The Less in addition to Less Silent Majority White People, Multiculturalism in addition to the Challe

The Less in addition to Less Silent Majority White People, Multiculturalism in addition to the Challe

The Less in addition to Less Silent Majority White People, Multiculturalism in addition to the Challe

Zone, Ray, Contributing Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The Less in addition to Less Silent Majority White People, Multiculturalism in addition to the Challenge of ‘Englishness’ Paul Thomas, University of Huddersfield BSA 4TH April 2013 Contents ‘White’ people The ‘white backlash’ Class acted out as ‘race’ Policy responses – Community Cohesion/ Integration in addition to Prevent The challenge of ‘Englishness’ ‘White people’ ‘White’ is a highly problematic concept historically ‘Whiteness’ often seen as an un-interrogated norm but it was always contingent in addition to class-based until the unifying processes of colonialism (Bonnett, 2000, Preston, 2007) Concept of (all) white people having power has been central to modern anti-racist critiques but this problematically essentialises in addition to reifies ethnicity Racism in addition to anti-racism have there as long as e both contributed to very limited in addition to problematic discussion of ‘whiteness’, such as ‘white flight’

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The ‘white backlash’ Multiculturalism’s necessary policy focus on essentialised ethnic ‘culture’ in addition to identity at the same time as de-industrialisation in addition to globalisation has left many white people unsure of ‘their’ ‘culture’ (Nayak, 1999) in addition to feeling mocked as ‘chavs’ (Jones, 2008) Implementation of ‘anti-racism’ within education has often been highly problematic as long as white working class young people – the ‘white backlash’ (Hewitt, 2005) Perceptions of ethnic favouritism within state funding was important to 2001 riots in addition to preceding tensions (Cantle, 2001), in addition to continues over housing in addition to employment, with a direct link to the discursive shift in policy Class acted out as ‘race’ Myths in addition to realities around the supposed discrimination towards in addition to failure of the ‘white working class’ (Collins, 2004;Svenisson, 2009) Is there such a thing as the ‘white working class’ Groups like the EDL appear to be a vehicle as long as disgruntlement in addition to scapegoating around profoundly negative economic in addition to social change, as experienced by some (white) working class communities in addition to failure of mainstream politics to acknowledge class inequality (Busher, as long as thcoming) These issues are challenging as long as those continuing to hold to an ‘anti-racist’ paradigm – are such political manifestations a product of ruling elite manipulation, or of concrete community social in addition to economic experience of threat in addition to competition British Policy Responses Post-2001 policy shift towards community cohesion in addition to ‘integration’ is partially a discursive acknowledgement that ‘multiculturalism’ is an increasingly problematic policy term, especially as long as sections of the white majority (‘rights as long as whites’) Parallel developments, driven by similar feelings amongst parts of the white majority in other European states , such as The Netherl in addition to s (Sniderman in addition to Hagendoorn, 2009) The British shift towards ‘cohesion’ was even-h in addition to ed (Cantle, 2001) in addition to is NOT assimilationism (Thomas, 2011) – instead, in practice, it has sought to augment existing identities with stronger as long as ms of commonality, so inherently working with ‘cooler’ (McGhee, 2008) in addition to more intersectional conceptions of ‘identity’ in a society of increasing ‘super diversity’, but also a continuing ‘multiculturalism’ at ground level

