The Formation of Mass Culture Part I: “Incorporation” Culture Industries Origins of the Modern Mass Media High Art, Popular, in addition to Mass Culture Birth of Discourse: Advertising Mass Culture

The Formation of Mass Culture Part I: “Incorporation” Culture Industries Origins of the Modern Mass Media High Art, Popular, in addition to Mass Culture Birth of Discourse: Advertising Mass Culture

The Formation of Mass Culture Part I: “Incorporation” Culture Industries Origins of the Modern Mass Media High Art, Popular, in addition to Mass Culture Birth of Discourse: Advertising Mass Culture

Jordan, Erin, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The Formation of Mass Culture Part I: “Incorporation” Making of the Modern World Week 19 Culture Industries Formation of national culture post 1865 Tension between middleclass in addition to working-class cultures (folk to mass) Racial appropriation in addition to exclusion Interlocking roles of advertising, publishing, theatre Reliance on female artists in addition to consumers; per as long as mance of gender Motion pictures in addition to working-class entertainment Resistance to cultural hegemony Origins of the Modern Mass Media Early inventions: Newspapers – 17th century, widespread after c. 1750 Photography – from 1838, dry plates in 1870s, flash 1890s Phonograph – from 1876, widespread after c. 1895 Motion Picture –1890s, feature films after 1912 Major shifts in western society 19th in addition to early 20th centuries: Industrialization, urbanization, immigration rise of middle class Consumer economies Leisure time Cultural hierarchies: high art in addition to mass culture

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High Art, Popular, in addition to Mass Culture Culture as adjective, 1870- Trans as long as mation of low European culture (Opera, Shakespeare, etc.) into “high” art as long as wealthy American elites Culture becomes ‘incorporated’ when small group dictates st in addition to ards Educating in addition to spiritually uplifting aspects of culture; search as long as “great” literature, art Key historical events in addition to figures repackaged as bedrock of national culture: potential ambivalence of text in addition to audience Appropriation in addition to exclusion of aberrant cultures: canonicity Potential of popular/workingclass culture vs. capitalist mass culture (1920-) Is popular culture an alternative/ as long as m of resistance to hegemony or an acceleration of the dominant ideology Hobsbawm’s “optimism”: “The cultural revolution of the latest twentieth century can thus best be understood as the triumph of the individual over society, or rather, the breaking of the threads which in the past had woven human beings into social textures.” Williams’ faith in the ordinariness of culture in addition to a ‘painless’ Marxist cultural criticism: “Culture includes the organization of production, the structure of the family, the structure of institutions which express or govern social relationships, the characteristic as long as ms through which members of the society communicate.” Frankfurt School traditionally sees only cultural productions’ manipulation of audiences in addition to complicity rather than agency in addition to capacity as long as critique (unlike variants of classic Marx): however, globalization may prove Althusser right: one cannot escape ideology: “ideology has no history” Traditional Marxist cultural criticism inadequate in h in addition to ling questions of race in addition to gender Birth of Discourse: Advertising Mass Culture Right: early Coca Cola ad ca 1886 1838-1900: First department stores revolutionize retail marketing 1872: Montgomery Ward Establishes Mail-Order Business 1893: Columbian Exposition 1894: Kellogg’s Corn Flakes Launch the Dry Cereal Industry In US: post Civil War technology boom; birth of modern corporations

Integration of folk cultures German immigrants create Tin Pan Alley in addition to New York music industry; promote Af-Am ragtime (1893) Blackface mistrelsy in addition to vaudeville (1880s): white cultural theft Ramona novel: social protest becomes tourism Amusement parks like Coney Isl in addition to (1895) in addition to World’s Fairs (Chi, 1893) spaces as long as working-class audiences Mass-produced dime novels as long as working class “women’s literature” dominates publishing industry Baseball (1845); first Natl League 1876; Spaulding turns it corporate Blackface in addition to cultural appropriation Right: “Coon” song by black song writer Ernest Hogan c 1890 Early 19thC minstrel shows focus on plantation life but prettify slavery Conservative discourses make fun of women’s suffrage in addition to professionals From 1890s focus is on “olios,” which would feature many popular songs Written by both black in addition to white songwriters White theft of black culture Ramona Cultural Theft in addition to Tourism Followed Jackson’s history of mistreatment of Cali as long as nia Indians Sold over 15,000 copies be as long as e her death in 1885 Over 300 printings; second most widely read novel of the 19th century Never out of print Opening of Southern Pacific Railway shortly after publication Towns in addition to missions claim to be authentic Ramona locations Br in addition to ing of Ramona products begins in 19th C Ramona pageant in Hemet, est. 1923-

