The Human Brain Objectives: Lobes of the Brain – Occipital Lobe

The Human Brain Objectives: Lobes of the Brain – Occipital Lobe www.phwiki.com

The Human Brain Objectives: Lobes of the Brain – Occipital Lobe

D’Astoli, Susan, Executive Producer of Investigations and Special Projects has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The Human Brain Master Watermark Image: http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif Part I: Lobes, the Cerebral Cortex, in addition to Cortical Regions of the Brain Objectives: Students will be able to describe the general structure of the Cerebrum in addition to Cerebral Cortex. Students will be able to identify the Cerebrum, the Lobes of the Brain, the Cerebral Cortex, in addition to its major regions/divisions. Students will be able to describe the primary functions of the Lobes in addition to the Cortical Regions of the Brain.

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Cerebrum -The largest division of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, each of which is divided into four lobes. http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif Cerebral Cortex – The outermost layer of gray matter making up the superficial aspect of the cerebrum. http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-6.tif.jpg Cerebral Features: Sulci – Small grooves dividing the gyri Central Sulcus – Divides the Frontal Lobe from the Parietal Lobe Fissures – Deep grooves, generally dividing large regions/lobes of the brain Longitudinal Fissure – Divides the two Cerebral Hemispheres Transverse Fissure – Separates the Cerebrum from the Cerebellum Sylvian/Lateral Fissure – Divides the Temporal Lobe from the Frontal in addition to Parietal Lobes Gyri – Elevated ridges “winding” around the brain.

Gyri (ridge) Fissure (deep groove) Sulci (groove) http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif Longitudinal Fissure Transverse Fissure Sylvian/Lateral Fissure Central Sulcus http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg http://www.dalbsoutss.eq.edu.au/Sheepbrains-Me/human-brain.gif Specific Sulci/Fissures: Lobes of the Brain (4) Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal Note: Occasionally, the Insula is considered the fifth lobe. It is located deep to the Temporal Lobe. http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg

Lobes of the Brain – Frontal The Frontal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Frontal Bone of the skull. (Investigation: Phineas Gage) It plays an integral role in the following functions/actions: – Memory Formation – Emotions – Decision Making/Reasoning – Personality Investigation (Phineas Gage) Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg Frontal Lobe – Cortical Regions Orbitofrontal Cortex – Site of Frontal Lobotomies Primary Motor Cortex (Precentral Gyrus) – Cortical site involved with controlling movements of the body. Broca’s Area – Controls facial neurons, speech, in addition to language comprehension. Located on Left Frontal Lobe. Broca’s Aphasia – Results in the ability to comprehend speech, but the decreased motor ability (or inability) to speak in addition to as long as m words. Olfactory Bulb – Cranial Nerve I, Responsible as long as sensation of Smell Desired Effects: – Diminished Rage – Decreased Aggression – Poor Emotional Responses Possible Side Effects: – Epilepsy – Poor Emotional Responses – Perseveration (Uncontrolled, repetitive actions, gestures, or words) Primary Motor Cortex/ Precentral Gyrus Broca’s Area Orbitofrontal Cortex Olfactory Bulb Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg Regions Investigation (Phineas Gage)

Lobes of the Brain – Parietal Lobe The Parietal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Parietal Bone of the skull. It plays a major role in the following functions/actions: – Senses in addition to integrates sensation(s) Spatial awareness in addition to perception (Proprioception – Awareness of body/ body parts in space in addition to in relation to each other) Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg Parietal Lobe – Cortical Regions Primary Somatosensory Cortex (Postcentral Gyrus) – Site involved with processing of tactile in addition to proprioceptive in as long as mation. Somatosensory Association Cortex – Assists with the integration in addition to interpretation of sensations relative to body position in addition to orientation in space. May assist with visuo-motor coordination. Primary Gustatory Cortex – Primary site involved with the interpretation of the sensation of Taste. Primary Somatosensory Cortex/ Postcentral Gyrus Primary Gustatory Cortex Somatosensory Association Cortex Regions Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg

Lobes of the Brain – Occipital Lobe The Occipital Lobe of the Brain is located deep to the Occipital Bone of the Skull. Its primary function is the processing, integration, interpretation, etc. of VISION in addition to visual stimuli. Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg Occipital Lobe – Cortical Regions Primary Visual Cortex – This is the primary area of the brain responsible as long as sight -recognition of size, color, light, motion, dimensions, etc. Visual Association Area – Interprets in as long as mation acquired through the primary visual cortex. Primary Visual Cortex Visual Association Area Regions Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg

