The Orbiting Carbon Observatory: Sampling Approach in addition to Anticipated Data Products

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The Orbiting Carbon Observatory: Sampling Approach in addition to Anticipated Data Products

Houlihan, Betsy, New Products Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The Orbiting Carbon Observatory: Sampling Approach in addition to Anticipated Data Products David Crisp, OCO PI http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov JPL/Caltech May 2006 Carbon Fusion Workshop What Processes Control Atmospheric CO2 Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the: Main atmospheric component of the global carbon cycle Main man-made greenhouse gas Only half of the CO2 produced by human activities is remaining in the atmosphere Outst in addition to ing Questions Where are the sinks that are absorbing almost 50% of the CO2 that we emit L in addition to or ocean Eurasia/North America Why does CO2 buildup vary dramatically with nearly uni as long as m emissions How will CO2 sinks respond to climate change

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The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Approach: Collect spatially resolved, high resolution spectroscopic observations of CO2 in addition to O2 absorption in reflected sunlight Use these data to resolve spatial in addition to temporal variations in the column averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2 over the sunlit hemisphere Employ independent calibration in addition to validation approaches to produce XCO2 estimates with r in addition to om errors in addition to biases no larger than 1 – 2 ppm (0.3 – 0.5%) on regional scales at monthly intervals OCO will acquire the space-based data needed to identify CO2 sources in addition to sinks in addition to quantify their variability over the seasonal cycle Precise Measurements Needed to Constrain CO2 Surface Fluxes Resolve pole to pole XCO2 gradients on regional scales Resolve the XCO2 seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere 356 364 Precisions of 1–2 ppm (0.3–0.5%) on regional scales needed to: Resolve (8ppm) pole to pole XCO2 gradients on regional scales Resolve the XCO2 seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere OCO Fills a Critical Measurement Gap OCO will make precise global measurements of XCO2 over the range of scales needed to monitor CO2 fluxes on regional to continental scales. Spatial Scale (km) 1 2 3 4 5 6 CO2 Error (ppm) 1 10 100 1000 10000 OCO Flask Site Aqua AIRS Aircraft 0 Flux Tower Globalview Network NOAA TOVS ENVISAT SCIAMACHY

