The Percussion Family Pitched vs Unpitched Pitched Skin Timpani cont. Sound Production

The Percussion Family Pitched vs Unpitched Pitched Skin Timpani cont. Sound Production www.phwiki.com

The Percussion Family Pitched vs Unpitched Pitched Skin Timpani cont. Sound Production

Lynch, Jackson, Contributor Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The Percussion Family For the Concert Setting By: Nicole Morrissey Pitched vs Unpitched Pitched Skin, Metal, in addition to Wood When hit, these instruments produce a pitched sound Unpitched Skin, Metal, in addition to Wood When hit, these instruments produce an unpitched sound. Pitched Skin Timpani Construction: Head – There is one head as long as each timpano made out of calf skin or plastic. The head produces the sound of the drum. Pull Rod – These metal rods connect to the pedal in addition to the “t” screws to adjust tuning Bowl – Serves as a frame to support the other parts. It functions as a resonator as long as the sound produced from the head. Tension Screws – used as long as tuning. Head tension increases when turned clockwise. Counter-Hoop – This pulls the head over the edge of the bowl in addition to hold the “t” screws. Struts – Suspends the bowl so it can resonate more freely. Pedal – Makes changes in the pitch of the drum Collar – The distance between the edge of the bowl in addition to the counter-hoop. Compression Spring Control Knob – This compresses a spring that counteracts the tension of the head. It allows to pedal to remain in any desired position.

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Timpani cont. Timpani Range: read in the bass clef 32” D2 – A2 29” F2 – C3 26” A2 – E3 23” D3 – A3 20” F3 – C4 Sound Production When playing the timpani, one should lean slightly over the drum. The arms should hang relaxed, in addition to the angle between the mallets should as long as m a triangle. The striking spot should happen 2 – 5 inches away from the edge of the head. Pitched Metal Chimes Construction: Tubes – These metal tubes are suspended to produce sound when struck. Striking Cap – This refers to the top of the tube where it is struck from the side. Damper Pedal – This pedal sustains the ringing of the tubes when pushed down. Felt Damper Bar – this absorbs the vibrations of the tubes when touching them.

Pitched Metal Chimes Range: Chimes sound where written from C4 – F5 And are read in the treble clef. Sound Production: Chimes are played with wooden mallets, or hammers. Pitched Metal Vibraphone Construction: Keyboard Bars – Made from aluminum in addition to are suspended by a rod as long as maximum vibration. Resonators – These amplify the tone of the bars. A disk is located at the top of each that turns by a motor, opening in addition to closing the resonator creating a vibrato effect. Motor – This turns the disks in addition to can be adjusted to various speeds. Damper Pedal – When this is pressed down, the felt bar removes from the bars to allow them to vibrate freely. Pitched Metal Vibraphone Range/Clef: The vibraphone is notated in the treble clef in addition to ranges from F3 – F6. It sounds as written Sound Production: Varying degrees of hard wood or plastic mallets are used as long as the vibraphone. The bars should be struck in the center to allow as long as maximum vibration. Vibraphone Sound Production

Pitched Wood Marimba Construction: Keyboard Bars – These bars vary in size in addition to are made from Honduras Rosewood. Suspension String – This string threads through the bars, suspending them to allow as long as vibration. Resonators – These aluminum pipes are found under the bars to amplify the sound. Pitched Wood Marimba Range/Clef: The marimba sounds where written in addition to can range from C3 – C7, with some extending from A2 – C7. It can be notated in bass, treble, or gr in addition to staff. Sound Production: The marimba can be played with soft to medium hard, usually rubber, mallets. It’s mallets are usually wrapped with yarn to produce a soft tone. Pitched Wood Xylophone Construction: The xylophone has the same parts as the marimba, except the length of the resonators are different compared to the marimba. Range/Clef: The xylophone sounds an octave higher written in addition to its written range is from F3 – F6. It is notated in the treble clef.

Pitched Wood Xylophone Sound Production: The xylophone’s tone is a lot harsher compared to the marimba’s. Its bars are made from the same wood but from different parts of the tree, which changes the quality of sound. It is played with hard mallets made from wood or plastic. Mallet Technique Unpitched Skin Snare Drum Construction: Head – The top head, which you hit, is called the batter head in addition to is thicker than the bottom head also called the snare head. The snare head is thinner so that is can vibrate in addition to in turn cause the snares to also vibrate. Shell – The drum’s skeleton that supports all other parts. These can be made from chrome plated steel, wood, copper, fiberglass, or plastic. “T” Rods in addition to Lugs – The eight “T” rods can be turned clockwise to increase the tension of the drum heads in addition to vice versa. The rods screw into the lugs that are located on the side of the shell. Air Vent – A hole in the side of the shell allows the compressed air to escape after the batter head is hit. The compressed air could split the head if there was no way as long as it to escape. Snares – These stretch the diameter of the snare head in addition to are made from coiled steel. They give the drum its sound by vibrating against the snare head.

