The Nature of Science The First Vaccination The First Vaccination Eradication Basic Rules of Science
Larkin, Erik, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The Nature of ScienceIntuition leads to the flat Earth society in addition to bloodletting; experiments lead men to the moon in addition to microsurgery. – Seth MnookinThe First VaccinationUp through the 20th century, one of the most serious diseases of mankind was smallpox.One of out every 10 children born in France in addition to Sweden died of smallpox.The only known cure was to contract the disease in addition to recover.Some inoculated themselves with fluid in addition to pus from the sick, hoping to contract a mild case in addition to survive.The First VaccinationA British physician named Edward Jenner observed that dairymaids living in his hometown often contracted cowpox, a nonlethal disease with similar symptoms to smallpox.He decided to intentionally infect a young boy with cowpox, then expose him to smallpox.Immunity was successfully conferred to the boy.3Edward Jenner vaccinating a child with cowpox from a dairymaid. Source: Bettman Archive / Corbis.
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A different virus was eventually discovered as long as use in smallpox vaccinations.Produced much milder symptoms.Smallpox was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization in 1980.The same basic technique has been used to develop vaccines as long as other illnesses, such as measles, tetanus, chickenpox, whooping cough, in addition to others.4EradicationA monument dedicated to smallpox eradication at the WHO headquarters in Geneva. Source: Wikimedia.5Basic Rules of ScienceScience assumes that everything in the universe can be explained, given enough data in addition to experimentation.All ideas in science are constantly being tested, evaluated, in addition to re-considered.Hypothesis: Testable prediction based on prior knowledge in addition to observation.Can be supported or rejected based on an experiment.Theory: Broad explanation based on many experiments in addition to high amounts of data.Examples: Evolution, Plate Tectonics, Big BangDiscoveries must be reproducible – designed in addition to recorded such that the results can be repeated by other researchers.PseudoscienceA far different idea is pseudoscience, which appears or claims to be science, but does not follow scientific principles.6
The theory that life arose spontaneously from non-living matter persisted from ancient times through the 19th century.One recipe as long as life called as long as dirty garments in addition to husks of wheat to be added to a jar.Wait 21 days, in addition to mice appear!This belief was based in false science.Could it be replicated consistentlyWere any other possible explanations tested7Spontaneous GenerationThe primary goal of alchemists during the middle ages was to discover a way to trans as long as m materials of little value (such as lead) to gold.A chemist named Hennig Br in addition to in 1669 was studying urine, observing that it had a color similar to gold.He accidentally discovered phosphorus; an element that glowed.Hennig, like other alchemists, kept his discoveries secret. The study of chemistry advanced little during this time.8AlchemyThe Alchemist in Search of the Philosophers Stone (1771) by Joseph Wright.Astrology is another example of pseudoscience.A new zodiac chart was created by the Minnesota Planetarium Society to reflect the change in the Earths rotation.9Astrology
10Scientific MethodAll scientific studies, regardless of complexity, follow the same series of steps, called the scientific method.The first step is making an observation.In as long as mation gathered by noticing specific details of a phenomenon.Dr. Edward Jenner observed that dairymaids who contracted cowpox seemed to be protected from the more deadly smallpox.11Scientific MethodThe Dairy Maid, 1650s, by Aelbert Cuyp.The goal is to be able to explain the observation.A hypothesis, or testable explanation, will be made based on the scientists prior experience in addition to research.Hypotheses are preliminary explanations they can in addition to are often proven false.Dr. Jenners hypothesis was that exposure to cowpox would grant immunity to smallpox.The hypothesis must be tested. 12Scientific Method
The experiment tests the hypothesis under controlled conditions.A controlled experiment attempts to test a single variable, while keeping all others constant.The experimental group receives the variable, while the control group does not.Dr. Jenners experiment was to inoculate the 8 year-old son of his gardener with fluid from a cowpox pustule, allow the infection to pass, then repeat with a smallpox pustule.The boy (experimental group) survived 20 inoculations without succumbing to smallpox! The conclusion states whether or not the hypothesis is supported by the results of the experiment.13Scientific MethodScientific MethodThe final step is communication, where the results are published in addition to reviewed by others to check as long as errors, bias, or other issues.Dr. Jenner submitted his study to the Royal Society as long as Medicine, but was told he needed more proof.14The Cow-Pockorthe Wonderful Effects of the New Inoculation!vide. the Publications of ye Anti-Vaccine Society.- Satirical cartoon, 1802.15Other Factors Affecting ExperimentsAccounting as long as every single variable in a scientific study is nearly impossible. There are many factors that can cause error.There is where probability comes in. This is the likeliness that a result occurred simply due to r in addition to om chance.This can be countered by increasing sample size, or the number of observations used in an experiment or study.Dr. Jenner was able to locate several other parents who were willing to volunteer their children. He even included his own 11 month-old son in the study.The results were finally published. Jenner called his technique vaccination after the Latin word as long as cow vacca.
Controlled experiments arent always possible or ideal.Natural experiments are conducted in the field under normal circumstances.The advantage is that these experiments take place in a more accurate, realistic environment.The disadvantage is that natural phenomena are often very difficult to find.17Combating BiasAnother significant problem in science is bias; the preference as long as an experiment to turn out in a certain way.Bias is not always intentional, but must be controlled by the experimental design.A blind experiment is conducted so the experimental subjects do not know which is the control in addition to which is the experimental group.Eliminates the placebo effectA double-blind experiment also prevents the actual scientists from knowing which is the control or experimental group.Scientific FraudThere are many examples of published studies or report that have been later found biased, flawed, or outright fraudulent.These are always detected, eventually, due to the scientific method in addition to peer review.The net effect is loss of time, resources, in addition to public mistrust.In 1998, Dr. Andrew Wakefield published a study in the British journal The Lancet documenting a link between the MMR vaccine in addition to autism in children.In the following year, over a thous in addition to articles were written about the possible link, very few by actual experts in the field.Vaccine rates dropped from 92% to 85% in the U.K., with similar results in other countries.18
Autism / MMR RetractionWakefields conclusions were found out to be fraudulent in addition to that he had manipulated the data.Several outbreaks of measles in addition to mumps occurred across the world from 2002-2008.The United States has seen a similar effect, with vaccination rates below CDC recommendations in several schools.19According to a Time Magazine survey, 24% of adults place some trust in celebrities opinions on vaccines.
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