Lobes of the Brain – Temporal Lobe The Temporal Lobes are located on the sides of the brain, deep to the Temporal Bones of the skull. They play an integral role in the following functions: Hearing Organization/Comprehension of language In as long as mation Retrieval (Memory in addition to Memory Formation) Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg Temporal Lobe – Cortical Regions Primary Auditory Cortex – Responsible as long as hearing Primary Olfactory Cortex – Interprets the sense of smell once it reaches the cortex via the olfactory bulbs. (Not visible on the superficial cortex) Wernicke’s Area – Language comprehension. Located on the Left Temporal Lobe. – Wernicke’s Aphasia – Language comprehension is inhibited. Words in addition to sentences are not clearly understood, in addition to sentence as long as mation may be inhibited or non-sensical. Primary Auditory Cortex Wernike’s Area Primary Olfactory Cortex (Deep) Conducted from Olfactory Bulb Regions Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg

Arcuate Fasciculus – A white matter tract that connects Broca’s Area in addition to Wernicke’s Area through the Temporal, Parietal in addition to Frontal Lobes. Allows as long as coordinated, comprehensible speech. Damage may result in: – Conduction Aphasia – Where auditory comprehension in addition to speech articulation are preserved, but people find it difficult to repeat heard speech. Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg Click the Region to see its Name Korbinian Broadmann – Learn about the man who divided the Cerebral Cortex into 52 distinct regions: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korbinian-Brodmann Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg Lobes in addition to Structures of the Brain B. A. C. D. E. F. G. http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif

D'Astoli, Susan KNXV-TV Executive Producer of Investigations and Special Projects www.phwiki.com

Lobes in addition to Structures of the Brain B. A. (groove) C. (groove) D. E. F. G. B. Frontal Lobe G. Parietal Lobe F. Occipital Lobe D. Temporal Lobe A. Central Sulcus (groove) E. Transverse Fissure C. Sylvian/Lateral Fissure http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif Cortical Regions A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif Cortical Regions A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. A. Primary Motor Cortex/ Precentral Gyrus B. Broca’s Area C. Orbitofrontal Cortex K. Primary Somatosensory Cortex/ Postcentral Gyrus I. Primary Gustatory Cortex J. Somatosensory Association Cortex G. Primary Visual Cortex H. Visual Association Area E. Primary Auditory Cortex F. Wernike’s Area D. Primary Olfactory Cortex (Deep) http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif

Q: Assuming this comical situation was factually accurate, what Cortical Region of the brain would these doctors be stimulating Copyright: Gary Larson A: Primary Motor Cortex This graphic representation of the regions of the Primary Motor Cortex in addition to Primary Sensory Cortex is one example of a HOMUNCULUS: Homunculus Q: What do you notice about the proportions depicted in the a as long as ementioned homunculus Q: What is meant by depicting these body parts in such outrageous proportions A: They are not depicted in the same scale representative of the human body. A: These outrageous proportions depict the cortical area devoted to each structure. – Ex: Your h in addition to s require many intricate movements in addition to sensations to function properly. This requires a great deal of cortical surface area to control these detailed actions. Your back is quite the opposite, requiring limited cortical area to carry out its actions in addition to functions, or detect sensation. Back-Hom. Note: Homunculus literally means “little person,” in addition to may refer to one whose body shape is governed by the cortical area devoted to that body region.

National St in addition to ards: THE BEHAVIOR OF ORGANISMS: Multicellular animals have nervous systems that generate behavior. Nervous systems are as long as med from specialized cells that conduct signals rapidly through the long cell extensions that make up nerves. The nerve cells communicate with each other by secreting specific excitatory in addition to inhibitory molecules. In sense organs, specialized cells detect light, sound, in addition to specific chemicals in addition to enable animals to monitor what is going on in the world around them. Organisms have behavioral responses to internal changes in addition to to external stimuli. Responses to external stimuli can result from interactions with the organism’s own species in addition to others, as well as environmental changes; these responses either can be innate or learned. The broad patterns of behavior exhibited by animals have evolved to ensure reproductive success. Animals often live in unpredictable environments, in addition to so their behavior must be flexible enough to deal with uncertainty in addition to change. Plants also respond to stimuli. Like other aspects of an organism’s biology, behaviors have evolved through natural selection. Behaviors often have an adaptive logic when viewed in terms of evolutionary principles. Behavioral biology has implications as long as humans, as it provides links to psychology, sociology, in addition to anthropology.

D’Astoli, Susan Executive Producer of Investigations and Special Projects

D’Astoli, Susan is from United States and they belong to KNXV-TV and they are from  Phoenix, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and D’Astoli, Susan deal with the subjects like Investigative Reporting; Special Projects

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