Unpitched Skin Snare Drum Construction Snare Extension String – This connects the ends of the snares with the throw-off switch. Throw-Off Switch – This adjusts the amount of tension of the snares against the head. Flesh Hoop – This wood, aluminum, or steel hoop goes over the shell in addition to under the counter-hoop. The drum head tucks around it. Counter-Hoop – This metal hoop pulls the flesh hoop down over the shell of the drum. Ton Control – This felt pad inside the drum absorbs the vibrations made from striking the head in addition to can be adjusted by a knob on the shell. Unpitched Skin Snare Drum Sticks: Drum sticks come in various sizes. For beginners, the sticks should not be to large as long as the student’s h in addition to s. Teachers should look as long as even weight in addition to straightness in drum sticks. Sound Production: The snare drum is played on a st in addition to that should come to about hip level. The arms should hang relaxed. The sticks should immediately rebound off the head after being struck in order as long as the vibrations to last. Unpitched Skin Bass Drum Construction: The bass drum has the same parts as a snare drum except both of its heads are the same thickness. Also, the bass drum does not have snares, or any of the parts relating to the snares. Mallets: The bass drum mallet has a ball of wool on each end with one ball being slightly larger than the other. It is held between the thumb in addition to index finger with the other fingers curled around the stick.

Unpitched Skin Bass Drum Sound Production: The bass drum should be struck at a glance half-way between the center in addition to the upper edge of the drum head. Damping: To stop the vibrations, the player must dampen the other drum head by placing his/her fingertips on the head. For a stronger damp, the entire palm of the h in addition to should rest against the head of the drum. Unpitched Metal Crash Cymbal Construction: Edge – Three inches around the circumference of the cymbal. Bow – The part, including the edge that extends up toward the cup. Cup – The center of the cymbal that is raised. Cymbals are maid in several different weights. Lighter weight cymbals produce a sharper, crisper sound, in addition to heavier cymbals produce a slower, heavier sound. Sound Production: The crash cymbals should be gripped by the straps. The left cymbal should be held stationary while the right cymbal swipes the left one at a glance moving from the bottom to the top Unpitched Metal Triangle Construction: Triangles are made from aluminum or steel in addition to are usually played with a steel beater. They range in size from 6 – 10”. Sound Production: The triangle should be suspended freely in the air. It can be struck from the bottom or the side. A roll is played by alternately striking the sides at a corner.

Unpitched Wood Temple Blocks Construction: These wooden or hard plastic blocks come in sets of five. They are hallow in the middle in addition to are played using mallets. Sound Production: They can be tuned to a pentatonic scale. Even though they are considered in addition to unpitched instrument, they can discern certain pitches. The smaller blocks produce higher pitches than the larger blocks. Concert Gr in addition to Piano Piano Construction: The concert gr in addition to , by definition, is 9 feet long. Case – This is the outer shell of the piano that is made first from maple, spruce, or pine. It is made from thin sheets of wood that have to be glued together in addition to them put into a press to shape it. The piano top, lid, legs, in addition to braces are also made from wood. Sound Board – This is located under the strings as it amplifies the sound produced by the strings. Bridge – This strip of wood is fits on top of the sound board to fasten the strings. Once this step is finished, the sound board is placed in the case on top of the braces. Plate – This is made of cast iron in addition to supports the 240 metal strings. It weighs around 325 lbs. because it has to support the tension of the strings. This part is suspended on top of the sound board. Concert Gr in addition to Piano Construction: Strings – The thinner strings vibrate at faster speeds producing the higher notes. Conversely, the thicker strings produce the lower notes. Pedal – The sustain pedal lifts the dampers on the strings in addition to allows them to vibrate freely.

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Concert Gr in addition to Piano: Action Piano Action The key (1) is pressed down. The key lifts the underlever (2) which lifts the damper (3) off of the string (4). While all this happens, the capstan screw (5) pushes up the support (6) that flips the hammer (7) to strike the string. There are 88 keys on the piano in addition to this process has to happen as long as each key. The way you strike the key determines the quality of sound. It is notated on the gr in addition to staff in addition to ranges from A0 – C8. Sources http://www.philharmonia.co.uk/thesoundexchange/the-orchestra/ Stomp DVDs ( as long as info click here) Percussion Manual as long as Music Educators by: Joel Leach The Piano Makers by: David Anderson

Works Cited Leach, Joel. Percussion Manual as long as Music Educators. New York: Henry Alder INC, 1964. Anderson, David. The Piano Makers. New York: Pantheon Books, 1984. http://www.philharmonia.co.uk/thesoundexchange http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary/appendix/instruments/instrumentmain.html http://www.orchestralibrary.com/reftables/rang.html

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