The Neuromuscular Junction Non-depolarizing (competitive). Cholinesterase Inhibitors Cholinesterase Inhibitors Malignant Hyperthermia
Yeackle, Amber, Music Director/Webmaster/Afternoon On-Air Personality has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The Neuromuscular Junction The Neuromuscular Junction: a Specialized as long as m of synaptic transmission: communication between neurons in addition to muscle
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Major Events in Neuromuscular Transmission Motor neuron depolarization causes action potential to travel down the nerve fiber to the neuromuscular junction (1). Depolarization of the axon terminal causes an influx of Ca2+ (2) which triggers fusion of the synaptic vesicles (3) in addition to release of neurotransmitter (Acetylcholine; ACh) (4). ACh diffuses across the synaptic cleft in addition to binds to post-synaptic ACh receptor (AChR) located on the muscle fiber at the motor end-plate (5). Binding of ACh to AChRs opens the channels causing an influx of Na (5), depolarization of the sarcolemma that travels down the t-tubules (6) in addition to ultimately causes the release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum – CONTRACTION. Unbound ACh in synaptic cleft defuses away or is hydrolyzed (inactivated) by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (7). Transmitter Release at the Neuromuscular Junction Fig 13-7, K in addition to el, Schwartz, Jessel, 1991
Two main Types of Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Nondepolarizing (competitive) Depolarizing Mechanism of Action of Nondepolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Non-depolarizing (competitive). Prototype of Non-depolarizing is tubocurarine (new generation: pancuronium in addition to gallamine). Mechanism of Action: In small clinical doses they act the predominantly at the nicotinic receptor site to block ACh. At higher does they can block prejunctional Na channels thereby decreasing ACh release. Because of the competitive nature of the postsynaptic blockade, transient relief of the block can be achieved by increasing ACh levels at the synaptic cleft (i.e. use cholinesterase inhibitors).
Nondepolarizing Agents Therapeutic Use: Adjuvant drugs in surgical anesthesia Pharmacology: Must be given by injection because they are poorly absorbed orally. Do not cross the BBB. Generally excreted unchanged (i.e. not metabolized). Adverse Effects: Tubocurarine causes release of histamine from mast cells decrease in blood pressure, bronchospasms, skin wheals. Newer generation dont. Drug Interactions: Cholinesterase Inhibitors decrease the effectiveness of nondepolarizing agents Aminoglycoside antibiotics (e.g. streptomycin) decrease ACh release by competing with Ca2+ increase action of nondepolarizing drugs Calcium channel blockers increase the actions of nondepolarizing drugs by decreasing the amount of ACh released (i.e. increase action of nondepolarizing drugs) Halogenated carbon anesthetics (e.g. Isoflurane) enhance neuromuscular blockade by 1) decreasing excitability of motoneurons, 2) increasing muscle blood flow, in addition to 3) decreased kinetics of AChRs (increase action of nondepolarizing drugs) Depolarizing Agents
Depolarizing Agents Prototype of depolarizing agent is succinylcholine (only depolarizing drug in clinical use). Mechanism of Action: Similar action to ACh, but longer acting. Phase 1: Membrane is depolarized by opening AChR channels causing brief period of muscle fasciculation. Phase II: End-plate eventually repolarizes, but because succinycholine is not metabolized like ACh it continues to occupy the AChRs to desensitize the end-plate. Because of the mechanism of action of depolazing drugs is similar to ACh, their blocking effects are augmented by AChE inhibitors. Depolarizing Agents Therapeutic Use: Adjuvant drugs in surgical anesthesia Pharmacology: Duration of action is short (several minutes) because it is rapidly broken down by plasma cholinesterases (must be administered by continuous infusion) Adverse Effects: When administered with halothane some genetically susceptible people (inherited autosomal dominant condition) experience malignant hyperthermia. Treatment: rapid cooling of the body in addition to dantrolene Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Cholinesterase Inhibitors Examples: Neostigmine, edrophonium. Mechanism of Action: Inhibit acetylcholinesterase Therapeutic Use: Antidote as long as nondepolarizing blockers Treatment of myasthenia gravis (neostigmine) Diagnosis of myasthenia gravis (edrophonium) Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia Gravis is an autoimmune Disease that is characterized by a decrease in number of AChR Because there are fewer AChR to bind to the end plate potentials (EPPs) are smaller. With smaller EPPs the safety factor is reduced there is less chance that the post-synaptic muscle fibres will be activated
Note: The amplitude of the end plate-potential is directly related to the amount of ACh that binds to the post-synaptic AChRs. Myasthenia Gravis Adverse Effects Actions of generalized cholinergic activation (muscarinic in addition to nicotinic). Abdominal cramping Diarrhea Flushing (transient redness of the face in addition to neck) Increased salivation Miosis (contraction of the pupils) Incontinence Bronchospasms (can exacerbate bronchial asthma)
Malignant Hyperthermia Dantrolene (interferes with EC coupling by decreasing Ca exflux from the SR Diazepam (A Benzodiazepine that probably facilitates the actions of GABAA in the CNS) Baclofen (GABAB agonist note error in your h in addition to outs) Primarily used in the treatment of spastiticy associated with spinal cord injury Spasmolytic Drugs
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