Making Precise CO2 Measurements from Space High resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in near IR CO2 in addition to O2 b in addition to s used to retrieve the column average CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2 1.61 m CO2 b in addition to s – Column CO2 with maximum sensitivity near the surface O2 A-b in addition to in addition to 2.06 m CO2 b in addition to Surface pressure, albedo, atmospheric temperature, water vapor, clouds, aerosols Why high spectral resolution Enhances sensitivity, minimizes biases OCO Observing Strategy Nadir Observations: tracks local nadir + Small footprint (< 3 km2) isolates cloud-free scenes in addition to reduces biases from spatial inhomogeneities over l in addition to Low Signal/Noise over dark ocean Glint Observations: views “glint” spot + Improves Signal/Noise over oceans More interference from clouds Target Observations Tracks a stationary surface calibration site to collect large numbers of soundings Data acquisition schedule: alternate between Nadir in addition to Glint on 16-day intervals Acquire ~1 Target observation each day OCO Will Fly in the A-Train OCO files at the head of the A-Train, 12 minutes ahead of the Aqua plat as long as m 1:18 PM equator crossing time yields same ground track as AQUA Near noon orbit yields high SNR CO2 in addition to O2 measurements in reflected sunlight CO2 concentrations are near their diurnally-averaged values near noon Maximizes opportunities of coordinated science in addition to calibration activities TES – T, P, H2O, O3, CH4, CO MLS – O3, H2O, CO HIRDLS – T, O3, H2O, CO2, CH4 OMI – O3, aerosol climatology aerosols, polarization CloudSat – 3-D cloud climatology CALIPSO – 3-D aerosol climatology AIRS – T, P, H2O, CO2, CH4 MODIS – cloud, aerosols, albedo OCO - - CO2 O2 A-b in addition to ps, clouds, aerosols Coordinated Observations Mission Architecture Project Management (JPL) Science & Project Team Systems Engineering, Mission Assurance Ground Data System Single Instrument (Hamilton Sundstr in addition to ) 3 high resolution grating spectrometers Dedicated Bus (Orbital Sciences) LEOstar2: GALEX, SORCE, AIM Dedicated Launch Vehicle (Orbital Taurus 3110) September 2008 Launch from V in addition to enberg AFB Mission Operations (JPL/Orbital Sciences) NASA Ground Network, Poker Flats, Alaska The OCO Instrument 3 bore-sighted, high resolution, grating spectrometers O2 0.765 m A-b in addition to CO2 1.61 m b in addition to CO2 2.06 m b in addition to Similar optics in addition to electronics Common 200 mm f/1.9 telescope Spectrometers cooled to < 0 oC Resolving Power ~18,000/21,000 Common electronics as long as focal planes Existing Designs For Critical Components Detectors: WFC-3, Deep Impact (RSC) Cryocooler: TES flight spare (NGST) OCO Sampling over a 16-Day Repeat Cycle OCO Sampling Rate/Coverage 12-24 samples/second collected along track over l in addition to in addition to ocean Glint: +75o SZA Nadir: +85o SZA Longitude resolution 1.5o Space-based CO2 column measurements complement surface measurement network. Chevallier et al. 2006 OCO 3-Days OCO 1-Day OCO Sampling: Clouds reduce number of usable samples OCO Data Hierarchy Spectral Spatial Sounding: 3 Collocated Spectra Spectrum 3 4 Frame: 4 (8) Cross-Track Soundings Granule: All ~30,000 Soundings recorded each orbit 2 1 5 Pixel OCO characterization as long as Key Environmental Parameters (SZA, surface type) Averaging Kernels: Early Support as long as Source/sink inversions Study effect on XCO2 biases on CO2 source/sink inversions Rehearsal of ingesting OCO XCO2 (early feedback on L2 product) Example: XCO2 Averaging Kernel in addition to Errors as long as a Single Orbit Track Nadir Viewing Averaging Kernel Along Orbit Track Single Sounding XCO2 Errors Spatial/Temporal Sampling Constraints Factors Limiting Sampling Density Orbit ground track Clouds in addition to Aerosols OCO can collect usable samples only in regions where the cloud in addition to aerosol optical depth < 0.3 Low Surface Albedo Others MISR Aerosol MODIS Cloud Space-based XCO2 Validation Strategy The space-based XCO2 data will be validated against the surface WMO st in addition to ard as long as CO2 using measurements of XCO2 from ground based Fourier trans as long as m spectrometers (FTS) as a transfer st in addition to ard XCO2 will be retrieved from the FTS in addition to space-based instruments using same retrieval code FTS XCO2 compared to: Surface in situ CO2 Tall tower in situ CO2 Column CO2 integrated from in situ profiles FTS XCO2 per as long as mance tracked by monitoring: Instrument Line Shape (HCl gas cell) Pointing (Doppler shift, telluric vs solar features) XO2, surface pressure in addition to H2O Observations at 79°N (Spitsbergen) FTS Notholt et al., GRL, 2005 WLEF FTIR Observations at 79°N (Spitsbergen) FTS Notholt et al., GRL, 2005 Summary of Data Products Four major products Level 0 – Time-ordered science in addition to housekeeping data Raw data, excluding spacecraft packet in as long as mation as long as data transfer to ground Level 1A - Parsed in addition to merged science in addition to instrument housekeeping telemetry Data subdivided into discretely named elements Data from all three spectrometers correlated in a single frame Corresponding temperature in addition to voltage measures from housekeeping merged into appropriate frame Level 1B - Spatially ordered, Geolocated, calibrated spectra Level 2 - Geolocated retrieved state vectors with column averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction OCO Data Product Volumes The above estimates assume that the GDS retains just a single copy of each data product If multiple versions of the data are maintained, the estimated volume required as long as OCO products could exceed 30 TBytes. Level 2 Product volume reflects the size of the distributable product Additional “expert products: will be generated as long as OCO Science team use will require an additional ~55.7 Gbytes per orbit, or about 0.79 Gbytes per day OCO Schedule 7/2001: Step-1 Proposal Submitted 2/2002: Step-2 Proposal Submitted 7/2003: Selected as long as Formulation 7/2004: System PDR 5/2005: Mission Confirmed as long as Implementation 10/2005: Instrument CDR 2/2006: Spacecraft CDR 7/2006: MOS/GDS CDR 8/2006: System CDR 2-4/2007: Instrument Testing 5/2007: Instrument Delivery to SC 10/2007: Observatory Integration begins 6/2008: Launch Vehicle Integration begins 9/2008: Launch from VAFB 10/2010: End of Nominal Mission < ESA 3rd Party Mission Houlihan, Betsy Swimming World New Products Editor www.phwiki.com

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