THE EFFECT OF STANDARDIZED PATIENT ENCOUNTERS ON UNDERGRADUATE NURSING STUDENT E

THE EFFECT OF STANDARDIZED PATIENT ENCOUNTERS ON UNDERGRADUATE NURSING STUDENT E www.phwiki.com

THE EFFECT OF STANDARDIZED PATIENT ENCOUNTERS ON UNDERGRADUATE NURSING STUDENT E

Downey, Ron, News Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal THE EFFECT OF STANDARDIZED PATIENT ENCOUNTERS ON UNDERGRADUATE NURSING STUDENT EMPATHY AND SELF-EFFICACY IN THERAPEUTIC COMMUNICATIONAlana M. Urness, BSN, RNDNP StudentAcknowledgementsProject Advisor: Dr. Christine Kurtz, DNP, PMHCNS-BCProject Facilitators:Dr. Lauren Winkler, DNP, RN, FNP-BCDr. Jeffrey Coto, DNP, MS, RN-BC, CCRNBackground & SignificanceCommunication is vital in the exchange of in as long as mation related to patient health (Kourkouta & Papathanasiou, 2014)Communication skills are taught in a largely didactic manner (Lin et al., 2013)St in addition to ardized patient (SP) encounters offer students an opportunity to practice their skills (Lin et al., 2013)SP encounters have been shown to increase clinical, diagnostic, in addition to communication skills (Lin et al., 2013)

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PICOTIn second-year undergraduate nursing students (P), how does a SP program (I) compared to traditional educational methods (C) influence empathy in addition to self-efficacy related to therapeutic communication skills (O) within one week (T)Review of LiteratureKey Terms: St in addition to ardized patient, st in addition to ardised patient, patient simulation, programmed patient, patient actor, communication, interpersonal, nurse-patient relationsInclusion Criteria: English language, peer-reviewed or scholarly journals, January 2008-May 2015Exclusion Criteria: High-fidelity simulation, SP encounters as an assessment toolLevels of Evidence: Melnyk in addition to Fineout-Overholt’s Hierarchy of EvidenceAppraisal of Evidence: JBI-MAStARI, CASPReview of Literature

Decision to Change PracticeImprovements in communication in addition to interpersonal skills were found to be central findings in the literature (Anderson et al., 2014; Bosse et al., 2012; Crofts et al., 2008)Students found SP encounters useful, realistic, in addition to learning satisfaction was high (Bosse et al., 2012; Eid et al., 2009; Kowitlawakul et al., 2015)Per as long as mance feedback by SPs, blinded evaluators, or instructors served as a valuable component of SP education (Anderson et al., 2014; Hill et al., 2010; Lin et al., 2013)Use of peers as SPs can reduce cost, promote sustainability, in addition to rein as long as ce learned skills (Miles et al., 2014; Owen & Ward-Smith, 2014)ImplementationTheoretical Framework: Patrician Benner’s From Novice to Expert ModelEBP Framework: The ACE Star Model of EBPParticipants: Sophomore Intervention Group (n = 19)Sophomore Comparison Group (n = 23)Junior Participant Group (n = 20)Setting: Valparaiso University College of Nursing in addition to Health ProfessionsDesign: Pre-test/post-testImplementationIntervention:Sophomore-level students portrayed nurse using therapeutic communication skillsJunior-level students acted as SPsFeedback delivered following the encounterTools: Empathy in addition to Self-Efficacy in Therapeutic Communication ScaleLearning Satisfaction in addition to Learning Method Evaluation ScaleTime: One week