Further analysis of Community Cohesion policy British Policy Responses Policy discourse in addition to operation around cohesion in addition to Integration continues to focus overwhelmingly on Muslims, although white people are clearly more ‘segregated’ (Finney in addition to Simpson, 2009) Research in West Yorkshire shows that this in itself continues to create resentment at their lack of inclusion in some white communities (Monro et al, 2010) – a real problem of civic society capacity within white communities JRF (Beider, 2011) report on need to respond to white working class communities in addition to their lack of engagement by focussing on local issues in addition to dynamics – the mundane, rather than the exceptional, in addition to in ways that inherently de-racialise underst in addition to ings of social realities British Policy Responses Good local Cohesion practice has tried to augment existing identities with stronger commonality, but recent research in Oldham in addition to Rochdale finds white young people are considerably more resistant to in addition to pessimistic about diversity (Thomas in addition to S in addition to erson, 2013, ’Crossing the line: White young people in addition to Community Cohesion’, in Critical Social Policy, 33:1, 160-180): 60% of the group self-identifying as Muslim (n=76) agreed that ‘Britain is a stronger country because of difference’ as opposed to 23% white young people (n=172). In response to the converse statement that ‘Britain is stronger if groups live separately’, only 16% of Muslims definitely agreed in addition to 71% definitely disagreed, as opposed to 36% of the white group definitely agreeing in addition to 30% definitely disagreeing, so displaying a small but significant white majority in support of the idea that even greater ethnic segregation would be better as long as all concerned

British Policy Responses Prevent has overwhelmingly focussed on Muslims as an entire community, ignoring the cohesion analysis of how oppositional identities harden in addition to that of ‘cumulative extremism’ (Eatwell, 2006) It has continued to ignore far-right violent extremism, re-stating this just weeks be as long as e the Norway massacre (HMG, 2011) The short-lived Labour ‘Connecting Communities’ programme showed potential to extend Prevent in addition to cohesion work to white communities (‘communities under pressure’!). To be effective, Prevent needs a cross-community focus on building youth engagement with democratic debates in addition to processes (Thomas, 2012 , ‘Responding to the threat of violent extremism: Failing to Prevent’) The Challenge of Englishness Clear evidence that non-white ethnic minorities, even marginalised Muslim youth, are positive about Britishness, but see ‘Englishness’ as ‘white people’. In parallel, evidence that some marginalised white communities have a racialised in addition to exclusionary conception of their own ‘Englishness’ (Thomas in addition to S in addition to erson, 2011) A clear failure of policy in addition to political discourse to engage with ‘Englishness’ in addition to develop an inclusive in addition to multi-cultural Englishness (Bragg, 2006; Perryman, 2008; Aughey in addition to Berberich, 2012) A Scottish vote as long as independence in September 2014 could leave us with an ‘Englishness’ viewed as racialised in addition to exclusionary by large sections of both the ‘white’ in addition to non-white population Contact details Paul Thomas School of Education in addition to Professional Development, University of Huddersfield

References Beider, H. (2011) Community Cohesion: The views of white working class communities, York: JRF Bonnett, A. (2000) White Identities: historical in addition to International perspectives, London: Prentice Hall Cantle, T. (2001) Community Cohesion- A Report of the Independent Review Team, London: Home Office Eatwell, R. (2006) ‘Community Cohesion in addition to Cumulative Extremism in contemporary Britain’, The Political Quarterly, Vol. 77:2, pp. 204-216 Finney, N. in addition to Simpson, L. (2009) ‘Sleepwalking to Segregation’ Challenging Myths about Race in addition to Migration, Bristol: Policy Press Hewitt, R. (2005) White Backlash: The politics of Multiculturalism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Monro, S. ,Razaq, U. , Thomas, P. in addition to Mycock, A (2010) Regional Improvement & Efficiency Partnerships (RIEPs) Community Cohesion (PREVENT) Pilot : A report prepared as long as Local Government Yorkshire in addition to Humber, Huddersfield: University of Huddersfield Nayak, A. (1999) ‘White English Ethnicities; Racism, anti-racism in addition to student perspectives’ Race, Ethnicity in addition to Education, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp.177-202 Preston, J. (2007) Whiteness in addition to class in education, Dordrecht: Springer Sniderman, P. in addition to Hagendoorn, L. (2009) When ways of life collide: Multiculturalism in addition to its discontents in The Netherl in addition to s, Woodstock: Princeton University Press Svenisson, K.P. (2009) ‘The White working class in addition to multiculturalism: Is there space as long as a progressive agenda’ in Runneymede Trust, Who cares about the White working class

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Zone, Ray Contributing Writer

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