The Periodic Table Periodic Table Modern Periodic Table s- in addition to p-orbitals s- in addition to p-orbitals
Kennedy, Byron, Interim Program Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The Periodic Table Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) “We could live at the present day without a Plato, but a double number of Newtons is required to discover the secrets of nature, in addition to to bring life into harmony with the laws of nature.” Modern Periodic Table
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s- in addition to p-orbitals Aufbau Principle: filling orbitals H: 1s1 s- in addition to p-orbitals Aufbau Principle: filling orbitals He: 1s2 s- in addition to p-orbitals Aufbau Principle: filling orbitals Li: 1s2 2s1
s- in addition to p-orbitals Aufbau Principle: filling orbitals Be: 1s2 2s2 s- in addition to p-orbitals Aufbau Principle: filling orbitals s- in addition to p-orbitals Aufbau Principle: filling orbitals Hunds rule: maximum number of unpaired electrons is the lowest energy arrangement.
s- in addition to p-orbitals Aufbau Principle: filling orbitals s- in addition to p-orbitals Aufbau Principle: filling orbitals s- in addition to p-orbitals Aufbau Principle: filling orbitals Na: 1s22s22p63s1 or [Ne]3s1 Mg: 1s22s22p63s2 or [Ne]3s2 P: [Ne]3s23p3 Ar: [Ne]3s23p6
d-orbitals E 1s 2s 3s 4s 2p 3p 3d Due to deeper penetration of s-orbitals, 4s lies lower in energy than 3d d-orbitals K: 1s22s22p63s23p64s1 or [Ar]4s1 Ca: [Ar]4s2 Sc: [Ar]4s23d1 V: [Ar]4s23d3 Cr: [Ar]4s13d5 Co: [Ar]4s23d7 Cu: [Ar]4s13d10 Zn: [Ar]4s23d10 Ga: [Ar]4s23d104p1 Kr: [Ar]4s23d104p6 Beyond the d-orbitals lanthanides actinides d-transition elements f-transition elements
Aufbau rules 1. Within a shell (n) the filling order is s>p>d>f 2. Within a subshell (l), lowest energy arrangement has the highest number of unpaired spin (Hunds rule) 3. The (n+1)s orbitals always fill be as long as e the nd orbitals 4. After lanthanum ([Xe]6s25d1), the 4f orbitals are filled 5. After actinium ([Rn]7s26d1), the 5f orbitals are filled Filled subshells accommodate: s: 2 electrons p: 6 electrons d: 10 electrons f: 14 electrons Electron configuration Give the electron configuration of Zirconium in addition to Tellurium. Identify the period in addition to the group of the element Zirconium is in period 5 in addition to is the 2nd element in the d-transition element group. Zr: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d2 or [Kr]5s24d2 Tellurium is in period 5 in addition to is the 4th element in the p- group. Te: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p4 or [Kr]5s24d105p4 Exotic elements Elements with atomic numbers higher than 92 (Uranium) typically dont exist in nature in addition to have to be made by nuclear synthesis The first synthesized elements were named after the planets:
Exotic elements Lives as long as only 10 ms! No name yet! Atomic Radius The atomic radius r is usually determined from the distances between atoms in covalent bonds. How big is an atom Atomic radius decreases across a period from left to right due to increased effective nuclear charge Atomic radius increases down a group because of the larger sizes of the orbitals with higher quantum numbers. Atomic Radius
Atomic Radius Atomic Radius Covalent radius is much smaller than the anionic radius. Atomic Radius Arrange the following sets of atoms in order of increasing size: Sr, Se, Ne : Fe, P, O : Ne(10) < Se(34) < Sr(38) O(8) < P(15) < Fe(26) Li+(3) < Na+(11) < Rb+(37) F-(9) < Cl-(17) < I-(53)
Ionization Energy Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion : Ionization Energy S: 1s22s22p63s23p4 Which electrons are removed in successive ionizations Electrons in the outer subshells take the least amount of energy to remove (valence electrons) It takes about 1 103 kJ/mol to remove successive electrons from the 3p shell of sulfur. Ionization Energy Ionization energies of aluminum: Al: 1s22s22p63s23p1 1st electron: 3p valence electron 2nd electron: 3s valence electron 3rd electron: 3s valence electron 4th electron: 2p core electron! core electrons take much more energy to remove
Ionization Energy Ionization Energy First ionization energies Ionization energy increases across the period from left to right. Ionization energy decreases going down a group General trends: Ionization Energy A closer look B: 1s22s22p1 O: 1s22s22p4 New subshell, electron is easier to remove. First paired electron in 2p orbital: repulsion.
Periodic Table Redux Periodic Table Redux
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