Destabilizing Gender: The Cushman Sisters in Romeo in addition to Juliet (1846) in addition to May Irwin in addition to her black baby, ca. 1890 (Sarah Bernhardt as Hamlet, 1899) New Vaudeville Theatre, 1870

Theatre: High Art in addition to Mass Culture Left: Florenz Ziegfeld Conspicuous consumption of feminine body Ziegfeld Follies Low parades as high (variety show with expensive packaging) Women (w/ exception of Fannie Brice) do not speak Publishing Revolutions: Dime Novels (1860s-1890s): fantasies of anti-establishment discourse

Popular Journals in addition to Social Criticism McClure’s nationwide readership Specialized in “muckraking” journalism in addition to ef as long as ts to promote progressive re as long as m Exposes of poverty, abuses of big business 1880s half-tone process enables many photographs to appear in edition of newspaper or magazine 1887 flash photography Women in addition to the Marketing of Domestic Culture Women working: in 1890s 600,000 saleswomen worked in cities; by 1900 8.6 million women worked outside homes Feminization of American Culture Were women merely passive consumers of American culture Women as consumers in addition to drivers of publishing industry Women’s fiction (anon., C. Sedgwick, H.B. Stowe) often depicts women working in cities: counterpoint to Horatio Alger Relationship between women in addition to missionaries—feminine control of religious instruction Women authors of popular history with educational slant; early social in addition to cultural histories See Ann Douglas, The Feminization of American Culture (1988)

The Best-Seller Sold 300,000 copies in first year Racial melodrama Political in addition to social controversy Adapted as popular theatre in vaudeville, on show boats, in addition to on Broadway Commodification of history in addition to race American to National League Cincinnati first pro team 1869– 400 smaller teams from 1860s American Assn more working-class– river cities, lower prices as long as tickets, alcohol allowed at games– National League 1876/Am League 1901 ( as long as merly Western League): bidding war Emphasis moves from players to clubs– restriction of movement in addition to growth of contracts Spaulding 1874 sporting goods store opens Instrumental in as long as mation of National League 1877 glove always used as long as his pitching Recruits as long as Chicago Around the world tour 1888-89 Mills commission to establish Americanness of baseball 1911 authored first history of baseball

Moses Walker Oberlin in addition to U Michigan 1884 Major League Debut 1887 International League votes to ban black players 1889 American Assn in addition to National League ban black men from playing (unofficial) 1891 out of professional baseball The Columbia Exposition Created/funded by private corporation Daniel Burnham chooses white, neo-classical plan as long as all buildings in addition to decor Focus on American achievements in technology in addition to culture (focus on corporate creations) ‘Ideal city’ built on reclaimed wilderness in addition to swamp l in addition to Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show on display at exposition– mass marketing of Western history also frequently toured Europe Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis presented at Chi’s AHA meeting (new white national myth) And as this was happening US/European businessmen take over Hawaii– the open door justification as long as capitalism in addition to the triumph of white civilization Columbia Exposition “White City” designed by Daniel Burnham 27.5 million people attend– Emphasis on US surpassing rest of world– compare to Crystal Palace, 1851

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The National Culture: 1883-1916 Motion Pictures Working-class origins Gradual consolidation of small nickelodeon businesses into studios Gradual trend toward stars in addition to adaptations of best-selling literary properties Connection between popular literature, journalism, advertising, different appeals to male/female spectatorship By 1915 in addition to Birth of a Nation, self-consciousness about cinema as art in addition to historical text Critics divided; Seldes sees its potential as liveliest art Attempts to censor westerns, early gangster films, in addition to boxing matches Edison Kinetoscope Although experiments with mps date to 1870s, the first peepshow viewer was exhibited by Thomas Edison at the Columbian Exposition in 1893 Projectors enter market in 1895 Spanish-American War first war ‘filmed’ (re-enactments mostly)

Mary Pick as long as d: behind the camera Suffrage advocate, 1917 Reclaiming Blackness Jack Johnson, first African American heavyweight champion of the world 1908-1915 Knocks out as long as mer British heavyweight Bob Fitzsimmons in 2 rounds, 1907 Fight of the century, 4 July 1910: defeat of white James Jeffries Film of fight sparks race riots in 25 states; Theodore Roosevelt dem in addition to s ban on interstate distribution fight films (upheld till 1940)

National Cultures in addition to the ‘Great White Hope’

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