear Science The Development of Scientific Thought in the 20th Century The new radiating material Applications as long as Radioactivity Applications
Brand, Ed, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The Development of Nuclear Science From 1900 – 1939 The Development of Scientific Thought in the 20th Century Discovery & study of radioactivity 1898 Marie &.Pierre Curie Introduction of quantum concept 1900 Max Planck h Theory of special relativity 1905 Albert Einstein E=m·c2 Quantization of light (photoelectric effect) 1905 Albert Einstein E=h· Discovery of atomic nucleus 1911 Ernest Ruther as long as d Interpretation of atom structure 1913 Nils Bohr Particle waves 1924 Louis de Broglie Wave mechanics 1925 Erwin Schrödinger Uncertainty principle 1927 Werner Heisenberg Discovery of Neutron 1932 James Chadwick Artificial Radioactivity (Reactions) 1934 Frederic Joliot & Irene Curie Discovery of fission 1938 Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann Interpretation of fission 1938 Liese Meitner, Otto Frisch Prediction of thermonuclear fusion 1939 C.F. v. Weizsäcker, H. Bethe x·p= The new radiating material Radioactive material such as Uranium – first discovered by Henri Becquerel was studied extensively by Marie in addition to Pierre Curie. They discovered other natural radioactive elements such as Radium in addition to Polonium. Nobel Prize 1903 in addition to 1911! Unit of radioactivity: The activity of 1g Ra = 1Ci = 3.7·1010 decays/s 1Bq = 1 decay/s Discovery triggered a unbounded enthusiasm in addition to led to a large number of medical in addition to industrial applications
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Applications as long as Radioactivity Applications Popular products included radioactive toothpaste as long as cleaner teeth in addition to better digestion, face cream to lighten the skin; radioactive hair tonic, suppositories, in addition to radium-laced chocolate bars marketed in Germany as a “rejuvenator.” In the U.S, hundreds of thous in addition to s of people began drinking bottled water laced with radium, as a general elixir known popularly as “liquid sunshine.” As recently as 1952 LIFE magazine wrote about the beneficial effects of inhaling radioactive radon gas in deep mines. As late as 1953, a company in Denver was promoting a radium-based contraceptive jelly. Radium Dials Increase in cancer (tongue bone) due to extensive radium exposure It was a little strange, Fryer said, that when she blew her nose, her h in addition to kerchief glowed in the dark. But everyone knew the stuff was harmless. The women even painted their nails in addition to their teeth to surprise their boyfriends when the lights went out. According to a Department of Commerce In as long as mation Circular from 1930, the radium paint might contain “from 0.7 to 3 in addition to even 4 milligrams of radium; this corresponds to a radioactivity level of 0.7 to 4 mCi or 26-150 GBq in modern units.
Explanation of natural radioactivity Nobel Prize 1908 The radioactive decay law decay constant; a natural constant as long as each radioactive element. Half life: t1/2 = ln2/ exponential decay with time! 1st example: 22Na 22Na has a half-life of 2.6 years, what is the decay constant Mass number A=22; (dont confuse with activity A(t)!)
radioactive decay laws Activity of radioactive substance A(t) is at any time t proportional to number of radioactive particles N(t) : A(t) = ·N(t) A 22Na source has an activity of 1 Ci = 10-6 Ci, how many 22Na isotopes are contained in the source (1 Ci = 3.7·1010 decays/s) How many grams of 22Na are in the source A gram of isotope with mass number A contains NA isotopes NA Avogadros Number = 6.023·1023 22g of 22Na contains 6.023·1023 isotopes How many particles are in the source after 1 y, 2 y, 20 y Decay in particle number in addition to corresponding activity!
2nd example: Radioactive Decay Plutonium 239Pu, has a half life of 24,360 years. What is the decay constant How much of 1kg 239Pu is left after 100 years The first step: E=m·c2 “It followed from the special theory of relativity that mass in addition to energy are both but different manifestations of the same thing – a somewhat unfamiliar conception as long as the average mind. Furthermore, the equation E is equal to m c-squared, in which energy is put equal to mass, multiplied by the square of the velocity of light, showed that very small amounts of mass may be converted into a very large amount of energy in addition to vice versa. The mass in addition to energy were in fact equivalent, according to the as long as mula mentioned be as long as e. This was demonstrated by Cockcroft in addition to Walton in 1932, experimentally.” Nobel Prize 1921 Albert Einstein Example: Mass-Energy Definition: 1 ton of TNT = 4.184 x 109 joule (J). 1 kg (2.2 lb) of matter converted completely into energy would be equivalent to the energy released by exploding 22 megatons of TNT. 1kg of matter corresponds to an energy of: Nuclear physics units: 1 electron-volt is the energy one electron picks up if accelerated in an electrical potential of one Volt. +1V
The discovery of the neutron By 1932 nucleus was thought to consist of protons in addition to electrons which were emitted in -decay. New Chadwicks experiment revealed a third particle, the neutron Strong Polonium source emitted particles which bombarded Be; radiation was emitted which based on energy in addition to momentum transfer arguments – could only be neutral particles with similar mass as protons neutrons: BEGIN OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS! Nobel Prize 1935 The model of the nucleus Modern Picture nuclide chart hydrogen isotopes: Z=1 Isotopes: Z=constant, N varies! Isotones: N=constant, Z varies! Isobars: A=constant, Z,N varies! Z=8, O isotopes A=20 isobars N=12 isotones
Energy in Nuclei According to Einsteins as long as mula each nucleus with certain mass m stores energy E=mc2 Proton mp = 1.007596 · 1.66·10-24 g = 1.672·10-24 g Neutron mn = 1.008486 · 1.66·10-24 g = 1.674·10-24 g Carbon m12C = 12.00000 · 1.66·10-24 g = 1.992·10-23 g Uranium m238U= 238.050783 · 1.66·10-24 g = 3.952·10-22 g 1 amu=1/12(M12C)=1.66 · 10-24 g B = (Z · mp+ N · mn- M) · c2 B(12C) = 1.47 · 10-11 J; B/A=1.23 · 10-12 J B(238U) = 2.64 · 10-10 J; B/A=1.21 · 10-12 J Binding energy B of nucleus Breaking up nuclei into their constituents requires energy Nuclear Potential http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nuclear/liqdrop.html c2 1 MeV = 1.602·10-13 J Nuclear Binding Energy
Example: Nuclear Binding Energy Conversion of nuclei through fusion or fission leads to release of energy! http://ie.lbl.gov/toimass.html http://nucleardata.nuclear.lu.se/database/masses/ http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/masses/mass.mas03 Nuclear Energy possible through fission in addition to fusion
Brand, Ed Host
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