EvaluationPrimary OutcomesFeelings of empathy in addition to self-efficacy in three samples independentlyWilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Rank TestComparison of Sophomore Intervention in addition to Comparison GroupsMann-Whitney U testComparison of Sophomore Intervention in addition to Junior Participant GroupsMann-Whitney U testSecondary OutcomesLearning satisfaction of all participants EvaluationSeveral significant (p < 0.05) improvements: Junior Participant Group“I feel that I am able to put myself in a patient’s shoes while providing care” (p = 0.020)“I believe that empathy is an important component of providing quality health care” (p = 0.025)Disagreed with the statement “I feel that an emotional connection to my patient may be detrimental to my ability to provide optimal/unbiased care” (p = 0.046)EvaluationJunior Participant Group (con’t):“I feel com as long as table using silence during a conversation with a patient” (p = 0.014)“I feel com as long as table summarizing a conversation with a patient prior to closure of the conversation” (p = 0.011)“I am aware of my body posture (open stance, uncrossed arms, etc.) during communication with a patient” (p = 0.021)No significant improvements: Sophomore Intervention Group EvaluationSignificant Improvements: Juniors compared to Sophomore Intervention Group“I feel that I am able to put myself in a patient’s shoes while providing care” (p = 0.042)“I feel that I am able to underst in addition to my patient’s non-verbal cues in addition to body language” (p = 0.004)“I consider the underst in addition to ing of non-verbal communication to be an important aspect of patient care” (p = 0.003)“I feel com as long as table using open-ended questions during a conversation with a patient” (p = 0.042)“I feel com as long as table summarizing a conversation with a patient prior to closure of the conversation” (p = 0.043)EvaluationSignificant improvements: Sophomore Intervention Group compared to the Sophomore Comparison Group“I feel that lack of empathy would hinder my ability to provide quality care” (p = 0.015)Disagreed with the statement “I feel that an emotional connection to my patient may be detrimental to my ability to provide optimal/unbiased care” (p = 0.018)EvaluationHigh learning satisfaction in addition to positive qualitative feedback“The learning experience allowed me to analyze my own behavior in addition to actions”“I am confident that the learning experience has helped me develop the skills necessary to be successful in the clinical setting” RecommendationsStrengthsUnanticipated benefit to junior-level studentsPositive qualitative feedbackProvision of feedback by st in addition to ardized patientsStrong degree of internal consistencyLimitationsLogisticsNeed as long as more detailed instructionDid not address long-term improvementsEvaluation toolRecommendationsNursing ImplicationsPracticeTheoryResearchEducationConclusionSP intervention demonstrated a positive impact on therapeutic communication skills, particularly as long as students acting as the SPsSP feedback was helpful to sophomore-level participantsStudents enjoyed in addition to valued the experienceIntervention promoted active learning in addition to rein as long as ced communication skillsImprovements in student instructions in addition to logistics are necessary ReferencesAnderson, H. A., Young, J., Marrelli, D., Black, R., Lambreghts, K., & Two, M. D. (2014). Training students with patient actors improves communication: A pilot study. Optometry in addition to Vision Science, 91, 121- 128. doi: 1040-5488/14/9101-0121/0Bosse, H. M., Schultz, J. H., Nickel, M., Lutz, T., Moltner, A., Junger, J., Nikendei, C. (2012). The effect of using st in addition to ardized patients or peer role play on ratings of undergraduate communication training: A r in addition to omized controlled trial. Patient Education in addition to Counseling, 87, 300- 306. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2011.10.007Crofts, J. F., Bartlett, C., Ellis, D., Winter, C., Donald, F., Hunt, L. P., & Draycott, T. J. (2008). Patient-actor perception of care: A comparison of obstetric emergency training using manikins in addition to patient-actors. Quality in addition to Safety in Health Care, 17, 20-24. doi: 10.1136/qshc.2006.021873Eid, A., Petty, M., Hutchins, L., & Thompson, R. (2009). “Breaking bad news”: St in addition to ardized patient intervention improves communication skills as long as hematology-oncology fellows in addition to advanced practices nurses. Journal of Cancer Education, 24, 154-159. doi: 10.1080/08858190902854848ReferencesHill, A. E., Davidson, B.J., & Theodoros, D. G. (2010). A review of st in addition to ardized patients in clinical education: Implications as long as speech- language pathology programs. International Journal of Speech- Language Pathology, 12, 259-270. doi: 10.3109/17549500903082445Kourkouta, L., & Papathanasiou, I. V. (2014). Communication in nursing practice. Materiasociomedica, 26, 65-67. doi: 10.5455/msm.2014.26.65- 67Kowitlawakul, Y., Chow, Y. L., Salam, Z. H., & Ignacio, J. (2015). Exploring t he use of st in addition to ardized patients as long as simulation-based learning in preparing advanced practice nurses. Nurse Education Today, 35, 894- 899. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2015.03.0040260-6917 Lin, E. C., Chen, S. L., Chao, S. Y., & Chen, Y. C. (2013). Using st in addition to ardized patients with immediate feedback in addition to group discussion to teach interpersonal in addition to communication skills to advanced practice nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 33, 677-683. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2012.07.002ReferencesMcKenna, L., Innes, K., French, J., Streitberg, S., & Gilmour, C. (2011). Is history taking a dying skill An exploration using a simulated learning environment. Nursing Education in Practice, 11, 234-238. doi: 10.1016/j.nepr.2010.11.009Mesquita, A. R., Lyra, D. P., Brito, G. C., Balisa-Rocha, B. J., Aguiar, P. M., & de Almeida Neto, A. C. (2010). Developing communication skills in pharmacy: A systematic review of the use of simulated patient methods. Patient Education in addition to Counseling, 78, 143-248. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2009.07.012Miles, L. W., Mabey, L., Leggett, S., & Stansfield, K. (2014). Teaching communication in addition to therapeutic relationship skills to Baccalaureate nursing students – A peer mentorship approach. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 52(10), 35-41. doi: 10.3928/02793695-20140829-01Moulton, C. A., Tabak, D., Kneebone, R., Nestel, D., MacRae, H., LeBlanc, V. (2009). Teaching communication skills using the integrated procedural per as long as mance instrument (IPPI): A r in addition to omized controlled trial. The American Journal of Surgery, 197, 113-118. doi: 10.1016.j.amjsurg.2008.09.006 ReferencesOh, P. J., Jeon, K. D., & Koh, M. S. (2015). The effects of simulation-based learning using st in addition to ardized patients in nursing students: A meta- analysis. Nurse Education Today, 35, e6-e15. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2015.01.0190260-6917Owen, A. M., & Ward-Smith, P. (2014). Collaborative learning in nursing simulation: Near-peer teaching using st in addition to ardized patients. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(3), 170-173. doi: 10.3928/01484834.20140219- 04Rickles, N. M., Tieu, P., Myers, L., Galal, S., & Chung, V. (2009). The impact of a st in addition to ardized patient program on student learning of communication skills. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 71, 1-10. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2690873/tool=pmcentrezSchlegel, C., Woermann, U., Shaha, M., Rethans, J. J., & van der Vleuten, C. (2012). Effects of communication training on real practice per as long as mance: A role-play module versus a st in addition to ardized patient module. Journal of Nursing Education, 51, 16-22. doi: 10.3928/01484834- 20111116-02 Downey, Ron WGAD-AM News Director www.phwiki.com

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